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Professor of Classical Phim>loov in Brown University 




Entered at Stationers' Hall 

copvuight, 1905, bv 

John Williams White, Thomas Day Seymour, and 
Charles Burton Gulick 


65.7 ^ (^ ^ '^ 

• « • • 

* * & 



The text used as a basis for these selections from Lucian is that 
of Jacobitz (Teubner, 1896); but many changes have been admit- 
ted, as noted in the Appendix. Fritzsche's bold but often per- 
suasive suggestions have been carefully weighed, and the critical 
edition of Sommerbrodt (supplemented by that of Le\d for the 
Peregrinus) has been used throughout. The orthography has been 
allowed to reflect the uncertainty of the Mss. ; e.g. tU and €<?, ^vv- 
and (Tvv-. It is hard to prove that Lucian would have written <rot)f(w 
or olKTipo), and the iota subscript has been (perhaps arbitrarily) re- 
tained in Xr^arriptov and <^9. 

Eepeated experience has convinced the editor that Lucian has a 
place in the college curriculum. The Introduction states (p. xxix) 
some of the reasons for this claim, and is also intended to call atten- 
tion to the continuity of Lucian's influence, especially from the time 
of the Reformation. The Conspectus of Lucian's Greek (pp. xxxiv- 
xlii) gives in compact form some of his peculiarities and man- 
nerisms It is intended as a caution to the student against certam 
divergences from the Attic, and, with the account of the Common 
Dialect, may at the same time lay emphasis on the continuity of 
the Greek language from Homer to the present day. The brief 
special Introductions to each selection are intended to secure a 
sympathetic reading of the individual pieces rather than to serve 
as summaries of their contents. 

While in these selections some favorites will be missed by teach- 
ers of Lucian, others, less familiar or unedited in English text- 
books, may offer a welcome variety and give a more adequate idea 

of Lucian's versatility. Supplementary reading from the Greek 




text is strongly to be recommended — especially of the Galliis, 
Icaromenipjms, Timon, Bis Accusatus, Philopsevdes, Cataplus, 
Juppiter Con/utatvs, Juppiter TragoeduSy Symposium, Hermoti- 
mus, and De Mercede Conductis, 

My most cordial acknowledgment is due to Professor Gulick both 
for his care of all kinds in reading the proofs and also for numer- 
ous criticisms and suggestions incorporated in text and notes; nor 
can I refrain from expressing my admiration of the keen schol- 
arship that has accompanied the exacting scrutiny of the proofs 
at the Athenaeum Press itself. I wish also to express my hearty 
thanks to my colleagues Professors Manatt, A. G. Harkness, Poland, 
and Everett for suggestions and advice given upon various parts of 
the book, and especially to Dean A. C. Emery of the Women's 
College in Brown University for criticism and help throughout 
the whole of the book. 

I have made repeated reference in the notes to Professor Basil L 
Gildersleeve's published contributions to the understandmg of Lu- 
cian, but I have been unable to acknowledge in detail my indebted- 
ness to his interpretation of Lucian in the lecture-room many years 
ago. If I could hope that the spirit of his interpretation had not 
been wholly lost or distorted in my effoit to transmit it to other 
students, I should gratefully dedicate this book to a teacher whose 
spoken words have been only reinforced by the lapse of years. 

Providence, July, 1905 FRANCIS G. ALLINSON 



Introductkin i vii-xlii 

Life and Timks of Lucian vii-xxx 

1. Antiquity and the Present vii 

2. Age of the Antonines viii-ix 

3. Life of Lucian ix-xiii 

4. Attitude towards Philosophy xiii-xv 

5. Attitude towards Christianity xv 

6. Style xv-xvi 

7. Writings xvi-xix 

8. Imitators of Lucian , xx-xxix 

9. Place as an Author xxix-xxx 

Lucian 's Grkek xxx-xlii 

10. Continuity of the (ireek Language . xxx 

11. Common Greek — -^ Koivrj xxx-xxxiv 

12. General Summary of Lucian's Vocabulary and 

Usage xxxiv-xxxv 

13-40. Conspectus of Peculiarities or Mannerisms . . xxxv-xlii 

TiiK Dream ; ok Life of Lucian 

Introduction 1-4 

Text and Notes 5-17 


Introduction 18-23 

Text and Notes 24-52 

Vera Historia B 

Introduction 53-56 

Text and Notes 57-87 




Introditction 88-93 

Text and Notes 94-158 

Dialog I Deorum 

Introduction 159-160 

Text a'nd Notes 101-168 

Dialog I Marini 

Introdiction 169-170 

Text and Notes 171-187 

Dialog I Mortuorum 

Introduction 188-190 

Text and Notes 191-199 

The Life's-End of Pere(;rinus 

Introduction 200-208 

Text and Notes 209-236 

Appendix A. Manuscripts 237-240 

B. Editions 240-241 

C. Translations 242-243 

D. Supplementary Works 243-245 

E. Critical Notes 245-257 

Greek Index 258-259 

English Index 260-205 



1. Antiquity and the Present, — The setting for Lucian, who lived 
in the second century of our era, is the " Greek World under Roman 
Sway" or, rather, the Boman world under Greek sway; for the 
Greek language, religion, and philosophies were still ^ encroaching 
upon both Rome herself and her remote colonies. 

Lucian confines himself, however, neither to the portrayal of his 
contemporaries nor to futile clutching at unreal ghosts on the 
asphodel meadow of antiquity. He is essentially modem, but 
modern in a good sense. He includes the present but does not 
exclude the past. In so far as his Syrian superficiality and his 
cynical pessimism will permit, he is good for the round trip 
between now and the7i and " all the way from Delos up to Limerick 
and back." This Syrian showman arranges side by side his Homer 
and his dilapidated Zeus, his shop-worn Apollo and the rest of the 
Olympic troupe ; unlocks a choice side-show of the makers and 
lovers of lies ; exhibits the vulgar book collector ; turns on the 
footlights of burning fagots upon Peregrinus the patricide, renegade 
Christian, and cynic charlatan; and shows us Alexander the false 
prophet with his oracular serpent newly hatched from a gold-getting 
goose egg. Heroes and harlots, philosophers and frauds, sit cheek 
by jowl while ever and anon Charon as end-man, as " Bones," rattles 
out a Castanet accompaniment on his naked shins. 

1 Of. Horace Epist. 2, 1, 156 : 

Graecia capta ferum victorem cepit et artes 
Intalit agresti Latio. 

• « 



2. The Age of the Antonines^ is full of human interest. It 
contains antiquity dormant — but sleeping fair as Endymion — 
modernity blatant, and the future germinant. The patriarchal 
government endowed university professorships ^ in the colonies ; a 
litterateur might even be rewarded with a government post.' 
Athens, under the beneficent Herodes Atticus, was reaping a rich 
aftermath of Atticism. But we see the heart's blood coagulate, 
the outlying members mortify. Material power centred at Home. 
The attitude towards literature, philosophy, religion, was very 
catholic, was superciliously tolerant. To the spoiled children of 
the imperial circus all times and places might well bring their 
tribute for languid inspection or temporary enthusiasm. Tlie 
Graeculus might give his parlor lectures and be rewarded as 
Keeper of My Lady's Lap-dog ; * Stoic, Peripatetic, Academic, and 
Epicurean might contend at will, while the Sceptic doubted all 
and the Cynic was allowed to sneer even at the Emperor. Reli- 
gious inventiveness was rife. New patterns were still offered and 
richly-colored Oriental fabrics — like the mysteries of Mithra ^ — 
were strewed upon the brick pavement of the old Roman religion, 
or here and there on the thin coating of Greek marble. But it 
was not all sham. Juvenal, to be sure, was dead, and Fronto's 
learned tastelessness could infuse no literary savor into the impe- 
rial broth; a Syrian must needs come and bring with him at 
least a pinch of Attic salt.' But in philosophy Marcus Aurelius 
brought sweetness, if not light; and as for religion, the reaction 
against the wide-spread atheism of the first century issued in vain 
though sincere attempts to galvanize into hectic life the ghosts of 
old creeds, or else degenerated into novel and grovelling supersti- 
tions ; while beneath the surface Christianity with an ever increasing 
undertow was drawing here and there many a one, unobserved, 

1 Of. W. W. Capes, The Age of the AntonineSy and Martha, Les Moralistes 
80un V Empire romain; for Lucian see espec. the latter, pp. 333 ff. 

« Cf. Eun. 3. 8 Cf. Apol. 12. * Cf. Mer. Cond. 34. 

* For the duel between Mithraism and occidental ethics see The Mysteries of 
Miihra, by Franz Cumont (tr. by T. J. McCormack, 1903). 

« See Zettz. 2 j Prom, in Verbis 3. 


into the wide ocean of common brotherhood that Lucian sought in 
vain, or found only in the liberie, egalite, etfratemite of a Menippus 
in Hades. 

It is not hard to understand that the same age could exhibit 
both the purity of the imperial Stoicism and the superstitions, the 
mental and moral degradation, that meet us on every hand — as in 
Lucian's Alexander the False Prophet^ The Lie-Fancier, The Lifers- 
End of Peregrinus, or The Banqtiet. To the pure all things are 
pure. The all-pervading philosophy was ethicaL The moral dog- 
mas were held to be infallible by each sect. Marcus Aurelius could 
incarnate an ethical system ; but when the vulgar claimed for 
themselves the virtues of this philosophy, it first seemed, and then 
soon became, hypocrisy ; the disease spread, and Lucian's high com- 
mission was made out for him by Lady Philosophy herself : * "Go 
unto all men, crown the true and brand the false.'' Alas for the 
])rofessional censor ! Lucian found scant use for crowns, found 
his philanthropy wither from lack of use, while abundant practice 
made him an expert hater of braggarts and cheats, liars and all 
vain persons puffed up in their own conceit. 

3. Life, — About Lucian's life his contemporaries and later writers 
tell us little or nothing that is tangible. His own allusions, direct 
or indirect, furnish us with almost all that we know. Fortunately 
this is sufficient to enable us to appreciate him if not to gratify 
our curiosity. He was born probably about 120* a.d. in Samosata, 
on the Euphrates. This was the capital of the Syrian province of 
Commagene and a town not without importance as a commercial 
deversorium between the Orient and Rome. Greek influence no 
doubt still lingered from the time of its occupancy by Macedonian 
kings,' and Roman sway had extended intermittently* through the 

1 Pise. 62. 

3 Earlier, if bom under Trajan (t 117) as Suidas asserts : y4yoyt di iwl tov 
KaUrapos TpaXavov Kal iw^Keipa. Croiset (p. 62) argues that the Hermotimus was 
written in 166. This, with the allusion in Hermot 13 to Lucian^s age, would 
put his birth in 126. 

«Cf. infra §11. 

* See Tac. Ann. 2. 56 with Dion Cass. 69, 8. It was definitely made a Roman 
province by Vespasian. Cf. Suet. Vespasian 8. 


century preceding Lucian's birth, but the people remained Syrian 
and retained tlieir native versatility. 

Lucian's Samosatan parents were poor.^ He was apprenticed to 
his maternal uncle, a stone-cutter and statuary combined. This 
was due both to family tradition and to his skill in fashioning 
little statuettes from the wax scraped from his school tablets. 
His career in his uncle's studio was bitter and brief. A new start 
in life was inevitable. But it is significant that the plastic trait 
in Lucian's literary style cropped out thus early in this kindred 
form. Still speaking Syrian and all but dressed as an Oriental, 
poor in purse, but rich in provincial crudities, he left home like 
many another lad,* ancient and modern, and began his Wanderjahre, 
We can only guess at his itinerary.* He wandered about louia 
ripening his ambition and pruning his still barbaric speech. He 
caught at least the spirit of the famous rhetorical schools at 
Ephesus and Smyrna. He may even have managed to pay the 
humbler fees exacted by some pupil or successor of the noted 
Polemon or of Scopelian, the teacher of Herodes Atticus, Possi- ' 
bly he now began his career as a lawyer at Antioch, but, if we are 
to believe Suidas,^ made a failure of it and turned his attention 
wholly to rhetoric and the composition of show speeches. The 
Bis Accusatus is the best autobiographical r^sum^ of what seemed 
to Lucian momentous in his own career. It should J)e read in full.* 
In it we learn* that he made a lucky match' with a rich lady 

1 See Somn.y with Introd. p. 1. Also cf. Alex. 56, where he is found dutifully 
bringing his old father back to Athens to share the benefits of his career. 

2 Bis Ace. 27, KOfuSi fj^eip^Kiov, » Cf. Bis Ace. 27. 

^ Suidas s.y. fjv hk ovroi rh trplv duci/^opos 4p *Arru>xet9 Trjt "Zvplas. Sv<rirpay^<ras 
d* iv To&r<p ivl rb ynoyoypaifteTp iireTpdirri, xal yiypOLvrai adrf ATctpa. Croiset 
(p. 18) would assign all this to so late a period as 103. Possibly he never 
formally abandoned the law ; possibly the double meaning of Xoyoypdipos may 
cause the confusion. 

* See Introd. to Somn. p. 3, note 2, and cf . Pise. 26. 

• Bis Ace. 27. 

7 This is the only marriage of which Lucian gives us definite information ! In 
Alex. 56, however, there is an ambiguous reference to his family, t6i^ iraripa 
Kal To^s ifM6s, and in Eun. 13 there is reference to a son bom, it is to be hoped, 
of no such questionable a character as this Dame Rhetoric of the Bis Ace. 


named Rhetoric, who complains that she bought him fine clothes 
and taught him fine Greek ; taught him, too, how to manage like 
a gentleman the folds of his robes and his flowing eloquence, and 
that finally, to please him, she engaged passage and took him abroad 
and with him travelled everywhere — to Italy, to Transalpine Gaul 
and back again — and raised him to fame and fortune only to be 
basely deserted by this deceitful Syrian for a boon companion 
named Dialogus. This latter in his turn complains that he was so 
hard put to it by the caracoles of his new yoke-mate that he seemed, 
even in his own eyes, a hybrid hippocentaur who could neither 
"pace in prose nor mount on metre." ^ 

This is substantially what we know of Lucian's earlier years, 
but this vague outline is incised by many an allusion. His tour of 
the provinces was very successful. He made a prolonged stay in 
Gaul, where he seems to have been for a while the incumbent of 
one of the imperial professorships — he became, in short, one of 
the " high-priced sophists." * Celtic, indeed, was not one of his 
accomplishments, for we find him seeking information about the 
Celtic Heracles from a native philosopher " who spoke Greek accu- 
rately." ' Nor are we bound to assume that he knew Latin more 
intimately than the ordinary Greek resident in Eome. He was, 
however, repeatedly in Italy ; in the Nigrinus he compares at 
length Rome and Athens; here and there* in his writings he 
makes apparent reference to life in the great city. Above all, 
his parenthetical remark — "If I know any Latin at all, as I 
think I do!"* — points to a fluent, if superficial, knowledge of 
the language. 

* Bis Ace. 33 ovT€ iref6s elfii ovt iirl ru>v iiirptaw fiifirfKa. 

* In Apol. 16, he writes to his friend Sabinus: ** You knew, in days gone 
by, of my being in receipt of a very high salary hrl InfropiK^ drjfuxriqi . . . or&re 
icard $4av tov iffireplov 'ilKcavov kuI t^v KeXruc^v dfta ixidv ip4Tvx«s 'hp^^ '''o** 
ft£ydXofil<r$ois tQv <ro<f>i<rTQ» itfapiSfMVftdvoii.^^ 

* Cf. Here. 4 KcXrds d4 ris . . . &Kpt,^Qs 'EXXdda ifxav^v d0icfs, 0(Xd(ro^s, ol/tai, 
rd hnx*t>pt-^' 

* E.g. in the Charon; The Led Philosophers (passim) ; Hist. Corner. 21 ; etc. 
Croiset (p. 13 and 14), however, thinks qu'il ne parlait que grec. 

^ Laps, in Sal. 13 ef n KdyCl) Trfs'l^uffMluv <f><avijs iiratuf. 


From Gaul and Italy he apparently returned to Ionia by way of 
Athens; and in the first years of the rule of Marcus Aurelius he 
was again in Syria, and at Antioch in 162 or 163 saw Lucius Verus, 
the emperor-coadjutor. To this time is to be referred his visit to 
his native place,^ after which* he makes, as we may suppose, his final 
emigration to Athens, taking with him his father and his family. 
On this same trip took place, perhaps, the interview with the arch- 
impostor Alexander of Abonuteichos, and Lucian's energetic but 
impolitic exposure of the false prophet nearly cost him his life. 

In 165 he was at Corinth, and also at the Olympic games for the 
third or the fourth time, according as we assume that the self- 
immolation of Peregrinus near Olympia took place this year or in 
169.' After this he apparently made Athens his headquarters, and 
we must refer to this period his best literary activity. 

Thus, at the age of forty,* Lucian found himself possessed of no 
little fame. We may, indeed, be led to exaggerate this fame from 
what he says of himself.* The Roman post-roads re-echoed the 
beat of many a fast-flying hoof, but reputations and news spread 
slowly,"* and Lucian must have been his own chief means of adver- 
tisement^ as he travelled back and forth from Syria to Gaul, from 
Home to Ionia, from Athens to Macedonia, delivering his introduc- 
tory and epideictic speeches. As travelling rhetorician and show- 
lecturer he was an unqualified success as things went in the second 
century. As occasion demanded, he could deliver with e'qual zest 
" The Laudation of a Pictu re-Gallery," an '^Encomium on a Fly," or 
"The Suit of Sigma versus Tau."® When he revisits* his native 
Samosata, it is as a well-to-do and famous man to display, with 
pardonable and open vanity, liis foreign laurels to his former 

1 See In trod, to Somn. p. 1. 

2 See Croiset (p. 18) for argument referring this to the year 164. 

8 See Introd. to Peregr. p. 206. * Cf. Hermot. 13 ; Bia Ace. 32. 

» E.g. Somn. (q.v.). • E.g. the knowledge of Christianity. 

7 Cf. the TpoXaXid Herod. 2. 

8 Cf. Blass, AU. Bereds. I, 637, for ** bagatelle" orations of Lysias like The 
B^enae of the Dog ; On the Cruet-Stand, etc. Also cf . Introd. to Somn. p. 1. 

• See Somn. sub fin. 


But now comes the crisis of his career. He turns in contempt 
from rhetoric — and perhaps an intermittent practice of the law — 
<< tired of the shifting business of the turbulent forum and the 
cloying applause of the masses^ to take his pleasure in calm and 
quiet intercourse with Dialogue either in the Academy or in the 
Lyceum." ^ This was Lucian's rebirth. It is the principal event in 
his life. In the development of the Satiric Dialogue he found his 
true career as literary artist. It was an intellectual and moral 
emancipation. The flowery fetters of Rhetoric fell off; * he ceased 
to coquet with philosophy.* The artist remained. 

4. Attitude towards Philosophy, — Lucian's attitude towards phi- 
losophy is not to be summed up in a word.^ But it is safe to say 
that to him philosophy was pre-eminently an ethical system. Hence 
he missed or misapplied the great inheritance of speculative 
thought and busied himself with the unworthy representatives of 
the schools. He had frequented the kennels of the Cynics, had 
sat in the Porch with contemptuous nose in air, had held converse 
in the Academy and the Lyceum. He did try * to rise to the Pla- 
tonic ideals and to give respectful tribute to Aristotle. His praise 
was genuine but nugatory. For the sake of Plato the artist he 
could put up with the vagaries of the philosopher, but when un- 
worthy representatives infringed upon the recognized moral code, 
he had in reserve no loyalty to a speculative system. Some prac- 
tical system of ethics, however, was a matter of course ; and, con- 
stitutionally incapable as he was of appreciating the higher truths 
of Stoicism, it was but natural that he should turn from the 
unkempt coarseness of Cynicism to Epicureanism when fortune 
smiled and optimism saw pleasure as the summum bonum to be had 
for the asking. 

But Lucian's dalliance with Epicureanism did not result in any 
relaxing of effort. To the period that follows we owe his best 

1 Cf. Bis Ace, 32 entire. 

* See Gildersleeve, Essays and Studies, p. 308, on Ins Complete Rhetorician. 
' Cf. Hermot, esp. sub fin., and the autobiographical Icaromenippus. 

* See Introd. to Vit. Auct. p. 01. See also Uelm^s three articles Lucian 
uni die Fhilosophenschulen, Neue Jahrb. 1002. ^ See Pise. 22 and G. 


productions. And they are numerous. Rich and successful he wrote 
for many years. In his old age, however, — just when, we do not 
know — we find him again, either by reason of pecuniary reverses 
or from a restless desire for increasing his fame, turned into a 
circuit show-lecturer and in his earlier manner suing for public 
favor through declamations and readings. The curtain falls leaving 
him installed as a government official^ in Egypt with a large 
salary* drawn from the imperial treasury. We infer* that he died 
under the emperor Commodus or later under Septimius Severus. 
Suidas tells us, <'He was killed, it is said, by dogs, after that he 
had been exceeding mad against the truth. For in his life of Pere- 
grinus he attacks Christianity and, all guilt-stained as he is, blas- 
phemes the Christ himself. Wherefore at this present he has paid 
fitting penalty for this madness and in the time to come shall be 
joint heir with Satan of the fire everlasting." 

These amiable statements of the lexicographer we have no means 
of verifying. The manner of Lucian's death is as unknown as is the 
nature of his reception before Aeacus, the judge whom he had so 
jauntily portrayed. Suidas's *^ dogs," indeed, may be but the hun- 
gry ghosts of the mythical pack by which, as the story has it, Euri- 
pides, another free-thinker, was torn to pieces. But they also sug- 
gest * the dog-philosophers, the Cynics, whom Lucian had satirized 
so mercilessly. This much, at least, may be conceded. Had they 
been allowed their desire around the pyre at Harpina * they would 
have left unpicked for their cousin Cerberus never a bone of this 
scoffing spectator of the martyrdom of their saint Peregrinus. 

When fortune fails and " life runs on the lees " Lucian's Epicure- 
anism yields to the agnosticism that all along is his underlying 
mood.* If he stopped short of utter scepticism it was due to his 

^ Cf . Apol. 12 ; Lucian here dilates on the quality and the quantity of his offi- 
cial duties as District Attorney, General Inspector, and Keeper of the Archives. 

^ Ibid. 6 fiur&bt . . . ToXt/rdXarros. 

' lie makes no mention of later events, but if he died before 102 he might 
have been only seventy-six even if (cf. Suidas s.v. AovxiavSs) he was born under 
Trajan (t 117). * A stock joke in Lucian, cf. D. Mori. 2, 1. 

* Scene of the self-immolation of the Cynic, cf. Peregr. 35. 

« Cf. e.g. Herniot. and Icar. 


practical sense which was ever in revolt against dogmatic formulae, 
Pyrrhonic scepticism included.^ 

5. Attitude towards Christianity, — What Lucian has to say 
directly about the Christians may be read in his Lifers-End of 
Peregrinus.^ Suidas's words, just quoted, represent the complete, 
but not inexplicable, misunderstanding of Lucian's attitude that 
had been handed down by some of the Christian fathers. As a 
matter of fact, his words contain nothing but incidental praise for 
the conduct of the early Christians, mixed with patronizing pity 
for their simplicity and credulity. He might appreciate their 
ethical purity, as revealed in concrete cases, but he understood 
the height and depth of the Christian creed as little as he could 
unlock Plato's spirit-world and behold the beatific vision. On 
Lucian's shield was writ large the device, va<^e koI fiifima dmaTclv^ 

6. Style. — Lucian's style* is tlie fulcrum of his artistic effort. 
His Atticizing, his choice of words, his subordinating of florid 
rhetoric, all led up to the perfection of his Attic style, which was 
his ideal, his life's ambition.* And he succeeded. • His versatil- 
ity was great. Like liis neighbor from Cilicia, he was by nature 
equipped to be all things to all men. He slips off his oriental 
pajamas to masquerade with glee in the many coats of many colors 
hanging in the wardrobe of the imperial theatre. The lawyer's 
toga, the Cynic's shirt, and the professor's robe are tried and dis- 
carded. He becomes a Hellene for Hellenists of all time, yet 
remains a Syrian to the end. He flew like a bee^ to all flowers. 

* At the end of the Vit. Auct. (see Introd. to Vit. Auct. p. 91), for example, he 
treata Pyrrho no better than the rest ; and, agnostic though he was, he would 
hardly have welcomed into his pharmacopoeia a modern narcotic for material- 
ism like Spencer's formula ** the Unknowable." 

2 See Introd. to V. H. p. 66 for other supposed slurs upon Christianity. 

* Of. Hermot. 47. As Goethe makes Faust think over ** was der Weise 
spricht,*' so Lycinus here quotes this as the saying **Tij»At rwy <roif>&v.^^ 

* For his Greek itself see below, § 10. 

' Of. Prom, in Verbis 3 and Zeux. 2, etc. 

^ E.g. Schmid, Atticismus I, 428, can call him '^einer der genialsten Stilisten 
aller Zeiten," and adds: " Keiner (among the Atticists) hat die Anmut von 
X^ucian auch nur von feme erreicht." ' Cf. Pise. 6. 


From some he drew honey ; from some, gall ; from others, noth- 
ing. He was rhetorician and lawyer, writer of romance and fan- 
tasy, lampooner and satirist ; critic of historians and philosophers, 
but neither historian nor philosopher himself. He was art-critic, 
and himself above all an artist who could mould the unpromising 
" Common Greek " — -q kolvtj — into plastic models of ephemeral wax, 
or go on to execute, in Pentelic marble and grim bronze, types and 
portraits now of winning grace, now quizzical or leering or abhor- 
rent, but always real. It is his clear and well-trimmed style that 
has done honor to him. It was at once the child and the compan- 
ion of his talent. Without it he would have lost his clue. It is 
one of the convincing, though delicate, criteria in dividing the 
spurious from the genuine.^ "11 a vraiment," to quote from 
Croiset's excellent characterization, " le pouvoir de cr^er : tout 
s'anime et se meut sous sa main ; les mots dont il use prennent un 
air k eux, sa phrase a une physionomie, son oeuvre, petite ou grande, 
une individualite." Thus we have an additional chance to recog- 
nize as spurious a painting even with his signature falsely attached. 
This is the more helpful because with his external changes Luciau's 
views on men and things shifted, as we have seen, with bewilder- 
ing facility. About his best writings one can hardly be uncertain, 
but the question does arise about others whether they belong to his 
extreme youth or extreme age or fall outside into the limbo of the 

7. Writings, — Of the eighty-two pieces ascribed to Lucian at 
least sixty are pretty certainly genuine, though thirty-four have 
been called in question by one and another editor.* 

1 Sommerbrodt, Ausgew. Schr., p. xviii, says that everything falls under sus- 
picion, as not by Lucian, *^ was ohne Anschaulichkeit und Lebendigkeit, ohne 
Sch^rfe und Klarheit, ohne Witz und Salz, Alles, was im Ausdruck ungelenk, 
unverbuiiden, un rhythm isch ist." 

2 Of the twenty-two which Sommerbrodt excludes we may well accept as 
genuine the De Lnctu and the Hesiodus^ probably also the De Dea Syria (cf. 
Croiset, pp. 63 and 204 ; Allinson, A.J.P. VII, 200 ; Boldennan, Studia Lucianea; 
Smyth, Greek Dialects (Ionic), p. 116 ; and Penick, Notes on Lucian* s Syrian God- 
dess) and De Dorno^ and probably Toxaris and the Demonax. Some of the Epi- 
grammaJba may also have been written by Luciau. 


It is hard to make a brief but really representative selection 
from Lucian's best works.^ 

The wpoXaXuii, or prefatory chats," are represented in this collec- 
tion by the Somnium, though, amongst others, the Suit of Sigma 
versus Tau might have been preferred as showing his fertile fancy, 
his art that can extract fun from phonetics and observe with due 
solemnity the lawyer's lingo and the set forms of the orator. The 
Somniumy however, also serves the double purpose of giving us a 
peep at the " Passing of the Rhetorician Lucian " and of furnishing 
us with his autobiography to his fortieth year.' 

It is hard to exclude any of liis satiric dialogues. The Timon 
usually takes a front rank, but the Charon^ we think, occupies a 
far higher place as a drama of life. Still more than the Timon, the 
exclusion of the incomparable Cock from our menu is a loss to 
which we cannot be reconciled even by the belated fish-course in 
the Piscator, with its spicy entree, the Vitanim Audio. Even 
better than by these two, Lucian's attitude to philosophy could 
have been illustrated by the Icaromenippus. In this his Aris- 
tophanic daring is at its best; and nowhere else is his wit more 
sparkling, or his mockery of the dilapidated gods more scathing — 
not even in the two bitter pieces Juppiter Trayoedtis and Juppiter 

The Icaromenlppusy with careless superficiality, hits off the more 
obvious peculiarities of the schools, Democritus, Anaxagoras, the 
Eleatics, etc., in no historical order but with an assumed complete- 
ness — it is Lucian's saunter along the Greek " Philosophenweg." 
But Lucian's longest and in some respects his most interesting 
work, the HerniotiviuSy or the Sects, gives his serious deliverance 
on philosophy, or, more strictly, upon the systems of ethics. In 
form it is an undisguised reflection of Plato. It is Lucian's 
magnum opus, and is, in one sense, his most conspicuous failure. 
Attempting serious dialogue, he either lectures or answers him- 
self back in falsetto like a marionette-exhibitor. We may be 

* See Gildersleeve, Essays and Studies, pp. 291-361, for the most vivid ex- 
hibit of Lucian^s brilliant kaleidoscope. 2 See Iiitrod. to Somn. 

* For the superior claims of the Bis Ace. see above, p. x. 



tempted to say the same of the Platonized Socrates, but the Repub- 
lic of Plato is constructive : it rears an ideal, a lofty dwelling-place 
not made with hands,^ while Lucian uproots the very foundations. 
It is his " Confession of Unfaith." The pupil Hermotimus, who 
has been painfully working the stony tract of Stoicism these forty 
years (he is now sixty *) is hooked by Lycinus and played like a 
lusty trout, only to give in at last, and in effect exclaims : 

(Ich) sehe, da^ wir nichts wissen konnen 1 
Das will mir schier das Herz verbrennen.* 

But it is not simply the Stoics that are weighed and found wanting. 
Lucian uses them as corpus vile with especial delight, but assures 
the now * disenchanted Hermotimus that koivos IttI vdvrw; 6 Aoyo9 — 
neither Jew nor Gentile, Stoic churchman nor Cynic dissenter, can 
guide you up the hill of virtue. He encamps ostentatiously by the 
River of Indifference, whose elusive water no vessel can contain.^ 

Two other pieces, directed against the philosophers, give Lucian 
in his most uncontrolled humor. The Symposium gathers together 
at a wedding-feast representatives of all creeds (with two Stoics 
for good measure) to give us the most incredible situations — jeal- 
ousy and lust, wrangling, vituperation, blood and blows. But it is 
incomparable for skill in narration and dramatic suggestion. The 
mere naming over and arrangement of the guests, men reclining, 
women seated, and the bride closely veiled ; the doctor's story of 
his insane patient ; the letter from the uninvited philosopher ; the 
contest between a waiter and guest over a pullet, as over the corpse 
of Patroclus ; the boxing-match between the clown and the Cynic ; 
the menu ; and the final mgl^e, judiciously veiled by overturning 
the lamp-stand, — all yield an interest that never flags. 

^ Of. Rep. 9, 602 b ip odpavt} fjwt irapdSetyfjia dvdKCiTai rt} pov\o/i4tnp hpcLv, 

* In Pater's Marius the Epicurean^ chap. 24, entitled *' A Conversation not 
Imaginary/' the Hermotimus is reproduced, but this gray-haired pupil is 
changed into a stripling. 

s Faust's famous soliloquy may serve as a terse epitome of the Hermotimus. 

* Hermot. 85. 

' Of. Plato Rep. 10, 621 a rapd t6v 'AfUXtfra roTafidvj ov rb vdbfp dyyetop o&div 


From the Eunuchus we learn tliat from each of the four officially 
recogpiized sects * were selected incumbents for imperial professor- 
ships at equal salaries of ten thousand drachmae each — a truly 
princely sum for the times.* The canvass of the two rival candi- 
dates for a Peripatetic living that has fallen vacant is, in spite of 
its outrageously naked allegations, perhaps a not entirely unfair 
exaggeration under the Lucianic microscope of the motes in the 
eyes of his colleagues.' Perhaps some personal failure to obtain 
or to hold a professorial chair may have sharpened his satire. 

In The Led Philosophers Lucian pursues mercilessly the »* Graecu- 
lus" within doors, the private tutor.* 

The Lie-Fancier^ gives Lucian at his best in narrations that are 
permeated with the bitterest satire against superstitions, ^< faith- 
cures " and other follies of his day. One story, incidentally, is the 
prototype of Goethe's Zauherlehrling and Barham's rollicking Lay 
of St. Dunstan, The skilfulness of the narration in The Lie- 
Fancier helps Lucian to his rights as author of the frolicsomely 
wanton romance, the Asinus,^ 

Alexander the False Prophet, like The Lie-Fancier, sets lance in 
rest against contemporary superstition. It gives us the biography 
of the charlatan successful, while The Lifers-End of Peregrinus^ 
uniquely interesting also on account of its allusions to the Chris- 
tians, gives us the charlatan desperate. 

Amongst others the Cataplus, or Voyage to Hades, should be men- 
tioned as a pendant to the Dialogues of the Dead, and the Dialogues 
of the Gods are but flattering court portraits compared to the snap- 
shots taken in the Olympic green-room of Juppiter Tragoedus and 
Juppiter Confutatus, 

^ I.e. Epicureans, Academics, Stoics, and Peripatetics. The Cynics (cf . Symp. 
44) vrere ivaplBfjuoi in conflicts but not in the colleges. 

* The professorship in question would seem to have been in Athens. It 
would be interesting to know whether the Gallic professorships were also 
limited to the four sects, and, if so, whether Lucian^s ^^ convictions *^ just at this 
time were such as to enable him to qualify as an Epicurean. 

' For Lucian's incumbency of a professorship in Gaul, see § 3. 
^ See Gildersleeve, Essays and Studies, pp. 327 ff. 

* Adapted for rapid sight-reading. • See Introd. to V. U, 


8. Imitators of Ltician. — In Byzantine times the imitation of 
Lucian was a grateful opportunity,^ and with the Revival* of Learn- 
ing Lucian must needs lend his comic mask, one side serious, the 
other distorted to a leer, or pose full-length as model, or, again, 
yield the less obvious, but real, suggestiveness of his spirit. 

In pictorial art Lucian originated or transmitted from antiquity 
suggestions for the greatest artists of Europe.^ Transmuting the 
Calumnla of Apelles into his plastic word-picture, he handed down 
the motive to Botticelli, Raphael, Mantegna, Rembrandt, Albrecht 
DUrer, and others. Botticelli transferred to his canvas Lucian's 
Centaur Family* In the Palazzo Borghese a pupil of Raphael 
filled out the sketch by his master of the Marriage of Alexander 
and Moxana,* which was used also by Sodoma in the Ghigi house at 
Rome and was later born anew from the fecund brush of Rubens. 
The imaginative picture of eloquence * in Lucian's Gallic Hercules 
reappears in sketches by Raphael, Diirer, and Holbein. In Dilrer's 
sketch-book in Vienna there is preserved his Europa taken from 
2>. Mar, 16." Michelangelo drew from the Nigrinus'' the sugges- 
tion for a red-crayon drawing now in Windsor Castle. Two wood- 
cuts of Ambrosius Holbein (i.e. Amiinitis * defeating Varus and the 
Calumny of Apelles) were printed by Froben with Erasmus's edition 
of the New Testament, and at table with Froben and Erasmus 
at Basel sat Hans Holbein as he made his sketches on the mar- 
gin of his copy of Erasmus's Encomium Moriae, as he illustrated 
Sir Thomas More's Utopia^ and as he was weaving into the compo- 
sition of his Dance of Death^ the irony of Lucian's Dialofjues of 
the Dead, 

1 Cf . Sandys, History of Classical ScJwlarskip, p. 304, and for earlier imitators, 
Alclphron and Apuleius, p. 310. For Theodorus Prodromus etc., see Introd. 
to VU. Auct. p. 08, and cf. Rentsch, Das Totengespriich in der Litteratur, pp. 
21, 22, especially for a r^sam^ of Tifiapltap ^ irepl rCo¥ Kar a^6» iraBrifjLdrtav writ- 
ten ca. 1140 A.i>. and Lucian^s influence in Byzantine times. See also the disser- 
tation by F. Schuhmacher, de Joanne Katrario Luciani imitatore^ Bonn 1808. 

^ For these and other suggestions see Forster^s Lucian in tier Renaissance. 

8 Zeux. 4. * Cf. Herod. 6. ^ jferc. 4. ^ cf. Introd. to D. Mar. 

' § 36. 8 Cf. infra von Hutten's Anninius. 

» Cf. Introd. to D. Mort., p. 188, note 3. 


In literature Lucian's influence is still more wide-reaching. No 
age since the cinque-cento fails to reflect it. Erasmus translated 
and imitated him.^ More than that, he is redolent of Lucian in the 
Encomium Moriae,^ the book that electrified Europe — both fools 
and savants — from Britain to Germany, and whose wireless mes- 
sage still ripples through our atmosphere. Perhaps no other ele- 
ment in the character of Erasmus, the honest rejecter of dogma, is 
more suggestive of his necessary incompatibility with Luther, the 
asserter of dogma. Erasmus himself complains ' that Luther calls 
him another Lucian. 

To trace the open or the more subtle influence of Lucian from 
the time of Erasmus to the nineteenth century would be full of 
reward to the thoughtful student of literature. It has never been 
fully done.* Only a brief mention of some of the more obvious 
names is here offered. To assert direct imitation without interme- 
diary becomes of course more and more perilous as we pass down 
the line. Erasmus's great Humanist contemporaries were the first 
to translate from Lucian into German.' Reuchlin, among others, 
translated from him, and found in him fresh impetus for his con- 
troversy with the Obscurantists. Ulrich von Hutten left the post- 
humous Lucianic dialogue Arminius, and in his Phalarlsmus he 
tipped with Lucian's venom the darts shot at Duke Ulrich von 

The martyred defender of the papacy and the famous collabo- 
rator of Luther were both indebted to Lucian. Sir Thomas More 
translated the dialogues of Lucian and took from the Vera Historla 
as well as from Plato's Repuhlic cues for his Utopia^ a pendant to 
the Encomium Moriae, while Melanchthon, called in 1518 to Wit- 
tenberg, hastened to publish Lucian's De Calumnia, 

^ Cf. CoUoquia, p. 380 of Patrick^s ed., London 1750, entitled Charon, and see 
Froude's Erasmus, p. 81 etc. 

* Cf. Voltaire's reference in vol. XLV, dial, x (CEuvres completes de Vol- 
taire: de Pimprim. de la soc. litt^raire typographique), and, for the Adagia, 
Fronde's Erasmus, p. 61. • Cf. Ep. dcccxliii. 

* Rentsch in his admirable monograph already cited, Das Totengespriich in 
der LUteratur (Plauen 1896), follows in detail the fortunes of the D. Mori., but 
includes much that relates to the wider question. ^ See Rentsch, p. 23. 


Just before^ the death of Erasmus (1536) the spirit of Lucianic 
mischief reappears in Rabelais's Fantagruel (1533) and Gargantua 
(1535). Grotesque beyond all claim to Hellenic heritage, his figures, 
as has been pointed out," are nevertheless " Lucianic in outline." 

The extravaganza in vol. 11 c. xxx of Fantagruel was borrowed, 
it is usually • claimed, from Lucian's account in the Vera Histo- 
ria; but Rabelais's raillery might have taken almost as much, it 
would seem, from Plato's Repvblic. Epistemon's account of the 
under- world, with its malicious list of the new occupations of some 
eminent immigrants that he had met, might be a reminiscence of 
the vision of Er in which, for the next round of mortal existence, 
the souls either choose lives similar to their old ones or fly to the 
other extreme. So Rabelais's Helen is courratiere (= courtiere) de 
chamhrieres ; Pope Alexander VI is a rat-catcher ; pious Aeneas is 
a miller, and shoulders a bag of meal as handily as if it were the 
aged Anchises ; Commodus is a bagpiper ; Darius, instead of direct- 
ing the digging of canals, is set to a task resembling the fifth labor 
of Heracles, less imposing, indeed, but a permanent job. But there 
are Lucianic touches. The poor have become great ; Diogenes plays 
the grand prelate and lords it over Alexander; Epictetus invites 
Epistemon to a carousal. Like Er, Epistemon at the end can give 
no very clear account of his return route. 

Hans Sachs, Rabelais's contemporary, imitated closely, in spite of 
blunders due to the medium of a Latin version, Lucian's so-called 
Scaphidion (i.e. Z>. Mort, 10), altering the satire in only a few particu- 
lars to suit his own times. His Schlaraffenland reflects in detail the 
Vera Historia (see p. 56), and in the prologue to one of his older com- 
edies, the Judicium Paridis, "der Ehrenhold" cites his sources thus: 

Homerus und Virgiliua, 

Ovidius, Lucianus, 

Auch and re mehr gar kunstenreich, 

Doch in beschreybung ungeleich. 

1 In Voltaire's dialogue (vol. XLV, p. 103), however, Rabelais says to Eras- 
mas : ^* tJ'ai lu vos Merits, et vous n'avez pas lu les miens, parce que je suis venu 
nn peu aprte vous." 

3 Gildersleeve, Essays and Studies, pp. 312-^13. See also his comparison with 
Voltaire. ' Le Motteux, Bemier, etc. Rentsch, I.e. 


And in the third act of the same comedy Paris's observations on 

Juno — ^oUt Gott das ich ietzt Argus wer, 

Welcher wol hundert augen het, 
Das ich nur recht erkiinden thet 
Und ein wahr urtheil mocht verjehen I 
Nun zeuch dich ab und laf dich sehen I 

recall the distracted judge of Lucian's 0eo>v KpiW 11 {D, Deor. 

Cervantes gives a nearer parallel to Lucian's Quomodo Historia 
Conscribenda Sit and to the opening sentences of the Vera Historia 
in the introduction to his Don Quixote than he does in the body of 
the work itself. Ignoring the more esoteric interpretations of the 
latter, — such as the contrast between the romantic and the real, — 
or the author's special crusade against a creed of chivalry outworn 
and his parental affection for the very folly of his hero, we may 
content ourselves with comparing the resemblance to Lucian's satire 
as directed against braggarts and liars. In the case of Don Quixote 
we must repeatedly adjust ourselves to the broadly farcical ; but in 
the Vera Historia, once embarked with Lucian and his fifty com- 
panions for the Western Ocean, the pilot steers straight on, and all 
doubts and probabilities drop incontinently out of sight behind the 
receding Pillars of Heracles. 

Quevedo,* the younger contemporary and fellow-countryman of 
Cervantes, cuts many a sharp Lucianic silhouette, and in his Visions 
(e.g. Suefios Nos. 3 and 6) is at once reminiscent of the Vera Historia 
and also seems to anticipate the still clearer references in Cyrano de 
Bergerac's Histoire comique des efats et empires de la lune, published 
(1656) thirty years later, and in his Histoire comique des etats et 
empires du soleil (1661). These two posthumous publications prob- 
ably suggested in part Voltaire's Micromegas and Swift's GuUlver^s 
Travels. Emphasis is usually laid altogether upon the reminis- 
cences of the Vera Historia in Cyrano's Voyage to the Moon, but 
it would seem that parallels with the Icaromenippus are equally 
suggestive: e.g., in the Voyage to the Moon^ the kindness and 

1 See also below, p. 22, note 3. * Of. Hentsch, p. 27, for r^sum^ 

• See p. 74 of the reprint, Doubleday and McClure Co., 1890. 


counsel of the Demon of Socrates remind us of the apparition of 
Empedocles ; so, too, Cyrano's return to the Earth in the arms of 
the Demon is a fair compromise between Icaromenippus's flying- 
machine on the voyage out and his homeward trip under the con- 
voy of Hermes. As we approach with Cyrano the outspread world, 
we are reminded of the panoramas that Lucian introduces so often, 
as in Icaromenippus, Bis AccusatuSf Charon, and Fugitivi, Cyrano's 
close reproductions (cf. the Lychnobii with the Lychnopolis of the 
Vera Ifistoria) are indeed few, but one is reminded of Lucian now 
and again as by a face half seen in a crowd. We feel that Cyrano's 
long nose is a not unworthy successor of Lucian's goat-shanks peep- 
ing from the rhetorician's robe. 

Other writers, as open imitators, kept alive the formal recogni- 
tion of Lucian's influence. Towards the end of the seventeenth 
century there was again a great demand for the dialogue, and 
Boileau gave the impetus to many imitations of Lucian by his 
Dialogue a la maniere de Lucien: les Heros de roman. Although 
this did not appear in authorized form until 1713, it had been 
privately recited much earlier, and one of the hearers was so appre- 
ciative as to have printed surreptitiously all that he could remem- 
ber. Les Heros de roman is not merely an imitation of the Dialogi 
Mortuorum, It is Lucianic in a wider sense, and is admirable for 
its originality. From the Vera Historia is borrowed the sugges- 
tion for the rebellion of the damned, but the animus of the satire 
directed against the pseudo-heroes has more of the flavor of Lu- 
cian's account of the false philosophers and his summary treat- 
ment of the queer fish in the Piscator. Not every glittering 
goldfish is a Chrysippus, and Boileau's pseudo-heroes are stripped 
as naked as Lucian's dead (Z>. Mort, 10) and driven forth to pun- 

Again, in the Fragment d^un dialogue where Boileau picks flaws 
in Horace's bad French, — an inverted criticism on the bad Latin 
of French poetasters, — we think of the wooden Atticists of Lucian's 
day and his crusade against them in the LexipJianes, Later, Vol- 
taire brings to life Titus, Trajan, and Aurelius in Les trois empe- 
reurs en Sorbonne to shudder at the Latin of the theologians ! 


Fontenelle, whose Dialogues des morts were published in 1683 (a 
quarter of a century after Cyrano's death), prefixes to them a dedica- 
tion, " A Lucien, aux champs filysiens." This dedication, with its 
wooden and self-depreciatory acknowledgment of his debt to Lucian, 
hardly prepares us for the really worthy touches in his dialogues — 
e.g. his Didon et Stratonice, or, better still, his Charles V et Erasmey 
where Erasmus's fancied triumph over the emperor, now "in reduced 
circumstances," is blighted by the discovery that to have been born 
" avec un cerveau bien dispose " " is pure luck and no more of a 
marketable asset of merit in the < champs !^lysiens' than to have 
had * un p^re qui soit roi.' '' Thus Fontenelle out-Lucians Lucian's 
igalite in Hades. 

Fenelon, too, in his Dialogues des morts (1712), showed conclu- 
sively that he had taken Lucian to both his heart and his brain. His 
admirable dialogue, Herodote et Lucien (No. xv), is Lucianic enough 
both in the situation and in the treatment. The very essence of the 
Hermotimus is condensed at the end. To the wish of Herodotus 
that the gods, by way of punishment, would again incarnate this 
Syrian mocker in the body of a traveller and send him over the 
itinerary of the Father of History to confirm the correctness of his 
avToij/Ca, Lucian replies that only one thing further would then be 
necessary: "that I should pass *de corps en corps dans toutes les 
sectes de philosophes que j'ai decri^es : par 1^ je serois tour k tour 
de toutes les opinions contraires dont je me suis moqu^. Cela seroit 
bien jolL' " 

One could recommend, too, as an antidote to the grieved and 
puzzled expositors, ancient and modern, of Lucian's attitude in the 
Vitarum Auctio and the Piscatory Lucian's reply to Herodotus's com- 
plaint that he had busied himself with the degenerate philosophers 
of his own time: "Que voulois-tu done que je fisse? que j'eusse 
vu ceux qui ^toient morts plusieurs si^cles avant ma naissance ? " 

In Dialogue xix Pericles's admission that the judges are imper- 
vious to persuasion has a familiar sound ; in xx the opening words 
to Mercury about Alcibiades might be a translation from Lucian, 
and the suggested intrigue between Alcibiades and Proserpine 
recalls again the elopement of Helen with Cinyras in the Vera 


Historia; while in the dialogue (No. xxiv) between Plato and Aris- 
totle the partisan sarcasm reminds us of Lucian in bis polemic strain. 

In 1726 Swift published Gzdliver^s Travels. He was openly 
indebted to Eabelais, and, like Fontenelle, borrowed hints here and 
there from Cyrano's two Comic Histories. In the external form 
and in various matters, like the ioterviewing (B. Ill, c. viii) of 
Homer and Aristotle with their commentators, and still more per- 
haps in the air of verisimilitude of the details with which he sur- 
rounds the impossible, we recognize Lucian's Vera Historia; but 
the quality of Swift's bitter satire recalls Juvenal more than the 
genial humor of Lucian.^ 

Voltaire lived from 1694 to 1778. There is such an obvious 
parallel between certain elements in his and Lucian's life and 
writings that it is but a natural reaction to seek to minimize the 
resemblance by pointing out the differences. It may be misleading 
to call Lucian the Voltaire of the second century, but it is better 
than to name Voltaire a Lucian of the eighteenth century. Human 
life had in the interval grown too complex for these designations 
to be convertible. There was, too, an inherent difference. Both 
were typical dogma-despisers and myth-mockers, but Lucian could 
merge his righteous indignation in his mischief and take refuge 
from his cynicism in his chosen career as artist, while Voltaire, 
though hampered by vanity and his flattery of princes, and though 
himself playing a part before his admirers, had the woe upon him 
of a reformer. 

The malodorous pyre of the Cynic suicide or the charlatanry 
of an Alexander Pseudomantis made Lucian only on occasion for- 
get his ordinary self-restraint and humor ; but Voltaire's bloodshot 

1 Cf. Croiset, p. 378: **Cette fantaisie ironique de Lucien . . . ne se retrouve 
chez ses imitateurs qu^avec des caract^res assez diff^rents. Chez Rabelais, elle 
est tellement surcliarg^e parfois et si incoh^rente en g^n^ral, que la conformity 
premiere disparalt en fait dans les details. Chez Voltaire elle est au contraire 
alerte et d^gag^e ; mais par I^ meme, elle semble an pea maigre k cdt^ de celle 
de r^crivain grec. Swift est peut-€lre celui qui ressemble le plus k Lucien. 
. . . Seulement T^crivain anglais a plus de flegme et de parti pris ; 11 y a 
quelque chose de plus voulu dans sa fantaisie, et par suite elle a moins de 
charme et vari^t^." 


vision turned continually up the long vista of centuries flanked by 
burning heretics. He could not win upon Lady Philosophy * or 
Truth herself to show him the loyal among all the throng of the 
fanatics — cowled monks or scowling Protestants — who lit the 
fagots or thrust up the spear again to draw forth blood and 

Voltaire's dialogue (vol. XLV, No. x) Lucieny HJrasme et Rabelais 
is suggestive both of what Voltaire took from Lucian and of what 
he ignored. After informing himself as to the vital statistics of 
his two distinguished epigones, Lucian goes oif in a corner to read 
presentation copies of their works. Meanwhile Erasmus and 
Kabelais essay a mutual readjustment of their views, and in the 
end all three meet the newly arrived Dr. Swift and go off in his 
company. Thus Voltaire openly avows a certain kinship with 
these four, and Erasmus, indeed, is his spokesman. It has been 
pointed out that Voltaire reflects the Hermotimus in his Candidey 
and we may add that we again And the paralyzing agnosticism of 
the conclusions of the Hermotimtcs repeated in his Gallimaiias 
Dramatique, where the Chinese refuse to give heed to the ex-parte 
preaching of Jesuit or Jansenist, Puritan, Quaker, Anglican, 
Lutheran, Mussulman, or Jew. It was with just this least genial, 
but essential, side of Lucian that Voltaire could sympathize, 
although Rentsch " thinks that Voltaire was far more genial than 
Lucian and that he knew Lucian's writings only superficially. 

Le Sage in Gil Bias (1715-1735), through Espinel's Marcos de 
OhregoTiy was joint heir with Boccaccio, Cervantes, and others, to the 
contents of the panniers either of Lucian's Asinus or of Apuleius's 
Golden Ass. 

In the current editions of Baron Munchausen's Adventures (first 
"collected" and published by Raspe in 1785, seven years after 
Voltaire's death), we find undisguised, sometimes almost verbatim^ 
imitation of Lucian's Vera Historla? 

> Cf. Pise, sub fin. 

^ Cf. his illaminating dissertation Lucian und Voltaire (Plauen, 1805) for a 
thoughtful comparative characterization of the two writers. 
' Cf. Jerram^s introduction. 


At the close of the eighteenth century Wieland, Lucian's great 
translator, gives still other proofs of the influence of his favorite 
author, as in his Gesprdche in Elysium and his romance Don Sylvio 
von Rosalva written in the manner of Don Quixote, Schiller in 
the Xenien — itself, in part, suggestive of the Jfermofimtis — makes 
Peregrinus Proteus send back from Hades his thanks to Wieland 
for whitewashing him ; but the shade modestly admits that the kind- 
ness was misplaced. Lucian, too, when asked whether he is at last 
reconciled with the philosophers, must square accounts with his 
undertakers, Wieland among them : 

Rede leiser, mein Freund. Zwar hab* ich die Narren geziichtigt, 
Aber mit vielem Geschwatz oft auch die Klugen geplagt. 

Goethe, too, attacking Wieland with over-bitter satire in his 
farce Goiter, Helden und Wieland, shows incidentally his insight 
into Lucianic satire. His Hercules, for example, is a replica of 
Lucian's Heracles in the sixteenth Dialogue of the Dead. 

Both Goethe in his Zavherlehrling and the Rev. Richard Barham 
(^Ingoldsby Legends) in his Lay of St. Dunstan reproduce the pestle- 
compelling priest of Lucian's Fhilopseudes ; and, if it were not 
labor lost to identify water-drops from a Greek fountain in the 
wide Atlantic, we might see traces of Lucian as well as Aeschylus 
in Goethe's bitter Fromethetis, and, more confidently, catch the 
despairing tones of Hermotimus in Faust's monologue. 

Before Goethe died Jules Verne was born, and his Voyage au 
centre de la terre (cf. De la terre a la lune) carries us back through 
Cyrano de Bergerac to the Vera Historia, But, though Lucian long 
held in mortmain the estates that he had inherited in Cloud-cuckoo- 
land, it is a far cry from the Dialogues of the Dead to Lander's 
Imaginary Conversations or to Marion Crawford's Among the 

Lucian has had scores of less worthy imitators, the Dialogues of 
the Dead most often furnishing the model. To try to recognize 
these ghostly whispers on all the modern graphophones were an 
unremunerative task, but it is worth while to recall as a curiosity 
of literature the series of attempts made in the seventeenth and 


eighteenth centuries to feed Liicianic dialogues into the hopper of 
periodic journalism. One example may illustrate. Beginning in 
1718, David Fassmann actually published for twenty-two years in 
Leipzig a monthly ^ magazine made up of distinguished dead men's 
dialogues on current events. Unloading monthly his cargo of 
ghosts, he overstocked the long-suffering Fatherland, enriched 
Charon, and depleted Pluto's majority. But to charge up to Lu- 
cian the taxes on all these barren plots would be as unfair as to 
cloud the title of property held in fee-simple by a Kabelais or a 

9. Place as an Author. — The reasons for including Lucian in a 
curriculum of classic Greek are threefold. On tlie half-concealed 
rubble of the Common Dialect^ he built up a pier of Attic Greek 
far out in the turgid stream. He bridged over the chasm between 
the ancient and the modern as well in language as in subject- 
matter. He developed with great success the Satiric Dialogue, and 
has thus made good his claim to a place in Greek literature. 

Finally, as Croiset points out,' truth is to be sought in the due 
harmonizing of the admiration of the good and the beautiful with 
the critical instinct. This critical instinct is, of course, found in 
other comic and satiric writers, but Lucian is peculiarly suited for 
the general reader. Clear and simple in style, he touches mainly 
upon ideas that are simple. His satires are less recondite, more 
modern, than those of Aristophanes.* They are therefore easier for 
rapid reading. , Their modernity, moreover, is generic and does not 
entail undue consideration of merely ephemeral fancies. 

Any one who cannot find fun on nearly every page of Lucian's 
best writings must be dull indeed, while he who sees nothing deeper 
must be almost as obtuse. Lucian throughout is an artist, and for 
this very reason he is much more.* The figures of the Greek world 

1 Or nearly so ; more than twenty thousand pages of this were issaed. Of. 
Rentsch, l.c. p. 33, for other journalistic attempts. 

« See below, § 11. 

» Of. Croiset, p. 394. 

^ The apirituel in Lucian^s nature and his almost unfailing good taste make 
him, as a rule, avoid the grossness which besets the pathway of the Kw/u>t. 

* See Froude's estimate, Erasmus, p. 81. 


under Roman sway, men and women, the denizens of Olympia, 
ocean, earth, and hell, are clearly mirrored in his writings just as 
the great figures on the ceiling of the Sistine chapel — the Creator 
and his creatures — reappear at our convenience in the mirrors 

Lucian's Greek ^ 

10. The Greek language, as distinguished from its literature, is 
to be thought of as continuous from pre-Homeric times to the 
present day. The arbitrary break in Greek history, often made 
by historians at the death of Alexander the Great, has not unnatu- 
rally influenced also the treatment of the literature and the lan- 
guage. Any hiatus, however, in the literature, either then or in 
Byzantine times, merely registers the non-appearance, for whatever 
reason, of worthy writers. The language, like the marble-quarries 
of Pentelicus, lay dormant only for lack of a Praxiteles.* 

11. The Common Dialect, — The Kotn;, the Greek that came into 
use throughout the Greek world under Macedonian and Roman 
sway, was more or less what the name implies, the speech of com- 
mon intercourse from about 300 b.c. to 500 a.d.* It is often spoken 
of as the written Greek of Polybius and his successors, but it is 

^ Especial reference is here made to the following commentators, in whose 
notes previous literature on Lucian is Included. 

Gildersleeve : Encroachments of oi> on /atJ in Later Greek, A. J. P. vol. I 

(1880) ; also Syntax of Classical Greek, part I (1900). 
Schmid ; Der AUicismus (1887-1897), esp. vol. I. 
Chabert : L^Atticisme de Lucien ^Paris 1897). 
For the Koivij in particular : 

Ktthner-Blass, Ausfuhr. Gram. d. Griech. Spr. (1890), I, p. 22 f. 

Hatzidakis, Neugriechische Grammatlk (1892). 

Winer-Schmiedel, Gram, des N.T. Sprachidiorns (1894). 

Blass, Gram, des N. T. Griechisch (1890) esp. pp. 1-30. 

Thumb, Die griechische Spracke im ZeitaUer des Hellenismus (Strass- 

burg 1901). See especially notes to same for recent literature. 
Kretschmer, Die ErUstehung der Koirffj Sitzber. Wiener Akad., 1900, 

p. 143 ff. 

* Hatzidakis, Neugriech. Gram., p. 4. 

* See Thumb, p. 0, for discussion of the limits of time. 


essential to lay at least as much stress on the spoken language. 
This latter it is becoming more and more possible to recover in 
some detail from the inscriptions and from the papyri/ which 
represent, even better than the books of the New Testament, the 
real language of the Koimj. 

If Attica, as is commonly assumed, was the birthplace of the 
KOLvy, it was nursed to maturity in Asia Minor and in Egypt,* and 
the Ionian admixture played a leading part. As a language spoken 
over so wide a territory — from Syria to Gaul and from Egypt to 
Macedon — its divergences were manifold. But the growth and 
spread of a common language became inevitable. The conquests 
of Alexander ; the traders that met and passed at Delos ; the new 
centres for the KotnJ colonized by the Romans ; the centres of 
university life from Rhodes to Marseilles ; the Olympic festivals 
attracting even under the emperors throngs from far and near;' 
unnumbered Hellenizing Jews, dispersed but not lost among the 
Gentiles ; the spread of Cliristianity itself ; — all these factors 
helped to create and to satisfy the demand for a common speech. 
Greek became both the chief " Kultursprache " and the Lingua 
Franca of the Mediterranean basin. 

However remote may have been the cousinship of the Mace- 
donian dialect to the Hellenic family proper, yet the Greek which 
Alexander had learned as a pupil of Aristotle, and even the early 
form of the icotv^ which he had adopted as his official language at 
home and which his armies carried abroad, could not have been so 
very far removed from the spoken language of Plato, the master of 
Alexander's tutor.* 

1 Blaas, Gram. ^.T., § 1, 2 and Thumb, passim. But see also Hatzidakis, 
Neugriech. Gram., p. 19. 

3 Thumb, p. 248 : *^ Man darf wohl sagen, dass die Koiv^ und das Neu- 
griechische in Kleinasien und Agypten ausgebildet worden sind." 

» Thumb, p. 247, and cf. Lucian's Peregrinus. 

* Schmid (I, 403) emphasizes this continuity from another side, i.e. that of 
the late Comedy : ** Auch wird von der Sprache der (besonders spateren) atti- 
schen Komiker, aus welcher Lucian so vielfach schOpft, der Schritt herilber zur 
lebenden Sprache der gebildeten Kreise in Lacians Zeit nicht selir groi^ gewesen 


Used in Attica and Ionia, and by Dorians, Syrians, and Egyp- 
tians, by Macedonians, Romans, and barbarians, by Hellene and 
Hellenist, by Jew and Gentile, the Attic vocabulary shared its 
rights with a respectable minority of words from the other dialects, 
from Latin, or from other un-Hellenic languages ; the structure of 
the language weakened; the inflections were mutilated or trans- 
ferred; the language yielded more and more to the analytic ten- 
dency. By the time of Lucian this Attic-Ionic koivi] appears to 
have permeated completely even the conservative Dorian popula- 
tion of the Peloponnesus, and after reacliing its maturity more 
rapidly in other parts of the Greek world i-eacted upon Attica. 

As for the literary Koiv^f it has been characterized * as the child 
begotten of the Attic by the old Greek as its father. While in this 
the tendency to uniformity was stronger, yet here too the speech 
of the common people in the different localities influenced the 
written style. Thus in Egypt the Alexandrian dialect must have 
been influenced by special factors, such as the Greek colony at 
Naucratis, antedating the founding of Alexandria, or the presence 
of nearly a million Jewish residents. Concerning the relation of 
this and the Syrian Greek, or the relation of the Greek of the Sep- 
tuagint and that of the New Testament books to these dialects and 
to each other, widely varying opinions have been expressed.* 

The historian Polybius, who lived in the second century b.c, is 
the oldest ' example of a writer of prominence using this literary 
Koin;, and he exhibits already the characteristics which distinguish 
the life and growth of the Greek language through the succeeding 
centuries. The Athenians, however, strove to maintain intact their 

1 See Thumb, p. 8. 

* Cf. Winer-Schmiedel (§ 3), who refers to the Alexandrian dialect as the 
basis of the Greek of the Septuagint and, in part at least, of the New Testa- 
ment Greek, while Blass (Gram. N.T, §1,2) declares that the books of the Sep- 
tuagint are slavishly literal translations — *' gesprochen hat so kein Mensch, 
aach die jUdischen Ubersetzer selbst nicht.^^ 

B Among his successors may be mentioned — however much or little they 
resorted to an artificial Atticism — Diodorus Siculus, Dionysius of Halicamas- 
sas, Strabo, Josephus, Plutarch, Dion Chrysostom, the New Testament writers 
(and the LXX), Arrian, Appian, Pausanias, Aristides, Lucian, etc. 


linguistic inheritance in spite of the growth of the koiv^ at home 
and abroad among all the other Hellenizing peoples. Soon after 
the Greek world had passed from the Macedonian under the Eoman 
sway, a reaction in favor of Atticism ^ made itself felt among Greek 
literati generally.' But Atticism was purely a literary movement, 
and could not avail to prevent the ultimate submerging of the Attic, 
together with the other dialects, in this precursor of Modern 
Greek. Athenian Greek of to-day, reinforced by the newspaper and 
the scliool, has been more successful in constructing an artificial 
millpond into which come tumbling the streams from the hill- 
country bearing denuded roots and native soil. 

Dionysius of Halicarnassus (died 7 b.c), the most prominent 
Atticist of the first century b.c, contributed not a little to the 
success of this tendency, artificial at its best but not wholly unde- 
sirable in its aim to keep .alive the best traditions of the literary 
Greek. In the next century we have Dion Chrysostom and his 
finely gilded Greek. In the second century of our era, when the 
Syrian Lucian looked around him on the Greek world, the popular 
speech was the kcxv^, but he found rhetoric and literature controlled 
by Atticism. Herodes Atticus, the accomplished rhetorician, had 
both the Roman emperor and the Greek Baedeker, Pausanias, 
among his pupils." Lucian, when his real powers asserted them- 
selves, became a literary artist. Hence he became inevitably an 
Atticist.* To make frank use of the vulgar speech itself as a 
vehicle for literary expression occurred to him no more than it did 
to Dante in his earlier career. But he knew how to lift this 
Atticizing process out of much of the artificiality then in vogue. 
He mastered both what his predecessors had done and what his 

^ For a redefining of this term see Wilamowitz-MoUendorff Attlciamus und 
Asianismus, Hermes xxxv. 

^ Artificial lanizing and Dorizing were also fashions prevalent in the first and 
second centuries. For the former cf. Lucian^s (?) De Dea Syria., written per- 
haps partly in mockery of this fad, and the imitation by physicians of the Ionic 
of Hippocrates, while the New-Pythagoreans wrote in Doric (cf. Thumb, p. 29). 

> For the pupils of Herodes Atticus, see Schmid, I, 201. 

* Chabert explains this process at length in his chapter ^* Comment Lucien 
devint atticiste.'^ 


contemporaries were trying to do, and he re-created for himself an 
Attic style and diction which avoided at once the uncouthness of 
the age and much of its slavish galvanizing of the past into life. 
He was guilty of occasional solecisms. The kocv^ SiaXcxros was the 
basis of his Greek ; it peeped through now and again. His Atti- 
cizing was veneered upon this. It was conscious and deliberate ; 
but it was successful He made a nearer approach — and it is very 
near — to Attic Greek than any other extant author subsequent to 
the fourth century b.o. 

12. Before mentioning the peculiarities^ illustrated more or less 
often in these selections, it may be well to emphasize the following 
propositions : 

(a) Lucian's main stock of words and usages was common to the 
best Attic Greek. Although his vocabulary was unusually large 
(i.e. about 10,400 words as compared with 9,900 in Plato), yet only 
some 1300 words belong to late usage, and more than half of these 
(i.e. 711) are used each once only, so that only one sixteenth of his 
working vocabulary need be viewed as late. Add to this, that of 
1511 poetic words nearly half (751) are used once only, while of 
new words in his vocabulary much the largest part consists of avai 

(b) His Atticizing was rarely overdone. In his Lexiphanes he 
condemns in others this bungling Atticizing, and elsewhere, when 
it is not part of his satire, he prunes it to due proportion ,as he 
perfects his style. 

(c) His divergences from Attic (or from Atticism itself) were 
usually along lines already apparent in embryo in the Attic period, 
or ehse they were survivals from pre-Attic times. His actual sole- 
cisms were few and common to his time. 

The following notes refer, as a rule, only to the selections here 
edited. They therefore give a somewhat one-sided view of Lucian's 
Greek. It must not be inferred that the peculiarities here noted 
necessarily permeate all of Lucian's writings in an equal deg^ee^ 
though as a rule that is the case. On the other hand, a number of 
peculiarities occur only in pieces not here edited. These have been 

1 Cf. Schmid, I, 481 and 402. 


included in this conspectus only where it seemed most necessary. 
Finally, some forms or expressions found in Attic prose are here 
cited because they have become mannerisms in Lucian through too 
frequent use. 

13. Dual Number, — The use of the dual was foreign to the Aeolic 
dialect, to Herodotus, and, generally speaking, to the Koivrj} The 
Atticists revived it as an easy means of giving Attic flavor. 
Lucian uses it frequently," but is guilty of admitting the tabooed 
form ralv in the fem. gen. of the article, see App. Somn. 6.' 

His careful use of the dual in general, however, is another proof 
of his successful acquisition of Attic Greek. 

14. Levelling of verb, — (a) Forms in -fu and -o). Attic -/xt forms 
(chiefly those in -wfii and -rj/u) are frequently found inflected as 
verbs in -w. Late writers usually prefer forms in -rm to -vfu. E.g. 
Somn, 4 and 16 iSeUwov, Vit, Auct, 16 ofivvta. 

(b) Personal endings. E.g. €<^i7s for iffi-qa-^ Vit, Auct. 6. 

15. Augment, — The augment is sometimes omitted, especially 
in long forms like the plpf. See Schmid, 1, 83 ; 228. This was the 
prevailing usage in the New Testament. Cf. Winer-Schmiedel, I, 
§ 12, 4. 

16. Aorist of liquid verbs, — Contrary to Attic usage (but cf. 
Veitch), a is used in some forms for rf. E.g. V,I£, B 37 KoiAarnvrc^ 
(cf. Schmid, I, 229) and § 41 iir€(riifmv€v. 

17. Imperative, — Of the forms of the third pers. pi. -ovrwv and 
-cToxrav, Lucian has more frequently the latter. 

18. Conf lesion of voice, — Schmid (I, 239) gives a list of more 
than twenty verbs in Lucian transferred from active to middle and 
of five used in the active instead of the middle. The following 
occur in these selections : * 

1 In Attic and the Atticists there was ** a progressive decline in the use of the 
dual from Aristotle to Diodoros and a gradual rise from Dionysios of Hali- 
kamasoe on." A.J.P. XIV, 521. 

3 Schmid counts eighty times in (what he assumes to be) the genuine works 
of Lucian. 

• Cf. the article by E. Ilasse, Uber den Dualis bei Lukianos^ Neue JahrbUcher 
CXLVII (1893), 681-688. »» For fem. article the ace. is rii, the gen. raip and roiy, 
the dat. raiy.''^ * The Gallua has been omitted. 


(a) Active far middle. — avcuiya for Aviwy fuu D, Mori, 4, 1 ; OaU, 
C ; 32. These perhaps came by analogy from forms like (d7)dXaiXa, 

ycyova, etc. 

Travc for iraixn; Gall. 4 and 6. But this intr. use of the act. pres. 
imv. was the usual one in the poets ; cf. also Plato Phaedr. 228 e. 

(h) Middle for actlre. — ijfftiyv impf. mid. from tlfit (the common 
form in the New Testament, and usual in late writers) is found in 
Lucian occasionally. E.g. V.If, B 25 wapijfirjv. 

On Si&ur#cov for ^Saa-Kt see App. to Somn, 2. 

On dyavaLKTrfa-afiiyrf in active sense see App. to Somn, 4. 

rtOvrfioimi is used repeatedly for T€$vijiu}. E.g. Char. 8 and 17; 
Fisc. 10, etc. ; add Feregr. 25. The active seems to have been 
affected by the Atticists as being high Attic (see Veitch s.v.). 

(c) Middle future in passive sense. This was considered an 
Atticism. Lucian uses it from time to time (e.g. Icar. 33 irdvre^ 


19. Miscellaneous forms. — Future of ipxofjuou. Lucian uses this 
repeatedly. E.g. 2>. MorL 18, 2 fiertXtwroficu, Gall. 3 dvcXcvo-d/uicvov. 
Attic prose uses e.g. etfu or wopewrofjum. 

ioveofuu. Lucian frequently uses first aor. tavrjadfjirjv instead of 
the Attic iirpidfirjv. See Veitch s.v. D, Mori. 4, 1 ; and add Vit. 
Atcct. 18 ; 26 ; Feregr, 9. 

20. Fartlciple mith auxiliaries, — For the frequent use of peri- 
phrastic forms, like participles with dpx and cx«i> instead of the 
finite forms, cf. Gildersleeve, S.CG.y §§285-296.* In the earlier 
Greek it was a mere matter of self-restraint. The analytic tendency 
culminated in modern Greek as in other modern languages. 

21. Neuter adjective and article for feminine abstract. — This is 
frequent in Lucian, e.g. Somn. 8 to cvrcXcs = ^ cvrcXcio. So for 
simple concrete, I.e. to inyapov = 6 ttCvo^. This usage was favored 
by Thucydides.^ 

22. Use of the plural of abstracts. — The literary koivi; affected 
this in pursuance of concord (dp/iovta), Schmid, IV, 608. See the 
jumble of plurals in Char. 15 IXirC^^ — htipjara, — ayvoiat — yi^val 

1 Cf. also Alexander, A.J.P. IV, 308. 

2 Cf. especially Schmid, I, 233. 


— KJitXapyvpuLi — 6pyaiL — /xtcn;. Cf. § 18 and see Gildersleeve, S.C.G., 
§§ 44^ 45 ; also Dyer's note to Plato, Crito 46 b. 

23. (a) Extended use of predicate adjective. — Lucian's extension 
of this classic use of the proleptic predicate adjective (cf. Xen. 
Anah, 1, 5, 8 /tcrcoipovs iitKOfiurav ra? dfuifa?) becomes a manner- 
ism : ^ e.g. Somn, 1 et passim. 

(h) Adjectives as relative clauses, — Lucian favors usage like that 
of yvfivd in D, Mart. 1, 3 Kpayia yvfiva tov koXXovs, also 18, 1 ; and cf. 
V. H. B 26 Kcv^v. 

24. (a) Heaping up of particles. Lucian uses complicated peri- 
odic structures only occasionally. He strings together many clauses 
consecutively by a simple Kai. Indeed, KaC often connects nouns 
and sentences (e.g. Somn, 14 i) <r#cvraA.i7 xat Sri . . .). But he rein- 
forces his conjunctions with others more than is usual in Attic ; e.g. 
Koi firfv KOI, Twyapow (fif ty-six times) ; wktfv dXXd is used seventy-four 
times as against fifty-four times for the simple conjunction ttXi^v. 

(5) Combination of prepositions. — Of combinations like axpi 
irpos, f'^xpi' ''rpo^, jfcrrc vposy the first seems to be a specialty of 
Lucian. E.g. Somn. 15 ; Char. 10 (bis). Xenophon has axpi cZs. 

25. Prepositions: miscellaneous. — /xcrot Sc, for ^irctra &€, adver- 
bial, is late and poetic. Lucian uses it repeatedly. E.g. Vit. 
Auct. 4 ; 9. 

We find vTTo with dat. for wo with gen. e.g. Somn. 12, also viro with 
dat. instead of simple dative. 

The temporal use of vpo is frequent in Lucian as in other late 
Greek writers. Du Mesnil calls it a Latinism. E.g. Peregr. 1 ov 

TTpio iroXXctfv ^pL^pdv tov ToX.flTJpaTOS. Cf. L. &S. S.V., A, II. 

26. &9for (Scrrc. — Lucian frequently uses m in consecutive sen- 
tences. As a model in this he had not only the Ionic of Herodotus 
but also instances in Aeschylus, Sophocles, and Xenophon (GMT. 
608 and 609). 

27. KaiToifor Kaiirtp. — Instead of the finite verb the participle is 
often found in Lucian with koitoi instead of with Kolirtp. E.g. V.H. 
B 21 ; Peregr. 33 ; D. Deor. 19, 2. This is late Greek, and the 

* Cf. diss, by A. W. Mildeii, The Limitations of the Predicate Position in 
Greek, Baltimore 1000 (especially pp. 26 ff.). 


sporadic instances in classic authors of koxtoi with partic. may now 
be eliminated ; see Boiling, A.J.F., XXIII, 319. 

28. Parataxis. — Parataxis in Lucian (perhaps more or less as 
reminiscence of Herodotus or Homer) is frequent ; especially with 
a/m — e.g. Somn,S; V.H, B 20; 39 — but sometimes loosely extended. 

29. tl oI8* on etc. — Various short phrases, independent of the 
structure of the sentence, are frequently interjected. E.g. ovk oT^ 
oircDs Char. 6 (cf. nescio quo modo=:aliquo modo); Gall. 29 
OVK oI8* oOey (alicunde) ; Somn. 18 cv oZS* ori and- 2>. Mar. 3 ovk 
o78* oTTOt or OVK otS* oirav. 

Plato was especially fond of these expressions. 

30. Article with an explancUory accusative. — This bald accusative 
is far more picturesque than if Ix^v or <fiop(av, or even other less 
obvious words agreeing with the article, were added. It is an odd 
ellipsis (see A.J.F, IX, 100, and Bernhardy, Wiss. Si/ntax, S. 119) 
and seems to be an outright Lucianism, not a reminiscence of Herod- 
otus.* E.g. D, Mori. 10, 4 6 8^ t^v irop<l>vpiSa ovroa-C this fellow here 
with the purple robe on and Char. 9 ; 14 ; 23. Also Gall. 14 ckcivos 
6 TO. pojKw. Ttt wivapd, CatapL 4 6 ro ^vXov, Bis Ace. 9 6 t^v cvptyya, 6 
Xcurtos ^K roiv aKiXdiv. 

In classic Greek, as possible parallels, might be cited from Aris- 
tophanes Pax 241 b Karhi roiv CKekoiv (difficult to supply ccttok) ; Thes- 
moph. 394 ra? ov^v vyic? (probably sc. ovcra?) ; in Eccles. 742 6 riyv 
a-KOLffirfv XafiiDv tt/joitcd, interpretations might vary. 

31. Genitive case. — The use of the partitive genitive as in D. 
Mar. 1, 6 rov^ iirtSrffiovvTas twv ^cvoiv and Pise. 12 tovs Trcvi/Ta? twv 
ipaa-Tiov is normal Attic (cf. Gildersleeve, A.J.P. IX, 99-100). For 
the use Vit. Auct. 1, iravro^ oZov^y cf. Chabert p. 167, who cites it as 
a Latinism. 

32. Confusion in designations of pUice. — E.g. Where And Whither. 
English usage has become confused in only one direction, using 
where and here for whither and hither. For the accusative tending 
to absorb other case-relations cf. Pise. 36 wo koXwov l-^iov and Gall. 
14 {mo fjiAXrjv (but see v.l. ad loc). 

33. Confusion of voice. — See above, § 18. 

1 Cf. Penick, Herodotus in the Greek Renascence (Baltimore 1903). 


34. Tenses, — (a) Perfect and pluperfect. The frequency of 
Lucian's use of the perfect stem is perhaps stylistically abnormal.^ 
But it usually seems excusable, often preferable, rarely inexplica- 
ble. E.g. see notes on Samn, 9 ; 13 ; and on Char. 21. 

(b) Perfect infinitive after fiovXjofuu, xpVy ^^^ ^ ^-S* ^*^' Atust. 
13 iretrpaxrOai fiovXofuu. 2). Mort, 4, 1 o/xetvov yap yeypdffidax. Pise. 2 
^iTKoXmriaOoL 3oicei. This also is Attic : see Gildersleeve, A.J.F. 
IX, 101 (accepted by Schmid, II, 53). 

(c) Future indicative instead of dubitative subjunctive. The 
Attic usage was subjunctive. E.g. after PwXofuu, Chan 7 fiovXa. . . . 


35. Moods. — (a) Optative in subordinate sentences e^fter primary 
tense. This irregularity ^ is one of the most noticeable in Lucian. 
In final clauses it occurs only after o^ois and 0^9^ not after ?m. £.g. 
Char. 1 et passim ; Peregr. 8 ; 23 ; Pise. 13 ; 44 ; etc.* In oratio 
obliqua after ck, e.g. GaU. 4. 

(b) a>f (and ^irois) av. Lucian uses this both with subjunctive 
and with optative in final clauses (cf. GMT. 325-330 for limitations 
in classic Greek usage).* E.g. Peregr. 37 ; 2>. Mort. 42 ; Pise. 15. 

(c) Irregular optatives in protasis. The optative occurs irregu- 
larly in a number of protases after the indicative present, future, or 
perfect, or the imperative. E.g. Char. 1 ci . . . evpois for lav . . . 
eSprji, but in Char. 12 av is omitted with &jro<f}atv€iy (if present 

1 See Gildersleeve, A. J. P. XXIII, 248. 

3 See Gildersleeve, On the Final Sentence in Greek, A.J. P. IV, 426 and 428 ; 
alsoXXm, 130-132; XXIV, 107. 

> See Heller, Die AbsichtasiUze bei Ludarij Berlin 1880. 

We find, indeed, after verbs of striving etc. generally Hwws with optative 
equivalent to Sru)s with future indicative ; cJt (and Hinas twice) in pure final 
clauses with optative after primary tenses. On the other hand <as with the sub- 
junctive is used almost exclusively in primary sequence (as exception to this 
may be cited Oall. 18 €l\6firjp . . . wt iiarXifiTTurrai), but two thirds of the 
examples with final cJt have the optative. In fact, ws has become the chief 
final particle in Lucian. Heller suggests that it may have been influenced by 
Latin ut. 

* See Heller, pp. 16, 22, 23. *^ W&hrend fm in finalem Sinne nie ein Ay 
ertrSgt, ist es bei <Js (und Swiat) moglich, eine Absicht in dleser bedingten Weise 
zu modificieren.^* 


infinitive is retained) which represents an optative (cf. infra, poten- 
tial optative without av). Reading d7ro<^aveiv compare Gall. 16 ci . . . 

€177 aTrayfo/jiat. 

36. Irregular use of ay} — (a) Combined "with optative instead 
of subjunctive. E.g. V.H. B 29 cav (some Mss. ci) KaTaxO€Crffi€y, 
Pise. 33; Gall. 1 ovwrov av BwoLfirjv. Cf. Gildersleeve, S.C.G., 
§§ 448, 449. 

(b) Sometimes lacking, where required, with optative, subjunc- 
tive, and unreal indicative. Thus often potential optative without 
Sv (cf. Gildersleeve, S.C.G., § 450). 

(c) Irregular subjunctive constructions without dv are — 

1. relative, no av, subjunctive. 

2. €1, no av, subjunctive. 


3. irpiv and c«s, no av, subjunctive. E.g. V.II. B 18 trplv cAAc- 

fiopLoyi (but see GMT. 648). 

37. Negatives. — The confusion between /117 and ov was too com- 
mon in later Greek for Lucian to avoid it altogether. He is 
generally right, but there are numerous divergences and some devel- 
opments from Attic usage. Some instances, quoted as errors by 
commentators,' are perfectly correct — like on /u.17 except — or justi- 
fiable on the principle of the adherescent ov.^ 

38. ov for ii-q. — This is relatively infrequent." E.g. Vit. Aitct. 1 
€1 . . . ovK €\€i.. This ov may be due to a manner of quotation : i.e. 
if {any one says) he liasrCt. Of the other examples, not found in 
these selections, some are to be explained by the adherescent ov. 
For a bold solecism of the later Greek cf. the famous syllogism 
'* the horned," ct n ovk dTrc^SoAcs, tovt* f^cw* 

39. fi-qfor ov. — (a) With infinitive in oratio obliqua. It is per- 
haps less surprising that fiij crept in here, as being elsewhere the 
normal* negative with the infinitive. Its use in Attic also with 
verbs of swearing and asseveration, with wia-Tewo and ttcttoi^ji, helped 

1 Cf. A.J.P. XXIII, 138-140. 

2 Cf. in detail Gildersleeve, A.J.P. I, '* Encroachments of /jn/j on o^ in Later 
Greek," and A.J.P. XXIII, 132-138, ** Problems of Greek Syntax.'' 

' Cf. Gildersleeve I.e. : ** It is fii/i that has encroached on oi), while od has 
troubled /aiJ but very little." * Cf. A.J.P. XII, 520. 


to bewilder the Atticist. In our selections we find ftij with infini- 
tive after <t*Vf^^ Peregr, 44 ; after Xcyw Vit Auct 15 j V.H.BlSy 
Pise. 35 ; after etwov (instead of on ov and finite verb) in Peregr, 18. 
Also in general oratio obliqua Somn. 1 ii-qKm olkoo-ito^ cfmi, and, 
if XcydvTwv is omitted, V. H. B 18. 

(6) hri (or a>s) /lmJ (<Aa^, or Aow; that^ not) used as a form of oratio 
obliqua. This seems to be an old tendency renewed, and is com- 
pared (Gildersleeve A,J,P. I, 52) to Latin quod and subjunctive. 
Also the legitimate on. fi.-rj except (e.g. Somn. 9) may have had an 
influence. E.g. D, Dear, 7, 4 ; Pise. 24. Also D. Mort. 21, 2 (sc. tho- 
id^ fxoi) is explained (op. cit.) as 'quasi oratio obliqua' and Char, 1 
fi€fiv^<rdai oTi. firfScTnairoTc as an imperative complex. 

(e) Causal fi-q. In claS^sic Greek ov is used in causal sentences. 
Lucian uses fiij with on, 8tdn, and cttci. E.g. i>. Mar, 5, 1 ; V.H.B 32. 

(rf) Kelative /xij. This is a not unnatural extension. "Even 
in classic times the negative of a relative clause is /u.17 when the 
relative gives the notion of characteristic, and as the characteristic 
sometimes gives a ground, the clause with /x^ seems to be causal 
outright. Here the subjective element represented by /xiy would 
appear in standard Latin as the subjunctive" (Gildersleeve I.e., 
p. 54). E.g. Peregr. 24 ottov fiij and 22 €vOa firj. 

(e) Participial fi-q, — This becomes the regular use in modern 
Greek for all participles. Some of the examples thought solecistic 
in Lucian may be justified and the transition from ov to firj explained, 
where the cause and condition, the adversative and concessive, are 
merged together. 

40. lonisms, — The KOivrj, though presumably Attic in its origin, 
had a strong Ionic coloring (e.g. in Poly bins and Josephus, cf. 
Thumb p. 213). In Lucian we find occasional use of Ionic forms. 
Some of these like ol = avrcf are borrowed direct from Ionic. Note 
also, third plural endings in -arai and -aro, forms like oTSa?, etc. ; 
omission of the syllabic augment. Many of these had been used 
by Attic poets, or even in prose;* but certain other forms and 

1 See Schmid, III, 14, and for the " Ionic " forms of ylyvofMi see Veitch s. v. 
On lonisms in Xenophon see Thumb, p. 215 and 235 ; and for Xenophon as pre- 
cursor of the Koivii cf. Thumb, p. 235. 


peculiarities, while coinciding with Ionic, may have been devel- 
oped independently by the Koivrj (Schmid, IV, 586).^ 

In addition to these forms something more than one hundred 
words are used by Lucian which are exclusively Ionic (i.e. Hip- 
pocrates, Herodotus, etc.). More than half of these (see Schmid, I, 
306) he uses only once each, and often they are used just as he in- 
serts an Epic (Ionic) word here and there to give Homeric coloring. 
As an elaboration of this trick of style may be mentioned the use 
of Ionic in the mouths of certain characters, e.g. Pythagoras in 
Vit,Auct,; and finally, to illustrate still further Lucian's conscious 
use of Ionic for stylistic purposes, may be mentioned his * De Dea 
Syria composed in Ionic dialect and in imitation of the style of 

Lucian, then, used lonisms only by exception or with deliberate 
artistic purpose. He ridicules, on occasion, the Ionizing writers of 
his day. This form of inornata oratio • was not, to any appreciable 
extent, one of his failings. 

1 On the whole subject of Ionic see Smyth's Greek DicUecta (Ionic) and espe- 
cially pp. 110 ff. for Pseudo-Ionism. 

3 This is commonly assumed to be spurious, but see above, p. xvi, note 2. Also 
see note to $ 11. 

< Cf . Quintilian 8, 3, 50. Sunt inornata et haec. . . . Ztapurfibs {or (rapSi- 
ffpuSs, see Schmid, III, p. 13, note) quoque appellatur quaedam mixta 
ex varia ratione linguarum oratio, ut si Atticis Dorica, lonica, 
Aeolica etiam dicta confundas. 



The Somnium was probably written and delivered when Lucian 
was about forty years old.^ It not improbably belongs to the class 
of irpoKaXufu or curtain-raisers. These rhetorical prologues were 
used, at least in some instances,^ to introduce readings from his 
satiric writings. This may, or may not, have been the case with 
the Somnium. It is delivered to the Samosatans by their former 
fellow-citizen, who has returned, well-to-do and famous, on a visit 
to his native town. It sketches briefly his life thus far and urges 
the ambitious youth to take him as their pattern in carving out a 

There is no reason to doubt the credibility of the autobiography 
as far as it goes, and it is only to be regretted that he did not 
come back to Samosata forty years later and bring it up to date. 
Even the vision itself may have been made out of real dream-stuff. 
Certainly it is "ben trovato"; the imaginative boy, sobbing him- 
self to sleep, thinking always of the roller and the terrible uncle, 
may have dreamed his own version of that early sermonizing 
story, "The Choice of Heracles."" The trained writer Lucian 
afterwards makes it a neat enough theme, dresses it up, and, con- 
versant now with Aristophanes, adds reminiscences of the contest 

^ Bolderman (Studio, Lucianea, 1893), however, puts it before 155 a.d. when 
Lucian would be about thirty-five. But he certainly speaks as one already secure 
of his fame. 

3 E.g. his Herodotus, Zeuxis^ Bacchus^ etc. See above, p. zv. 

' This, like the Somnium^ was an ^/dei^ts, cf. Xen. Mem. 2, 1, 21 ff., where 
Socrates repeats this apologue of Prodicus the sophist. Lucian draws details 
and phraseology from it as far as suits his purpose (see note to § 6), but im- 
prints his own mark upon the narration as a whole. 



between the Just and* the' Unjust Argument in the Clovds} The 
explanation of the uncle's just wrath, as due to jealousy of his 
precocious pupil, is of Lucian's best, and the long-winded Prodi- 
cus fable is freely plundered, happily curtailed, and subordinated 
to his use. 

The latter part of the piece is less felicitous, and this accounts, 
doubtless, for the divergent* estimates which bestow either un- 
stinted praise or uncritical blame upon the Somnium, It is not 
one of Lucian's best works, but has touches of his best manner. 
This, however, does not prove that it was written very early in his 
career, for we are jarred in some of his best pieces by a certain 
stepping out of character when he turns from badinage to invective 
or from humor to earnest preaching. 

His purpose, he says in closing, is to stimulate the young men to 
choose the better part and to cause them to cling to culture. We 
need not assume that this is anything but sincere even if the piece 
was an introduction to his paid readings. This phase of his life as 
a sophist, a litterateur, a paid lecturer, and, withal, an apostle to 
the Philistines, should excite at least as little criticism as the pub- 
lic lectures delivered by some distinguished modern writer who has 
the additional outlet of the facile printing-press. When, however, 
he speaks of himself as a second Triptolemus we grow a little rest- 
ive. We feel somewhat patronizing towards both the sowing (t6 
inr€tp6fi€vov § 15 ) and the soil. The benedictions of the crowd 
below, as he admits elsewhere,' were largely the undiscriminating 
applause of novelty. His hearers were as greedy for "some new 
thing" as were the Athenians of the preceding century. 

1 Ar. Nub. 889 ft. 

2 Heitland (whose lack of sympathy for his author is evident) says on p. xi of 
his edition : '* On a careful examination of the piece I find little in it to praise : 
... the machineiy of the dream is clumsy,'* etc. Yet, he edits it ! Croiset 
{Essai 8ur la vie et lea oeuvrea de Lucien^ p. 3), with his fine French perception of 
all the Lucianic humor wherever found, overlooks the dull or the. pedantic and 
speaks of his narration as " racont^ avec infiniment de grftce." 

• E.g. Zeuz. 1 . . . irdpTei €P xal rb a&rb iweiniiJiaivovTo^ t^p yvdtfxijp tQp <rvy- 
ypat^idTbjp ^ipfip od<rap koX iroXdp ip a^rj t6p peiorepuryMp. Cf. also Prom. in 
Verbis 1 ff. 


Lucian, though literary artist as' well as satirist, could not 
attempt the upper ether/ where Shelley's skylark moves at will or 
the birds of his own Aristophanes sing their clear songs to a Greek 
— not a Roman — heaven, nor can he follow the chariot of the gods 
outside the vault of heaven among the supra-sensual ideas of Plato ; 
his somewhat grotesque air-ship drawn by the ill-matched pair, 
high-stepping Dialogue and plunging Comedy,* fared unevenly along 
not far above the ground, now in the fog and now in sunshine, 
and his "showering song" was the more prosaic seed-corn of a hot- 
house culture and of common sense, scattered among the gaping 
throng of quacks and quidnuncs of the second century. 

Lucian's attitude in the Somnium (§§2; 8; 9) towards art excites 
surprise until we recall the conditions of his time. The allusion 
to the sculptors Phidias and Polycleitus (§ 9), actually put in the 
mouth of Culture herself, shows that creative art was at a low ebb. 
The mere classifying together, however, of artisan and artist • is 
not so contemptuous as it seems. The Greek, like some moderns, 
was fain to coquet with the impracticable ideal of a consistent 
democracy, while the inevitable craving for caste distinction was 
partially provided for by the system of slavery. As a matter of 
fact Lucian in the Lie-Fancier, the AinoreSy the Imaginesy the De 
DamOy the Zetixis, the Herodotus, has other things to say about 
art, both sculpture and painting, that rank him as no mean art- 
critic. His brief, incisive description of the Discobolus (Philops, 
18) shows that he was capable of going even deeper than mere 
realism and could appreciate also the idealism of a Myron. It 
has been urged with great probability, that he often had actual 

1 Of. William Watson, Shelley'' s Centenary : 

But as lie cleaves yon ether clear, 
Notes from the unattempted sphere 
He scatters to the enchanted ear 

Of earth's dim throng, 
Whose dissonance doth more endear 
The showering song. 
BU Ace. 33. 
* See notes to Somn. 2, 8. Cf. also Bltimner, Arcfiaeol. Stud, zu Lucian, 
p. 88, who cites Plato Ale. II 140 b ; Prat. 312 c, etc. 


paintings in mind.^ Thus many of the word-pictures that form the 
nucleus and the raison d'§tre for his Dialoyi Marini* seem to be 
transferred from another canvas to his own, and the detailed de- 
scription in the Zeuxis of the painting, the Centaur Family, shows 
more openly how Lucian recognized the ethical element as essential 
to art, alike the painter's and his own. Perhaps his allusions to 
Phidias may be put down to the engrafted rhetorician within him. 
Plato, though a poet by nature, lets his rough watch-dogs in the 
EeptMlc round up the offending poets like sheep for the slaughter. 
So Lucian in the Somnium allows his whilom flame' Rhetoric to play 
the understudy in the bordered robe * of IlaiSeia, the leading-lady 
elect of his re-organized dramatic cast. 

1 Cf. Blttmner, pp. 69-82. 

' Cf. Gildersleeve, Essays arid Studies^ p. 340 ; and Introd. to D. Deor. p. 160, 
note 2. 

• Bis Ace. 27. 

* Cf. Somn. 10 €0inipv<t>6t rti. 




1 *A/>Ti ii€v iireiraviiTjv €t9 ra SiSacr/caXeta <f>oiT(ov 17817 rriv 
'qXiKCav wpoarj^o^ wv, 6 Sc irarrfp icrK(m€LTo fiera rSiv 
<f>L\o)v o TL /cat SiSot^oird /xe. roi^ TrXeurrois ovv eSo^c 
TToiSeta ii€v Kol TTOvov TToWov Kcu yjpovov fiaKpov /cat 

6 BairavT)^ oh fiiKpa^ /cat tv)(7)^ heurdai Xap/irpa^j ra 8* 
'q/ierepa fiLKpd t€ etvat /cat Tax^idv riva rffv imKovpCav 
aircuTeiv ei Be riva t^i/tji/ riav fiapavawv tovtcjp iKfiar 
OoLfiLy TO iikv wpcjTov €v$v^ Slp avTO^ ^^'^ '''^ apKOVPTa 
irapa rf}^ T€)(yri^ /cat ii7)k€t ot/coortro? eti^at TTjXt/coCro? c3i/, 

10 ovK €t9 fiaKpav Se /cat roi/ warepa ev^paveiv ano<f>€po}p act 

2 TO yiyvoiievov. hevripa^ ovv crK€^€(ti^ ^PXV '^povrcdriy tls 
apLOTTf T&v T€)(y(ov /cat paoTTj iKfiadelv /cat avSpl iXevdcpo) 

Title : see L. & S. s. tv. for attempted 
distinction between ivOrvvov vision and 
6peipos dream (dream-god) used as 
title of another dialogue "Oytipot j 
* AXetcrpvdp. 

1. &pri |uv ... 6 84 : parataxis, 
see Introd. 28. — irp6ai|pot : not yet 
an l^/3ot (18-20 years of age). In § 16 
he calls himself dtrrlrais, Tr. freely 
in my teens. — irav8c(a : an education, 
almost ** a college education,'* cf. § 18. 
— raxctdv riva r. k. d. : brachylogy, 
= rf^y iiriKOvplav &TaiT(tv rj raxt^d rlt 
iffTiv. Cf. Char, 11. For predicate 
use of adjectives see Introd. 23 (a). 

This favorite use of rtt (qui dam), 
like Eng. one of your, becomes a man- 
nerism with Lucian. — |ii|K^' : class, 
usage is oi/Kin, See Introd. 89 (a). 
— otK69%ro« : a deadhead, i.e. not a 
bread-winner. — Ti|XiKo<»To« wv : anich 
a great over-grown fellow asJieis. He 
was a po&irais. — o^k els (uiKpdv : at no 
distant day. Litotes. — r6 ^t^v^iuvov : 
ijicome; earnings. 

2. ScvWpas . . . irpoir^ : tr. freely 
t?ie next point to be settled was. — 
IXcvMp^ : liberali, almost =^^ a gen- 
tleman bom." Cf. Gulick, Life of the 
Ancient Greeks, p. 189. Lucian is 


TTperrovcra /cat npoxetpop exovcra ri)v xoprjyuiv /cat Siaptc^ 
TOP TTopov, aWov roiwv aWi)v inavvovPTo^j cJ? e^aoT09 

15 yvdiiT)^ rj ifineipCa^ €!;(«', 6 narrfp ct9 top Oelop amBdiv' — 
Traprjv yap 6 npo^ firfTpo^ Oeio^y apiaro^ €piioy\v<f>o^ elvai 
SoKiov Xtdo^oo^ iv T0t9 fiaXiara evhoKLfioi^ — ov dcfiL^, 
etnevy akkrjp Te^yyiv CTrt/cparcti/ aov irapovro^^ aWa tovtov 
aye — BeC^as i/ie — /cat StSocr/ce napakafic^v \!Bo}v ipydrrjv 

20 ayaSov eli^at /cat avpapfiooTTjv /cat kpfioykv^ia- hvvaTai 
yap /cat rovTO <f>va€(o^ y€, oJ? oUrdaj €\iov Se^to)?* ireKfiaC' 
pero 8c Tat9 c/c rov icrfpov TratStat?- ottotc yap d<f>€d€L7fv 
VTTO ra>p SiBacrKoKoDPy aTTo^cW dv rov tcqpop 'q fioa^ 17 
tTTTTOi;? 17 /cat 1^7 At* di/Opwnovs dviirkarrov ct/cdra?, cu9 

26 ihoKovv TO) Trarpi' i<f>^ ot9 Trapa /xci/ rcii/ StSocr/caXcui/ ttXtj- 
ya9 i\diifiavop, t6t€ Be eiraivo^ €t9 Tyfv €v<l>viav /cat ravra 

careful to insert this fact while almost 
boasting that he was ^dpfiapos. He 
was a self-made Greek. — irp^xctpov 
. . . SiopKi) : for pred. adj. see Introd. 
23 (a). — x<>P^Y^^ '• ouyUy i.e. for the 
xopol. The transfer of meaning is 
easy. — irdpov : income^ revenue. Cf. 
£ng. means for this transferred mean- 
ing. — tts . . . itxiv : for the con- 
struction cf. below <f>6ff€tas . . . ix"*' 
dc^iQs. Cf. Symp. 8 lis (xaaTos i^Las 
cTx^ 6<^^ according to his respective 
rank. For gen. G. 1092 ; H. 767 (a); 
Gl. 507, d ; B. 360. — ipiio^Xv^ : see 
Diet. Antiq. 8.v. **nermae/' and 
Gulick, p. 202. To meet the demand 
for public and pnvate use a statuary 
might specialize as a Hermae-carver, 
somewhat as Demetrius was an expert 
maker of the little models of tlie Arte- 
mis temple (Acts xix, 24). — XtOofdos: 
for the attitude towards ast at this 
time see Introd. to Sovin. p, 3. This 

combination of sculptor and stone- 
cutter finds parallels in other profes- 
sions; e.g., the fidyeipos was originally 
both cook and butcher, and in Eng- 
land apothecary and surgeon used to be 
combined. — SCSockc: see App. The 
common reading SiSdffKov would find a 
parallel in the Eng. prayer-book: 
*^ Learn me thy ways." — S«(vAs: see 
above, and cf. D. Meretr. 6, 4 oi . . . 
ou Tdpv /iop^TJs €t;0i/wf txovrti. With 
b€^i(n dexterous^ clever^ cf . (FKadn = Fr. 
gauche. Germ. Unkisch. — roO ici)poO: 
the wax, i.e. of his writing-tablets. To 
a Greek schoolboy the transferred 
meaning was as unambiguous as our 
sLaie. See Diet. Antiq. s.v. ** Tabu- 
lae" and, 8.V. ** Ludus Litterarius," 
cut of Athenian school; also Gulick, 
pp. 85 and 111. Also the story of 
Gorgo and the wax tablets, Hdt. 7, 
239. — p6a« : for form see Introd. 
40. — clKbros : lifelike. See App. — 


3 fiaOTJaofiaL ttjp r€)(y7)Vj an iKeimj^ ye rrjq TrkaoTtKyj^. a/ia 
T€ oSi/ CTTtTTyScto? cSoicct rj/iepa T€)(vif)^ ipdp^eadai^ Kayta 

30 wapeBeBofiriv toI ^ctijt) /xa roi/ At' ou a^ohpa rw vpayiiaTi 
a)(06ii€vo^, aXXa fioi kol TratStai/ rix/a ov/c aTepirfj eSo/cei 
^€11/ icat 7rpo9 Tov^ ifXt/cidora^ CTrtSct^ti/, €t if)aLvoLiir)v deov^ 
T€ ykvifxov KOL ayaXfidTLci riva fiiKpa KaraiTKevdl^ojp ifiavrS 
T€ KGLKeivoi^ ot? iTpo-ypovp/qv. KaX TO y€ Trp&rov eKeivo kol 

35 {rvvrfde^ rot? ap^ofia/oi^ iyiyvero' iyKonea yap rivd /xot 
8ov5 6 deio^ c/ccXevflTC /xot 'Qpefia KaOiKcadai TrXaico? cV 
fieaw KeLfiemj^j iireiirwv to kolvov " ci/o;^^ 8c rot rjfiLav irav 
705." CKK-qporepov 8c /carci/cy^cowo? vtt* dneLpias KaTedyrj 
fikv 7) n\d^^ o 8c ayavaKTrjaa^ crKvrdXrjv Ttvd TrXyjcriov K€l- 

40 [JL€vrjp kafi<ov ov Trpq,w^ ovhk npoTp€7rTLKa>^ fiov KaTTJp^aTOy 

vXacTTiKi^ : this should be remembered 
as perhaps an element in Lucian^s liter- 
ary style. There is a reminiscence of 
Aristophanes^s Clouds 877 if., where 
Socrates is urged by a fond father to 
matriculate his boy : 

dfifXet, dlSaffKC 9vyJxro4>bs iffrip 0(^ct* 

No matt«r — teach him — he by nature clever 

\B : 
Why, forthwith when a boy, and only just 

»o high. 
Indoors he*d fashion houses and would 

carve you ships, 
And tiny toy carts out of leather strips would 

And from pomegranate-peels would make 

Bxieh pretty frogs I 

3. &|IA TC . . . JS^KCi . . . KdYW . . . 

vapc8f8d|&iiv: cf. Latin si mul ac. For 
parataxis cf. Introd. 28. Cf. Symp. 
12 dfia Si ravra 6 K\(6Srjfxot elpi^Kti xal 
iwtiahraurev 6 KvpiKdt. — lirCScifiv : a 
{chance to) show of. The Somnium is 

itself an hrldei^is of a different kind; 
see Introd. to Somn. p. 1. — irpoQpo^- 
l&i)v : instead of retaining pres. indie, 
or changing to opt. according to rule, 
the impf. indie, is used (as in £ng. indir. 
disc). This is not unknown in classic 
Greek: cf. G. 1489, 1; H. 936.— iini- 
iro»v rh Koiv6v : adding thai hackneyed 
proverb. So Symp. 12 ixeTifo rb Koivbv 
iirixa-p^yriadfievos making that hack- 
neyed old joke. — &PX^ • • * iravr6s : 
well begun is half done. This does not 
occur in Hesiod's extant writings. See 
Reitz. ad loc, I, p. 174. For Latin 
foi-m of the proverb cf. Horace Epist, 
1, 2, 40 : 

Dimidium facti, qui coepit, 

— KCLrcvf^KdvTos : sc. 4fioO from context. 
— o-KvrdXTiv : roller or cylinder for 
moving the marble slab. The nyd 
gives a touch of technicality. — Kar^p- 
(cLTo : i n i t i a V i t ; began to consecrate 



4 (oare BaKpvd fioL tol irpooCfiLa rfj^s r€\vri^, anoSpa^ ovv 
iKeldev cttI rrfv oLKCav aif>iKvovfiax (rw€)(€^ avoKv^CDV /cat 
haKpvmv tov^ of^daXfiov^ vttottXcco?, icat StT^yoS/xat 7171/ <r/cv- 
rak'qv^ /cat rov^ fidXtoira^ iSeucwov /cat Karrjyopovv ttoWtjv 

45 TLva ctJ/xonjTa, Trpocrdel^ otl vtto <f>d6vov ravra cSpatrc, firf 
avTov VTrepfiaXojfKU /cara rr/v t€;(i/7ji/. ayavaicrqcfurr)^ he 
TTj? fiy)Tpo^ /cat TToXXa t<^ aheK(\><^ Xoihoprja'aiiarr)^^ inel vv^ 
cthJX^c, Kar&apdov en euBaKpv^ /cat riji' (TKurakriv ivvoSiv. 

6 /i^pt /xci/ 817 TovTCJV yekdcLfJia /cat fieipaKid^ ra elprjiicva • 

60 ra /i.€ra raura Sc ovk€tl evKaTa<f>p6vYjTay (o dp8p€^, d/CQv- 

aeade, dXXa /cat Trdw <f}L\r)K6<ov aKpoarSip Beo/ieva - Iva yap 

KaO* OfiTfpop eliro} 

Oelo^ fiOL ivviTviov Jjkdev ovetpo^ 

aiiPpoaitjv hid vvicra 

55 ivapyfj^ ovTO)^, ciScjtc firiSkp dnoXeineadai rijs dkrjOeia^ • ert 
yovv /cat fierd Toaovrov \p6vov ret re axTJ/iard fioi rSiv 
<f}ap€PT(ov ip Tot9 6<f>0aKfiOL<; napaficpeL /cat ij <f>Q}vri tS)v 

me. Cf. the Homeric formula vtinrjirev 
5* dpa ircurti' ivap^dfievot S€ird€<r<riVj Per- 
rin on Od. 7, 183. — &m : some word 
like y€vi(r9ti may be supplied; efyat 
might easily have dropped out after 
fjioi or Tpoolfua. One Ms. has ^dp- 

4. o-vvcxcs dvoX^lctv : so&&in^ aU the 
while. For this somewhat rare verb 
cf . Peregr. 6 and see App. — ^ScCkwov : 
for form see Introd. 14 (a). — {nr6- 
irXitts : pretty toell filled, inro- in com- 
pounds often means somewhat, e.g. 
inr^pvOpos reddish. Lucian, however, 
uses it almost with the effect of under- 
statement, cf. Tim. 31 {nr6\i$ov yiffdiop 
a pretty stony little strip 0/ ground. In 
Icar. 29 the cumulative contempt for 
the new denizens of earth — inrdXixvov^ 

^6fitapop — leads up to vfip€<as dydrXewir 
full to overfiowing. Cf. Plato Protag. 
(init.) jTtiywvos rjdri i/iroirt/uTXdfievot al- 
ready with a pretty good crop on JUs 
chin. Also cf. J). Mar. 12, 2. — {nr6 
^6vov : so Daedalus, growing jealous, 
threw his nephew and pupil Talos (or 
Kalos, Pans. 1, 21, 6) from the Acrop- 
olis (see Class. Diet. s.v. *^ Perdix,'^ and 
Pise. 42). 

5. £ &vSpfs : the piece belongs to the 
rpoXaXial; see Introd. to Somn. p. 1. 
Cf. below § 17 fiera^d di \iyoirrot and 
§ 18 sub fin. Tp6i {fftas. — 9^6% |iOi 
ktX. : cf. II. 2, 56 f., Agamemnon^ 8 
dream. Possibly a pun on * uncle' 
(cf . § 6 olos fjv 6 Sttot) is intended. In 
GaXl. 8, however, the words are cited 
again with unction of the golden dream. 


6 aKovcrdcvrtov evavXo^ • ovro) a'a<f>rj iravra ^v. hvo ywaiKe^ 
Kafiofievcu ralv ^epoZv clXicoi/ /i€ irpo^ eavrfjp €KaT€pa fidka 

60 fiiaio}^ KoX KafyrepS)^' fiiKpov yovp fie Sietrwda'avro wpo^ 
aWtjXa^ <f>L\oTLiiovfi€pai ' Koi yap /cat aprt fiev av 17 irepa 
ineKpareL kol irapa yuKpov okov el^c fie^ apri 8' dv ai0L^ 
vno TTj? iripas el^ofirjv. ifiocjv 8^ npo^ aWijXa^ iKarepa^ 
77 fiep^ 0)9 airrfj^ ovra fie K^KTrjadai fiovkoiro^ rj 8€, 6)9 fidrrfv 

65 T&v aWorpuop avTinoLOLTO. ^v 8c rj fiev ipyaTiKTj kol 
dvSpiicff /cat av^fiTJpd rrjv ko/llt/x/, tcj X^^P^ tu\(i}v avd- 
ttXccu?, BL€^(ocriJi€v7i Tr)v iaOrjra^ tltolvov KaTayiyLOvaa, 0105 
^v 6 0€LO^ owore ^ioi tou9 \idov^ • i) eripa hk fidka einrpo- 
crcmo^ KoX ro cryy)iia eimpeTrf)^ kol Koa-fiio^ rrfi/ dvaPdkrjv* 

70 t4\o^ 8* ovv i<f)LdaL fioL 8i/ca^€ii/ onorepa fiovXoifiTiv <rvvetr 
i/at avTa>p, irporepa 8c 17 aKXrjpd iKetPT) kol ivSpcoSr)^ eXe- 

7 ^€1/ • iydiy ^i Xc Trat, *Ep/i(yyXv^t/c^ ^^X^ ^^i"-*? ''7^ X^^^ ''7/^^^ 

Cf. ''the almighty dollar/' — IvavXos: 
see L. & S. s.y., B, and cf. Nigr. 7 r^s 

6. S^ ^v^^^i^** • ^^ Introd. to Somn, 
p. 2, and see Xen. Jlfem. 2, 1, 22 for 
the ''Choice of Heracles *': icai 0ai^- 
9'at ai^fp diAo 7vvaijcat ktX. Cf . through- 
out how Lucian follows in detail the 
language of Prodicus (Xenophon) but 
impresses upon the story his own per- 
sonality. — &v . . . {ircKpdrci : G. 1206 ; 
H. 836 ; Gl. 461 (a) ; B. 608. — 4i |Uv 
. . . 4^ 84 : are in apposition with iKa- 
r4pa. The words which they respec- 
tively bawled out would be in dir. 
disc.: TOUTov /Sol^Xet KticrijffOai 6vTa rbv 
4fx6p and <riy di fidrrfy r(av iLWorplup 
(or r&v ifiiav) dmiroieT. — aixMP^ "^^ 
R6|ftt)v : with wnkempthair. — dvdirXc«*« : 
covered with. — Su(«»o*|iiinf| : tucked in 
the belt, leaving the hands and shoulders 

free for work. So Diogenes clears his 
upper decks for action and rolls along 
his jar (cf. Sbdt. ad Hist. Conacr, 3) ; 
dia^biffdfievos rb rfn^^vvav ctov^xi /idXa 
Kal avrbi M\tje rbv iridov. — hic^rt (iot : 
the indef. temporal reflects the boy's 
frequent observation of his uncle and 
not simply the experience of yester- 
day. — K6o-|iios Ti|v dva^oX^v : dressed 
like a gentlewoman. The set of the 
mantle (Z/udrtov) was one of the out- 
ward and visible signs of breeding : cf . 
Tim. 64 Kbfffuot rb pddurfia xal <r<a^po- 
nKbs r^v dpa^\i/jpy also Rhet. Praec. 
16 irifxeXrjBijvai XP^ fJuiXiffra t6fJL6p<f>ov 
TTjs dvafioX^s. — povXoC|&t)v : opt. here 
justified as used after i^ncuri (hist, 
pres.). Cf. G. 1262 and 1268 ; H. 828 ; 
B. 617 (1). 

7. ^(Xi ircLi : the omission of u gives 
a touch of nervous hurry as contrasted 



fiavOdv€iVf olKeCa re aot kol (nryyeinj^ oiKodev • o t€ yap irair- 

7ro9 aov — elnovaa rovvofia rov iijfrpoiraropo^ — \i0o^6os 

75 ^v KoX rct) OeUi} aii(f)OT€po) Kal fiaka evSoKL/ieLTOv Sl r/fias. 

el 8* c^cXct? \rjpo}v fikv koX <f>\rjpaxf>ci)v tS>v napa ravrrj^ 

an€)(€a'OaL — SeC^axra rrji/ erepav — eirtaOai 8c kcu avvoi" 

K€Lv ifjiOLy frpSna fiev Op^^jrg yeppiKCJs kol tov^ ci/iov^ i^ei^ 

Kapr€pov<;^ <f>06vov 8c irapTo^ dXXdr/oto? eaig Kal ovnore anei 

80 cttI ttiv aWoSainjvy rrfp Trarpiha kol tou9 oi/ccibv? icaraXt- 

8 irdv ov8c CTTi Xoyot^ liraLviaovrdi crc irdvre^, fi^ /xvcra- 

X'^V^ 8c Tov axqp.aro^ to ^vreKkq fvqhk rfj^ ifrdrjro^ to 

mvapov diro yap tolovtcjv opfidfiepo^ Kal 4>ct8ta9 c/ccti/09 

iBei^e TOP AUl Kal IloXu/cXctro? rrjv "^Hpav eipydaaTo Kal 

with the calmer address of Culture 
§ 9 » t4kvov, Gildersleeve, S.C.G. 20. 
— X^pMV . . . ^t)vd^v . . . ra-^n^ : 
her nonsensical chatter (*' stuff and 
nonsense ''). So used of philosophy 
in Pise. 25 0Xi}yd0ous xal X^povf drojca- 
\Qp rd 0-d. — M|iovs f(ci$ Kaf>Tfpa6« : a 
reminiscence of Ar. Nub. 1009 £f., and 
the contest between A/icaiof and 'Adixof 
AA7of : 

^p Tavra toi^s, a7(& 4>pd^^ 

Kal Tp6s To&Toit trpoaixV^ '''^^ povv, 

i^ii d«l arriSos \iTap6p^ 

XPOlA'f \€VK'^Pj WfMVS fi£yd\0VSj 

yXiJTTap /Saidi^. 

Now if you do this that I adTise 

And pay besides attention close 

You will always possess a sleek oilM breast, 

Complexion fair, your shoulders broad, 

And a tiny tongue. 

— othroTf &iniicrX. : the *' grand tour'* 
still had its terrors for the peasant- 
minded. Most of the literati from 
early times had been travelled men — 
like the pre-Socratic ("Colonial ") phi- 
losophers, Plato, Herodotus, the Soph- 

ists, etc. Cicero went abroad to Rhodes 
and Athens for his "German Uni- 
vei-sity " training. Socrates himself 
was a notorious exception. — oM Ivl 
Xd^ois . . . irdvTts: sense, "praises 
you shall have on every hand, but for 
no mere gift of gab" (cf. yXwrrap /3auiy 
in the Aristophanes passage). Allu- 
sion is made not only to Lucian^s fame 
as a rhetorician but also to his subse- 
quent career as a writer. 

8. r6 c^kiXIs : see Introd. 21. — 
^i8Ui« «ctX. : for these sculptors see 
Class. Diet Phidias, Polycleitus, and 
Myron were contemporaries (about the 
middle of the fifth century). For the 
conventional estimate of the famous 
Olympian Zeus (rdy Ma) see Peregr. 6. 
The Hera {rifp 'Hpai') has a renewed 
interest since the excavation in 1892, 
under the direction of the American 
School, of the Hera head (see The 
Argive Heraeum, pp. 21 ff., by Charles 
Waldstein). Myron is popularly best 
known by extant copies (see Fried. 
Wolters, Bausteine zur Gesch. der 


86 MvpcDV iirj/vcdyj /cat Ilpaf trcXi/s iOavfiao'dyj • wpocKwovvrcu 
yovv ovTOL fiera rS^v Oeiop. ei Sr/ tovtcjp €15 ycpoiOy irS)^ fiev 
ov Kketvo^ avro9 wapa iraaiv avOpdmoi,^ 8df €19 ; lpf)k(t/rov Sc 
KoX Tov TTaripa aTroSci^'ct?, TrepifikeTrrov Be airo<f}av€L^ /cat 
Trfv irarpiha. ravra /cat. ert tovtq}v nXeCova StaTrratovcra 

90 /cat fiapfiapL^ova-a Tra/xTroXXa ehrev tj Tej^i/Tj, fidXa Stj 

KTirovBy avpeipovaa /cat Tteideiv fie Trctpco/xcVrj • dXX* ou/ccVt 

fjL€fivrifiaL' ra TrXctcrra yap 1787; /xou T171' fivrjfjLTjv Stci^vyci/. 

9 CTTCt o ow enavaaroj ap^erax if crcpa a>dc ttco?- cyo) 0€, a> 

t4kvoVj IlatSeta et^t rjZr) (TwrjOy)^ croi /cat ypoDpi/irfy €t /cat 

96 iirjBcnct} ct9 rcXo9 /i'Ou TrcTrctpacrat. ijXt/ca /ici/ oSi/ ra ayada 
nopvy Xt^ofoo9 y€v6fi€vo^^ avrr) irpoeip'qKev' ovBkv yap otl 
firi ipydrrj^ ia"n r^ acjifian ttopcjp kolv tovto) t^p aTracav 
eXmSa tov fiCov reOeifiepo^, a^ai/179 /xei' auro? cSj/, oXtya /cat 
ay€ppfj XafjL^dpcjPy Tanetpo^ rrjp ypdfitjPy evreXr)^ 8c rffp 
100 irpoohoPj ovre ^tXot9 imBLKdaifio^ ovre i^Opot^ <l>ofiepo^ 
ovre Tot9 TToXtrat? ^tjXcoto?, aXX* auro [jlopop ipydrrj^ /cat t<5i/ 
c/c TOV TToXXoi) Syjfiov €19, act Toi/ TTpov^opra viroimja'afop 

GriecX-Rdm. Plastikj pp. 101 fit.) of his (ovo-a : Lucian likes to remind usof this. 

bronze Discobolus which is described Cf. supra § 2. — o^irovSfj anrv«(pov«ra : 

by Lucian himself {Philops. 18). This stringing (her words) together in great 

and his bronze cow, that stood low- haste. Cf. Dem. 328, 12 Xdyovs avvtipei. 

ing in the Agora at Athens, were the . . . iiTrv€v<Fr€l. — «S84 itms : about like 

wonder of the Greeks, who applied to this; words to this effect. 

his works the epithet If/x^rai/s. Prax- 9. 6r\, (i-^ : except. Regular classic 

iteles flourished about a centui7 later. usage, see Introd. "SQ (6). — Tf9ii|Uvof : 

The only extant work known to be the pf. tense denotes the hopelessly 

from his hand is the Hermes, with ingrained habit of life. See Introd. 

the infant Dionysus on his arm, dis- 34(a). — air& |i6vov: merely this. Cf. 

covered at Olympia by the Germans Char. 6. — t6v . . . its : cf. § 8 e^ df^ 

in 1877. The Cnidian Aphrodite, his roCntav eU yivoto^ Saturnalia 2 Idnirijs 

most famous work in antiquity, is de- eM^i el/u xal rod roXXoO d-^fiov efs, and 

scribed at length by Lucian {Imojgg. 4 Apol. 15 dXXd r<^ iK rod iroXXoG dt^Mot/. 

and Ajnores 11 ff. ; and see Wolters, See App. Sbdt. reads e^$ del, for aJl 

op.cit,,No. 1216). Hawthorne's ** Mar- time. — &f C : always; on each occa- 

ble Faun ''was only a copy. — poppapC- sion. It may be construed with both 


Koi rov Xeyeii/ hwafitvov dcpaireiicjVy Xayco fiiop ^cjj/ koX 
Tov KpeCrrovo^ ipficuov civ el 8c /cat ^ethCa^ ij IloXv/cXct- 

106 TO^ y€voio /cat TToXXa davfiaoTa i^efyyaaaLOj rtjp fikv T€)(vr)v 

anavre^ cVoti/ccrowat, ovk iari Bk oort? t(op tSdi/rcoi/, €t 

. povp €)(€Lj ev^aiT av ofioio^ col yeveaOcw oto? yap dv jj^^ 

fidvavao^ /cat )(€Lp(oi/a^ /cat airo)(eLpofiuiyro^ vofiio'dTJaig. 

10 rjv 8' ifiol neidjiy npioTov fitv col TroXXa eniBeC^a) 7raXata>i/ 

110 avhpSiv €pyaf /cat irpd^eLS OavfiaaTa^ /cat \6yov^ avrtav 
anayycWova'a /cat iravrwv (as etirtiv ifjureipop a7ro<f>aCvovaay 
/cat Trjv ^XVP, onep ctol KvpLtararov corrt, KaTaKoafXTjao) 
iroXXot9 /cat ayaOois KOCjJLTJfjLauTLj a'0}(f)po{rvirgy BiKatoaiivjif 
evaefieuij irpaoTJfTLy 67rt€t/c€ta, crui^ccra, Kaprepuiy r^ roii' 

116 icaXo)!/ ipoyrij ry irpos ra <r€/xi/orara o/o/x^ • Tai)ra yap corrti/ 
6 r^5 ^X^^ aKTjparos cJ? dXTj^cSs Koafio^. 'i Xyjaei 8c crc 
ovTC TraXatoi/ ovSci/ ourc ia!i/ yeveaOai Scoi', dXXa /cat ra 
fieWoi/ra TrpooiffeL fier ifiov, /cat o\(os airavra oiroaa coT^ 
Tct re 0€ia rd r dvOpdnivay ovk ct? /xaKpdv ae 8t8d^o/xat. 

22Q 'fai o wi/ Treirqs 6 tov 8cti/09, 6 fiovKevo'diiei/os rt ^rcpt dyci^ 
i/o59 ovrco T€)(yyjs, fier okiyov anao'L ^rjKarros /cat iiri^do- 
vos iajiy TLfi(0[Jiei/os /cat eiraivovfievos /cat cttI rot? dpurrois 

participles : always ready to crouch down rtav. — KvpUiraTov : supreme. Cf . Plato 

h^ore the man of prominence and to Rep. 565 a o h^ , . . Kupnararov 4p 

fawn upon the clever spokesman. See dT/iftoKpari^ For the thought cf. the 

App. — \ayit p(ov l&v : proverbial ; cf. prayer of Socrates, Plato Phaedr. 279 b, 

Eng. »* living a dog's life, "and cf.Dem. icaXy ycv^aOai rAvdodevy whence Whlt- 

de Cor. 263 Xa7(i filov f^s deSidt /crX., tier {My Namesake) : 
also see Hdt. 3, 108 6 \a,y6s inrb Tdv- I pray the prayer of Plato old, 

Twi' $7ip€6er<u Kal Brjplov Kal 6pvi0os Kal ^od make thee beautiful within. 

dvOptiwov. — IpfMuov : a godsend. Pos- — o-w^poo-^yg kt\. : the conventional 

sibly a fling at her rival *Epfjuorf\v<f>iK'^. list of the philosopher's virtues. — 8iS4- 

— pdvavo-o«: mechanic. Cf. Jupp. Conf. {o|iCM : mid. for act. See App. on § 2. 
8 d'H^at^rof di x^^^ ^<^'^'- f^^^ ^vavff6i 11. rov Sctvof : son of Mr. Whxit- 

Ttt Kal trvplrris T^p T^X^"' d''ye-C(dl-him. — (T)Xfl»T^ kclI Iv(^6o* 

10. iroXoiAv dvSpMv : of (the) old vo« : exciting envy and jealousy. Less 

worthies. — m% clirclv : const, with irdy* suited to the context would be emulated 




TTOfiepo^y icrdrjra fikv roiwirqv dii7r€\6fievo<s — Sei^acra rfjv 

125 iavrrj^' vdipv 8c Xafinpav i<f)6p€L — apx"^^ ^^ '^^^ npo€SpCa<; 

a^LOVfiepo^' Kcip nov aTroSi^/x^?, ov8* iwl r!}^ dXXoSaTnJ? 

aypw^ /cat d^ai^9 ciriy' Toiavrd aot nepidijao} tol ypmpi- 

cr/iaray a!oT€ tS}p 6p(OPT(op cicaoro? roi/ Trkyjaiop Kipijaa^ 

12 BeC^€L (r€ T^ SaKTuXo) " outo5 c/c€ti/o5 " XcycDi/. ai/ 8c rt 

130 anovSifjs a^iop rj Tov<i <f>L\ov^ r/ koI rrfp irdXti/ okrjp Kara- 

kafifidpjiy ct? (TC 7rdpT€^ dnofiXeipoprai' Kap irov rt XeycDi/ 

™XI?^' /c€j(T7i/OTC5 oi iroXXol dKovaopraXy davfid^opreq kol 

evSoLL/jLOPL^opTe^ /cat ore r^5 Bypd/ieo)^ tS>p \6yitiP /cat toi/ 

warcpa tt}^ €V7rat8ui9 • o 8c Xeyoucrti/, gi? ct/oa /cat dOdparoi 

136 yCypoPTaC Tti/C5 cf dpOpdmoiPy tovto <rot TrepLnoLTJao) - /cat 

yap 171/ auro9 c/c tov )8tbu aTrcX^p?, outtotc wavcrj) trvpiop 

Tot5 n^ncuSevfiepoL^ /cat TTpoaofuXSip rots dpCaroi^. opa^ 

and envied. — l^pct: distinguish from 
^^pw, see L. & S. s.v., 1 and 2. Cf. 
Lat. gesto and gero. — &px^- ^f- 
Jice. Lucian himself (later) held office 
under the Roman government. See 
Introd. 4. — irpo<Sp(ei9 : four classes of 
persons were honored with front seats 
at the games, public assemblies, or 
theatres, viz. priests and priestesses, 
certain magistrates, foreign envoys, 
citizen benefactors. Often exemption 
(dTiXeia) from civic bui'dens was 
included: cf. Hicks, Gr, In»cr. 99 
. . . S€d6<r$ai 8i a&r(} xai iYY6vois Tpoc- 
SpUiP Kal drAcuiy irdvru>v. For a list of 
the occupants of the marble $p6poi in 
the Dionysiac Theatre at Athens see 
Harrison & Verrall, Mytkol. and Monu- 
ments of Anc. Athens 274. — rhv irXi]- 
o-iov Kivijo-os : nudging his fellow. — 
(c({ci . . . ofros <Mtvos ; in another t^- 

\a\iA, i.e. Herod. 2, Lucian thus indi- 
cates the fame of the ** Father of His- 
tory " : e( iroiJ 7€ <pa¥€lri ijubvov, ideUvmo 
Av rf SaxT^Xifi, Oirro; iKttvot 'Hp68oT6s 
iffTiifj 6 rdj Mxaf rAt Ileptrtxdf 'Ia<rTi 
<rvyy€ypai>(i)f. Cf. Persius Sat. 1, 28 At 
pulchrum est digito monstrari 
et dicier **Hic est." 

12. &V hi Ti VirOvSi^ . . . KCLTOXoifc- 

pdvQ : if something serious shaM b^all. 
Not necessarily a misfortune ; an occa- 
sion of rejoicing also would call for an 
orator. — roOrd <roi ircfHiroi^M : this 
I will make good in your case. — air6s 
. . . dirA6xi< : you, in contrast with 
his writings. Heitland well compares 
Pise. 6 roif \6yois ovt icaraXeXo/irare 
o/ju\Qp. The thought is not, as avpibp 
might suggest, the communion with 
the ** mighty dead," as it is in Plato 
Apol. 41 A. — Tot$ irtiravS«vjUvoi$ : the 



TOP ArffioaOeuTjv eKelvov^ tlvo^ vlop ovra iym rfkiKov inoCrja'a ; 
6pa<; TOP Alcr^Lirrfv^ 05 rufinaPLO'TpLa^ vio^ '^i', ottco? avrop 

140 8l ific <I>iXt7r7ro9 iOepdirevcrep ; 6 8c 'ZcoKpdrrj^ kol avro? 
vno rg *Epii(yy\v<l>LKy ravrrj r/oa^cl? cttciS^ ra^iara avinJKe 
rov Kp€LTTovo^ Kal hpairerevaa^ nap* avr^5 rjVTOiioXrjO'ev cu5 

13 ifi€y aKov€L^ ci>5 napd Trdvrtop ^Scrat. | d^€i9 8c trv tov^ 
TTjXt/courov? icat rotoirrous apSpa^ koL Trpa^ct? Xa/xTrpa? /cat 

145 Xoyou5 aeyipov^ koX a-yrjfia evirpeirk^ koX ti/lctji/ ical 8o|'aj/ 
KoX hraxpop koX npoeSpia^ Kal SvpdfieL<s kol dp^a^ Kal to 
cttI Xoyot? evSoKLfielp Kal to iirl avpeaei evSaLfiopt^ecrOaM 
)(lt(opi6p tl TTLPapop ipSv(rg Kal c^fia 8ovXo7rpc7rc9 dpa- 
^V^V ^^^ iioyXia koX yXu^cta /cat /coTrca? /cat /coXaTTT^pa? ci/ 

150 rati' )(€poLP c^ct9 /caro) i/€j/€v/ca>9 ct? to epyop, ^^afiaLTrerrfS 
Kal )(aiiaii,7i\o^ Kal ndpra Tponop Taireipo^y dpaKvmoiP 8c 
ou8c7roTC ou8c di/8p6)8c9 ou8c iXevOepop ovhep impoS>Py dWd 
TO, ficp Cjpya OTTCD? evpvdfia Kal €v(r)(i}[JiOpa cirrot o"ot Trpo- 
i/oftii', 0770)5 8c auro5 evpvdfio^ Kal Koafito^ ^^y rJKLara 

well-educated. Note tense, Introd. 34 

(a). — Ai)t&oo^^vi|v . . . rCvos vl6v : it 

suits Paideia to belittle Demostheues^s 

father as **iii trade." — t£vo« . . . {|XC- 

Kov: the double interr., so awkward 

in English, gives in itself a flavor of 

Demosthenes. Cf. the old squib : 

A libel tells us, if we follow Hume, 
How, when, and where who did what wrong 
to whom. 

Cf. Vit. Auct. 4 €f(reai . . . bKoia iSrra 
.tMpi>^y iKun Kiviovrai. — rviiircLvurTpCaf : 
Demosthenes thus taunts Aeschines, 
de Cor. § 284. — lOcpdircvo^v : courted; 
cultivated. — So»KpdTT|s . . . rpa^Cs : 
his father Sophroniscus was a sculp- 
tor. For the group of the Three 
Graces, attributed to Socrates, cf. 
paus. 1, 22, 8, and Harrison & Verrall^ 

Mythol. and Monum ents ofAnc.A thenSj 
p. 375. — inrh rg *£p|iOYXv4>iK^: for i>ir6 
c. dat. see Introd. 25. 

13. |ioxX£a kt\. : levers, burins, 
chisels, and gravers. — vcvcvk^s : note 
tense, round-shotildered. — x'^K'^^'^'^ 
kclI xc^H^c^tl^^os : ^ grovelling ground- 
ling. The anaphora of x*Ma*- is forci- 
ble. — airhi c1ipv6|ios . . . : cf . Pisc. 30 
ef Tis Tpbi TO&rovi (toi>s Kdpopas) l^vOfdi^i 
Kal dwevO^POi rbv iavrod ^Lop. For the 
thought cf . Whittier {My Namesake) : 

Life made by duty epical 
And rhythmic with the truth. 

For the antithesis cf. Mrs. Browning 
{Lady Geraldine) : 

Little thinking if we work our souls as 
nobl^ 8U} Qur iron, 



If 7r€<f>povTLK(o<;^ dXX* aTLfiorepop ttolcji/ aeavrou XlOoju. ravra 
en XcyoucTTj? avTrj<; ov TrepLfieiua^ cyci to t€\o^ tS)v Xoytav 
avaoTCL^ a7r€<f>rfvd[irjVy /cat rf/p afiopi^ov c/cctinji/ icat ipyari- 
KTjv dTroXiTTCoi/ fieri^aivov irpo^ rrjv TlatSctai/ fiaka yeyrjdwj 
Kal fidkiOTa iireC fiOL ct? voiiv ^\0€v tj CKirrdXr) /cat ort 

160 TrXijya? €v0v^ ovk oXtya? dp^^oiievKp jioi X^^^ iverpv^aTo. iq 
8c dtrokeK^deio'd to fikv irpSyTov r/yaudKTCL /cat tcj X^^P^ 
(rvp€Kp6T€L Kal Tov<; 68oi/Ta9 ip€7rpL€ • TcXo9 Se, axrirep t7)v 
Nlo/St)!/ aKovofiev^ iTreThjyei /cat ct? \i0ov iieTe^epkyfro, el 
8c napdSo^a cWa^c, /jt^^ dTTKrTijarTjTe • OavfiaTOTToioi yap ol 

g^ oveipoi- 71 CTcpa 8c Trpd? /xc d7rt8oi)<ra, TotyapoS*' d/ACu/fo/xat 
crc, ci^, r7(r8c r^9 8t/catocrvn79, [ort /caXo)? T171' SiKrfv c8t- 
Kacra?,] icat cX^c 17817, iirifiridi tovtov tov 6\rjp.aTO<i — 8€t- 
^a<rd Tt oxrffia viroiTTepov lintmv tivS)v tw niyycuro) cot/corcui/ 
— OTTO)? ct8^$ Ota /cat i7Xt/ca ^1117 d/coXov^i/cTa? Cjitot dyvonrj'- 

170 crctj' cjLtcXXc?. CTTCt 8c dvrj\0ov^ 17 yikv rfKavve /cat v<f>rjUL6)(€L^ 
dpdel^ 8c ct9 i!ri|f09 cyci iireo'KO'n'ovv dwo rfj^ €<o dp^d/ievo^ 
d^/3t 7rpo9 TO, ka"ir4pia TrdXct? /cat ci^rr; /cat hrjp,ov^j KaOdirep 

— m^poKTiK^ : note tense, making it a 
subject of meditation ; cf. Cfiar. 16 Kexv 
rSras a&rods diro\iTov<rai leaving them aU 
agape; see In trod. 34 (a). 

14. dvt^vd)&i|v: declared myself; 
used absolutely without yvu/xriv or 
M^air. — 4vfTp(i|;aro : sc. as subject if 
dftap^ ixelirri xal ipy. rather than i^ 
ririrrdXiy. — 'Ji^avdicTCi : was sulky. Cf. 
Symp, 42. — o-vvcKp^rft : kept smiting 
her two hands together. In Xen. Cyr. 
2, 2, 6, however, it is used in the 
Eng. sense clap: ovvfKp&rrfat rd x^^P^ 
Kol T<} yiXfori ti^iftpaivero. — 4vctH|'ya 
. . . |iCTip^pXt|ro : note tense ; and (be- 
fore you knew it) was perfectly rigid 
aivd voas metamorphosed into m(}irbl^. 

See Introd. 34 (a). — OavftarovotoC : 
const, as subnt., jugglers. 

15. Srt . . . ISCicao-as : an otiose ex- 
pansion of diKaioa^mfi. See App. — 
^XIF** vir^nTipov : see App. Cf. Pise, 
22 TTiivbv ApfM winged chariot^ a remi> 
niscence of Plato Phaedr. 246 e where 
Apfia = chariot and horses ; so 6xvfJM 
here, like the use in United States of 
tcatn = carriage and horses. — tiXavvc 
Kal v^iivi^xci. : a conventional expres- 
sion ; cf. V.H. B 46 ^\avv6v re Kal '^w6- 
xovv. — dp6cls Sc cts C^os: Lucian is 
fond of these aerial excursions; cf. 
V.H. A 9 ; Icar. 11 ; Bis Ace. 8 ; Fugit. 
26 ; and the compound verb ixtcKfnrovv 
(emended, however, to the simple 




6 Tpt7rrdXc/Jto9 airoo'Treiptav rt C9 rriv yrjv. ovk4tl ii4vtoi 

fiefivrjiicu o rt to aireipoiieuov eKeli/o ^Vy irX'^v tovto fiovov^ 

176 ore Kdr(t}d€P a<f}op<t}pT€^ avOpcDiroi iirgvovv koX {Ker einfyrj' 

16 ftta9 KaO* ov^s yevoifiifv r-g imjaei Trapiir^fiirov. hei^aaa 
8c fiOL ra Tocavra Kci/jie toI^ iiraxvovo'iv iKeiuoi^ inamjyay^v 
avdt9 ovKeri rrfv avrrfv iaO'^Ta eKeurrfp ci/8c8vicdra 171/ clj^oi/ 
a<f>L7n'dfi€voSf dWd fioi ihoKovv €inrdpv<f>6^ rt? iiravrJKeiv. 

180 KaTaXafiovaa oSi/ ical tou irarepa karSna koX irepniivovra 
c8cuci/v€v avro) eK^iirq rrjv iaOrJTa fca/xe, olo? rJKOLfjii, Kai ri 
KoX vwefivriaep ota fiiKpov Selv irepX i/iov ifiovXevaavTO. 
ravra fiefivrnxai IBaip dirrCnai^ ere cSi/, ifiol BoKeivj cicra- 

17 pax^^l^ 7rpo9 top tcop TrXr/yajv fffo/Soi/. fiera^if 8c Xeyoirro^^ 
186 HpafcXci^^ ci^ Tt9j ws fiaKpov 70 ivvirviov /cat 8tKai/tKo»^. 

cIt' aXXo9 vireKpovaey Xci/uc/dti/os 6veLpo<;^ ore, fn/JKiaraL 
eicLv at wictc?, 17 raj^a ttou TpUaTrepo^j ^ancp 6 *Hpa*cXi79, 
Kal avro9 core. rC 8' ovi^ iirfjKOev avro) Krjprjo'aA ravra 

verb by Sbdt.) recalls the cyclorama 
of "Sidfwv 9 *EirurKOiroOyref. — TpiHT^Xc- 
|ios: the favorite of De meter, who, 
from the flying chariot provided by 
the goddess, distributed the seed-Ksom 
to men. — rh o^ntp^iuvov : here, as 
elsewhere, Lucian claims to be a mis- 
sionary of culture ; cf . § 18. — KaO' olis : 
over against w?iom. L. & S. s.v., B, I, 
8; cf. Xen. ^7106. 4, 3, 17 ixeidii Si fjcav 
icard (opposite) t^w did^affip and F.H. B 
1 dioptf^curi jrard {(U) rhv de^ibu Toixof' 

16. 4vSc8vK6ra: clad in. See In- 
trod. 34 (a). — c^hrdpv^^ Tis: one qf 
your grandees. For samples of these 
TOfiw/yal see Diet. Antiq. s.v. ** Dress," 
and cf . L. & S. s. w. \€VKoirdpv<f>osy <f>oiPi- 
KOTdpv4H)i, "Xfivffoirdpviftoi. — 48cCkvv(v : 
for form see Introd. 14 (a). — IkcCvi): 
i.e. ii irai^ek, but see App.— Ka( n k«V 

^ir^fivi|oifv : and e^en jogged his memory 
a little. — ota . . . 4povXi^o'avTO : as to 
what plans they had all but made. — licra- 
paxOcCfi: note prep., scared out of my 
senses. — irp^ t^v . . . ^pov: see 
L. & S. S.V. Tp6i C, III, 2. 

17. luTot^ : adv. ; cf. Icar. 24 Mcra^i^ 
re Tpoidv dviKpive, while going forward 
he kept asking. With \4yovr<n sc. 
ipjov. — 'HpAxXcis : for omission of w 
see note on § 7. — 8iKaviK6v: lawyer-- 
like; circumstantial; tiresome. Lu- 
cian had been a lawyer. — trt . . . 
v^KTfs: tr. freely **a winter's dream 
— yes, a midwinter-night's dream." 
Sbdt. would omit these apparently re- 
dundant words, but they may be justi- 
fied as a specific reference to the bruma^ 
i.e. the longest of midwinter nights. — 
rpUo^ircppt; for the allusion see D, 



Trpo^ Tjiias Kal /ivria-drjpai TratScK^? wkto^ koI opeipcou 

190 TraXatcil/ /cat yeyrjpaKOTa}^ ; euXo^ yap rj }\nr)(poKoyia' [i^ 
opeipcop xmoKpira^ rtpas rifia^ vw€C\7i<f}€P ; Ovk^ dyaOe' ovSc 
yap 6 'Si^p(Hf>wp TroT€ hv^yovfitpos to ipvnpLOPy ws cSo/cct 
avT<a Kal ra ip Trarp^^ oiKiq, Kal ra aXXa — mttc yap — ov)( 
vvoKpLCLP rrfp o^lp ov8* oi? <f}kvap€ip iyp<aK<as avra Bu^eL^ 

195 Kal Tavra ip nokeficfi Kal fiaxv '^^^ aTroypdxTei TrpayfiaTwp^ 
Tr€pi€aT(&r(ov ttoXcjuuoi/, dXXa rt Kal xptjaifiop cTj(ci/ 17 Stif- 

18 yrjo'L^. Kal roipvp Kay(a tovtop top opetpop vplp hLTjyrjaar 
fjLTfp iKeipov €P€Kay oircjs ol pioi irpo^ ra fiekrUo TpcwcDPTax 
Kal TTcuSctia? ex^cbPTaLy Kal /JtaXtora, ct rts avrcSi/ vtto nepias 

200 c^cXoKaK€t Kttt 7rpo$ ra t/tto} airoKXipet <f}V(TkP ovk ay^vinj 
BLaAf>0€Cp(op ' iTTLppaxrOyjaeraL c5 0I8' on KaKelpo^ aKovaa^ 
Tov [ivdov, LKapop iavT(p TrapaSeLyfia ifik 7rpoaTri(rdfi€PO^y 
ippoiop oto<; fiep cSj/ irpo^ ra /caXXccrra aipfirjaa Kal TratSeia? 
iwedvfirjO'a /JtijSci/ aTroSctXtoa'a? 7r/5o$ T171/ nepiap rrjp Tore^ 

206 oto? 8c 7rpo9 Vjna? CTrai^cXTjXv^a, cc Kal fjurfhcp aXXo, ovhepo^ 
yovp T<op XtOoyXvifxop aSo^orc/ao?. 

Deor. 10. — 'yryi|paic6T«»v : superannu- 
ated. — IwXot : l^ over till the mor- 
row ; stale. — i^vxpoXoyCa : tr. ** such 
frigid wit.'* — h g«vo^v irort Siii^oi- 
|uvof . . . : cf. Xen. Anab. 3, 1, 11 ff., 
Ai€v Spop, Ido^ey airri} pporrijt yepo- 
lUvJit ffKrjTTbt r€<r€tp e/f r^y warpifav 
oUlaPy Kal 4k rodrov Xd/xreffBai Ta<ra. 
Lucian's audience could be depended 
upon to supply the well-known story — 
r& AXXa -r- without the specific details. 
See App. Xenophon, however, as a 
matter of fact did not mention his 
dream iy woX^fu^ . . . Tepteartirrtav 
TToKefdofp^ but wrote it down at his 
leisure subsequently. — ^ir^Kpto-iv: the 
words above, dptlpuw vwoKptrdsy suggest 

the tr., as matter for interpretation, 
otherwise the usual meaning, declamar 
tion^ might be retained. — oM' m . , . 
iyvwK^ : nor yet as resolved to jest. 
Cf. Thuc. 1, 43 yp6irret tovtop iKeiPOP 
tlpai rbp KatpSp. 

18. Kal Tolvw ktX. : this, although 
stilted, must be taken in good faith ; 
so, too, in Pise. 62 we have a serious 
declaration of his mission : ** crown 
the true, brand the shams.** — |it|8<v 
diroSciXii&otic : for oi^^i^ diro9ei\id(r as. 
See Introd. 39 {e). — irp6f : see § 16. — 
oiStvis ToOv . . . dSofdnpof: at any 
rate, no less famous than any stone- 
carver of them all. Confident under- 




Comes the blind Fury with the abborrM shears, 

And slits the thin-spun life. Milton, Lycidas. 

See you nought 
That young man tliat hath shoou bought 
And strong leather to do them clout 
And grease to smear them round about ? 
He weeneth to live them to wear : 
But by my soul I dare well swear 
His wretched life he shall forlet 
Ere he be come to his own gate. j^^^^.^ ^^^ 

The theme of the Charon is an oft-repeated one — the sudden 
reversal of fortune, the relentlessness of fate. But on Lucian's page 
it is as new ^ as disappointment has ever been to every man. The 
piece is full of his best humor ; it is cynical yet serious, and is in 
his most dramatic style. Not only are the chief characters, Her- 
mes and Charon, living and real, but so are Croesus and Solon as 
we listen to their tSte-a-tSte. All the scenes move as clearly before 
us as they do before Charon's eyes, newly anointed with Homeric 

The structure of the piece is simple. Charon has leave of 
absence from his ferry for a day. Hermes meets him before a 
house in an Athenian street (or, possibly, in Rome) laughing over 

1 For the question of an imitation of some satire of Menippus, cf. Bolder- 
man, Stud. Luc.^ p. 89: Fortasse Charon ad quoddam Menippi exem- 
plum compositus est, qui tarn saepe fabulas a deis inferis agi 
finxit, sed quia documenta absunt, litem dirimere non audeo. 



a man who is prevented by sudden death,^ due to a falling tile, 
from keeping a dinner engagement. This is the key-note to the 
whole, but the explanation of his amusement is artistically post- 
poned until later, when Hermes, persuaded with difficulty to act as 
cicerone, has piled up mountain upon mountain and proceeds to 
give to his << personally conducted " partner in business all that can 
be seen or known in a single day of men and manners of the sixth- 
century world outspread before them. The samples suffice. With 
his laughter changed to the indignation of a seer, Charon at the 
end returns to his business convinced of men's folly in busying 
themselves about gold and boundaries and the being bidden to 
dinner, seeing that soon his boat shall bring them " to that wide 
port where all are bidden."* Thus extremes meet — Cynicism' 
and the new Christian undervaluing of things temporal balanced 
against things eternal. In the Dialogues of the Dead the bitter- 
ness and cynicism of Lucian come uppermost, but in the Charon 
tliere is more of the helpless pathos of human life that Aeschylus 

1 Of. Juvenal Sat. 3, 261 ff. , where the household, unconscious of the tragedy 
of the master^s sudden death, 

. . . interea secnra patellas 
lam lavat et bncca foculum exoitat et sonat uuctis 
Strigilibus et pleno componit lintea gutto! 
Haec inter pueros varie properantur: at ille 
lam sedet in ripa tetrumque novicius horret 

And Tennyson, In Memoriam : 

And, even when she turned, the curse 

Had fallen, and her future lord 

Was drowned in passing thro' the ford, 
Or killed in falling from his horse. 

Cf. also in connexion with the context the citation of Virgil Aen. 11, 49-62, in 
W. P. Mustard^s Classical Echoes in Tennyson^ pp. 103-104. 

^ Michael Angelo, Sorni/A to Giorgio Vasari (tr. by J. A. Symonds): cf. Aesch. 
Septem 860 rdydoKOv elt dfpayij re x^P<^op. 

^ Cf. Bolderman's list (p. 133) of the dialogues in quibus Cynicorum 
doctrina cernitur. 


has sketched in lines that <' Time's effacing fingers'' have not 
marred : 

O life of mortal men ! while that it fareth well 

'T is like a painting sketched ; but, comes adversity, 

The wet sponge, blurring, touches and the picture 's gone 1 ^ 

The dialogue is full of humor, but this, like a fitful glare reflected 
in tlie night, only lights the way to the grim verities of Pluto's 
realm.^ We forget Lucian's open scepticism and his mocking at 
current creeds, and we catch ourselves trying to fit this memento 
mori into the inherited mosaic of mediaeval Christianity rather 
than seeking to patch his Cynic's rags upon the changeable taffeta 
of his attempted Hedonism or the more durable fabric of the 
imperial Stoic's decent robe. 

Over our heads float the Moirae. Clearly now we see the slender 
threads by which we dangle from their spindle. Clearly we see 
the shadowy phantoms with which they mock us : hopes, fears, 
ambitions, jealousy, wrath, and covetousness. Chilling, in spite of 
its comic reminiscence, falls upon our ears the swift r^um^ at the 
end : <^ Lord ! what fools these mortals be ! Kings, golden ingots, 
funeral rites, battles, but never a word about Charon ! " — and we 
ourselves mechanically follow Charon to the ferry, our laughter, 
like his, turned into disappointed wonder at life's swift change 
from joy to sorrow. 

The character of Charon of the true Greek type is constant as 
the "Ferryman." He is depicted, now with flowing beard, old 
and dignified as the Lord of the Admiralty, Poseidon himself, now 
younger and rougher with a stubby beard and a workman's short 

1 Agam. 1327 ff. a Cassandra as she goes in to her doom speaks : 

Id ppSrcta TpdyfJMT • e^vxoOvra fiiv 

PoXaU ifypiSiCffwv ffT6yyos (aXeaev ypa<f>ijv, 

^ Cf. Croiset, pp. 169 fif. : **on n'y (i.e. in Epictetus or Marcus Aureliu^ trou- 
yera rien en ce genre qui fasse phis dMmpression que certains passages des 
^rits de Lucien." 


i$oifuq leaving the right shoulder bare for plying his pole.^ He is 
never the figure of terror of the Italian types.^ Representations 
in art are not infrequent ; as on the XiJKvBoi which were buried 
with the dead.' 

It is thought that the conception of the " ferryman '* grew out of 
the custom of burying the dead on the other side of a river or lake. 
This was not confined to the Egyptians,' but seems to have been de 
Hgueur in various parts of Greece itself.* Virgil's Charon {Aen, 6, 
298) retains this conception, but the type reverts rather to the dis- 
torted Etruscan demon of death (called Charun) with flaming eyes, 
pointed wolf-ears, and grin of horror, swinging his hammer or an 
oar. To him, through Virgil, Dante's Charon traces his pedigree : 

. . . the ferryman of the livid fen, 
Who round about his eyes had wheels of flame. 

Charon the demon, with the eyes of glede 

Beats with his oar whoever lags behind.^ 

This Etruscan demon was even pressed into service for the masked 
figure who, between the contests in the amphitheatre, dragged off 
the corpses of the fallen gladiators. This belongs to the concep- 
tion, differing from the ancient Greek, which does not confine 
Charon's sphere of influence to a ferry-boat, but, ignoring Hermes's 
function as i/rv;(oiro/A7rd9, makes Charon the messenger of Death or 
identifies him with Death himself. 

In the classic Greek Charon first appears in the post-Homeric 
Minyady^ though his running-mate, Hermes, appears as ifruxoirofiwo^ 
in the last book of the Odyssey, 

^ See illustrations, 8. v. **Cbaron,** in Baumeister's Denkmdler. And in Da- 
remberg et Saglio, 8.v. ** Charon,*^ see cuts from Italian funeral urns. In one, 
Charon, with a large hammer, leads a horse upon which rides the dead man. 

^ Of. Ar. Secies. 996 os toU rcKpouri ^(aypa4>€t rds Xi^irf^vs. 

< See Diod. Sicul. 1, 92 and 96. 

^ Chalcis in Euboea, and Delos ; see Baumeister, I.e. 

^ Djp. Com. , Canto III (Longfellow's translation). 

^ Cf. Paus. 10, 28, 2, and Frazer's note ad loc., and the restoration of 
Polygnotus's picture with Charon's boat. 


In the Septem of Aeschylus the boat is mentioned, though Charon 
is not, and the mourners' arms that beat the air are the oar-strokes 
which make " the dark-sailed, unchartered mission-ship, upon whose 
deck Apollo treads not and the sunlight falls not, through Acheron 
to pass unto that shore unseen where all must lodging find." In 
the Froffs of Aristophanes Charon, with his : " oJott ! bring her 
alongside!" and his orders to Dionysus, treads his quarter-deck 
undisputed, and in Euripides we find him imperious, urgent, unre- 
lieved by any comic humor. Alcestis, parting prematurely for 
Hades, exclaims : 

I see, I see the two-oar'd skiif, the ferryman 

Of the dead, Charon with hand on pole thus calleth me: 
«*Why dost thou loiter? Hasten 1 Thou*rt delaying us." 
AVith words like these in angry haste he urgeth me. 

In the poets after Aeschylus he is often mentioned thus as call- 
ing ^ to embark. In the Anthology he appears frequently. In the 
Attic theatre he became a familiar bit of stage-property, and 
" Charon's stairs " now swept down to the water's edge of the canali 
morti to receive any furloughed ghosts returning in the ferryman's 

In addition to the representations of Charon on the oil-fiasks, on 
scarabs, etc., there was a painting by Polygnotus which, as Pau- 
sanias thought, drew its details from the Minyad, (See the last 
note on the preceding page.) 

From all this Lucian drew his type of Charon. Here and in the 
CatapluB and in the Dialogues of the Dead he incises the lines that 
are to reappear again and again in modern literature, as in Hans 
Sachs's Die Himmelfahrt Margraff Albrechtz} It is curious that in 

1 Of. Ar. Lys, 006 : 6 HdfHav <r€ /coXet, 

ffi> Si KuX^lkiS dydyeaOai. 

2 For conventional shape of Charon^s boat see illustrations 11. cc. 
« E.g. here is Lucian resartus: 

Da sagt zu !m Caron : " Du solt 
Nit tret ten in das schiff zu inir, 
Bis (ill jjeleget hast vou dir 
All uuart, siiud uud uutugeut.*' 

CIIAllON 23 

modern Greek, while occasionally Charon is "still to be met with 
as the ferryman of the classic type,"* it is the other conception 
that usually prevails. In Goethe's NeAiyriechlsch-E^irotUche Helden- 
lieder he is a horseman that rides through the clouds, driving the 
young before him and dragging the old behind him, a string of 
sucklings at his saddle-bow : 

Die Jiingsten aber, Sauglinge 
In Reih geh&ngt am Sattel. 

But in both types Charon is as inexoraMUs, inehictahilU, as Death 
in the Morality play : " No, Everyman, it may not be !" 

1 Cf. B. Schmidt, I>(U Volksleben der Neuyriechen, p. 222 f., and Frazer's 
Pausaniaa V, p. 373. 

XAPaivr H Eni2;KonoT]srTE2 


1 EPM. Tt y€\a9, <o Hdpcou ; rj tl to TTopdiietov airoKnriiiv 
Bevpo dueXrjkvda^ C9 rrju rj/jLeTepau ov irdw eitodca^ iin\(a- 
pia^eii/ Tot9 avo) npay/iao'iv ; 

XAP. 'ETTC^v/LiTjcra, c3 *Ep/x^, tScii/ biroid icm rd ev to) 

6)8i6> /cat a TTpdrrovaiv ol di/dpwrroL iv avT(a rj rivotv CTepo- 
fjievoi TTCti/TC? oliKol^ovo'i KaTtdi/T€9 Trap' rfiid^' ovSci? yap 
avTwi/ dSaKpvTL StCTrXcvcrci/. aiTiqcdiievo^ ovv irapd rov 
AtSov Kox avro9 oxTTTcp o QcrraXo? c/ccti/o? veavUrKo^p.iav 
yjficpav XctTToi/coi? yeveaO at 1 duekrjXvO a e? to (^oi?, *cat /xot 
10 SoKCi) c$ 8cbi/ ivrervyriKepai cot • ^^uayTJcei^ yap €v oTS* on 
fie ^fnrepLPOOTcov kol Sct^ct? eKaara C05 ai' ctSci? (XTraKra. 

Title : the second part of the title is Laodamia, and see D. Jforf. 23. — Xci- 
justified by the first sections of the ir6v<«>s(L. &S. s. v. Xir^mus): cf. Brown- 
piece, cf. especially §6 <ri> 3^ . . . ing's *' fleet-fugitive" (Aesch. Agam, 
ixiaK&jrei diraPTa. Tr. iiriff Koirovtrres as 212). Hermes at the ferry (Catapl. 3), 
Inspectors; the Lat. tr. (Reitz.) con- describing his chase after a runaway 
templantes is inadequate. For the corpse, tells Charon how dXlyov delp 
thought cf . Hermot. 5, where the Xcivdpeus vfup r-^fiepov lyev6firjp, — {iva- 
philosopher*s outlook on his fellow- 'y^o'<i.s: youHl show me the lions ] cf. 
man is described dtop fiCpfirjKai dirb toO D. Mart. 18, 1, and cf. Plato Phaedr. 
v^ovf iirurKoirovvTii riras roi>s dXXouf. 230 c, where Socrates excites wonder 

1. 8iiirXivo-cv : gnomic aor. See as being in need of a cicerone and not 

Gildersleeve, S.C.G, 255. — alTtio-d- like a native at all, drexyw . . . ^cw- 

|UVOf . . . "AiSov : cf. Pise. 4 irapaiTij- yovfjJwf rivl Kal o^k iirixfapLtp lotxat (cf. 

ffdfxievos . . . rbp " Ai8ri». — 6 OiTraX6s: iinx<aptd^e('y of our passage for the 

i.e. Protesilaus. Cf. Wordsworth^s reminiscence). — ms &v clS^t : = €/de<t7s 




EPM. Ov <r)(o\TJ fLOij (3 TTopdii€V' an€p)(0[iaL yap re 
BLOKovriaofiei/o^ T<p ai/oi Att tcjv avOptairiKfav - 6 Se 6^v6vfi6^ 
ioTL Kal ScSta firf fipahvvavTOL fjL€ i okov vfiirepov idcg eo^cu 

\6wapa&oif^ to) C^ifxfi^ rj oirep top *H<^atoToi/ irpwnqv inoi'qa'e^ 
pujin KOLfie Terayan^ tov ttoSo? awo rov d^ajreaCov firjXovy oJ? 
virocKoi^xop yiXiorra Trape^^oi^iiL koX avro? oivo^oiov^ 

XAP. nc/3toi/i€c oSv jitc aX\a)9 Tr\ap(Ofi€i/op vnkp yfj^ koI 
ravra eralpos koL mj/nrXov^ Koi ^vi/8taKTopo5 cSi/ ; Kat firfv 

20KaXa)9 cTj^ci/, CO Maia? Trat, eKeivtav yovv crc iJL€uinj(rdcUf otl 
/jiijocTrcoTroTC <rc 17 ai/rActi/ CKcAcvcra 17 irpoaKcjrrov ea/af 
dXXa (TV /nci/ /5cy/cci9 cttI rov KaracTpcifiaTo^ iicradei^ (Ofiovs 
ovTCJ KapT€poifs ^X^^^ V ^*' ^''^^ XaXoi^ v€Kpov €ypoL^y e/c€ii/a) 
Trap* 0X01/ Toi/ TrXovv StaXcyj^- cyco 8c irpea^vTi)^ du ttjv 

25 8iica>7riaj/ iperro) /jlopo^. dXXa tt/oo? to5 Trarpd?, <3 i^ikrarov 

yiip &p,^ct G. 1308 ; H. 987 ; Gl. 595; 
B. 662. —T$ &v«> Ai(: to distinguish 
from Zei>s Karax^^i'tot, i.e.' Plato ; ^ cf. 
yiiuhtftt ZeC D.' Afor(. 23, 1, and cf. 
Keitz. ad loc. — SXov: for good and 
all, — ^Ctlno Kr\.i from II, 1, 591. — iro- 
p^Oi|u : for mood see Introd. 35 (a). — 
Kal air6«: i.e. as well as Hephaestus; 
as if Zeus^s chief thought was to keep 
up the supply of lame cup-bearers. — 
otvox^^ ' poi'haps jrapb. irpocSoKiay for 
ifvxo.ywy&if. — (vvStdicropof : this com- 
pound is found only liere (cf. Cha- 
bert, UAtticisme de Lucien, p. 126). 
— KoXdf itxcv: Hwere well. In such 
phrases, as after tdtiy ixpv^ ^^m with- 
out 6,p, the dependent infinitive becomes 
unreal (Gildersleeve, S. C. G. 364). Cf. 
GMT. 431. Cf. Pi9C. 2 ipurrop l^p . . . 
€^<rBai. — m Ma(as irat : Charon began 
with plain ** Hermes** and now tries 
everything that may appeal to his af- 
fection or pride of pedigree. — ^ifiv\ 

ir©T€: for neg. see Introd. 37. — irpdo-- 
K«nrov : in D. Mart. 22, 2, Menippus 
urges Iiis claim to passage as a ^* dead- 
head" because t^» Ktinrrit <ruwrcXo- 
pSfiriv. — ^Kcit: so the exasperated 
Strepsiades (Ar. Nub, 5). must listen 
to his slaves : 

ol If oUircu. ^4yKovffiP' dXX' oifK fip xpd 


— ct . . . ciipois : for syntax cf . Introd. 
35 (c). — XdXov : such a talkative corpse 
is Menippus D, Mart. 22, 3 (q.v.). cf., 
too, Lucian Epigr. No. 26 : 

eliri fMi €lpofjJp(fi, KuXXi^nc, irQt Kari- 


AoXXiai^D \f^vx^ d^jfia rd 4>ep<re06n7f ; 

BavfM fi^Pj €l atywra * tvx^^ ^^ ti xal ci 


rj$€\€ • ^Vj Ktlpov Kal p4kvp dpTid<rai, 

— 8iK«»ir(av: cf. the two-oared skiff, 
SiKUTop ffKdipos £ur. Ale, 252 and iXdr^ 



'Epfidhiov, fir) KaToKlirji^ /i^ Trcpt^yijcrat Se ra ci/ r^ )8t^ 
arravray (o^ tl Kai looji/ €Trai/€At/ot/xi' ct)5 tjp /ac orr CKp?;?, 
oiScj' TcSp Tv<f>\<i>v Stouro) • Kaddnep yap iKU,voi cr^oKKomai 
hiokicrdaivovre*; iu toI orKoreiy ourto 817 fcdycl) crot efnrakiv 

Sb d/jL^XvooTTa) Trpo<; ro <f>a>^. dXXa 809, ct> KvXXt^i/ic, c5 del 
IJL€iJivriorofi€v<a Trjp ^dpiv, 

2 EPM. TovTO TO rrpdyiia irXriycJv atrcoi/ KaTap"njor€TaL 
fioi' opo) yovv tJSt] top fiiaOov Trj(; Trepirfyrjo'^a)^ ovk dfcoi/- ^^ 
8i»Xoi/ rravrdirao'LV rjfuv iaofievov* virovpyrfTeov Se ofMcj^' 

35 Tt yap av kol irdOoi tc9, onore <f>L\o^ rt? c3i/ l3tdl,OLTo;. 
Trdvra fikv ovu ere ISelu Ka0* ^KacTov aKpL^cj^s dfirj^^apov 
icTiVy 0) 7rop0[i€v ' TToWcju yap av etcju tj Siarpt^Si) yei/oiro. 
ctra €jLt€ p.kv Krjpvrrea'OaL Seyjorei KaOdirep dirohpdvra vno 
TOv Aid?, ae Se /cat avrov KcuXvcrci ivepy^i/ rd rov %avd' 

40TOV cpya oJ? /cat T171/ YWovrcavo^ ^PXV^ Cvf^^^^^ H'V p^*^P^' 
yoyyovvra ttoXXov toC yjpovov • /cara 6 rcXcSnj? Ata/co9 

dijc(^y 444. — irf pi^'yi|o'ai : as Menip- 
pas steps oat of the boat, D. 'M.ort, 
20, 1, he exclaims rpdf roC IlXoi^fiipo?, (3 
Ataxia x€pi-^7j(ral /xot rd i»''Ai8ov vdtrra. 
See note on § 1. That the pestiferous 
modern guides had prototypes in La- 
clangs day may be inferred from the 
amusing conceit in V. H. B 31 (q.v.)and 
from our author's vicious thrust both 
at the repiriyriTai and tlieir victims in 
Philops. 4 : el yovv tls d^^Xot rd fi.v0u>8rf 
raOra ix rrji 'EXXddos, o^Siv dv jcwXi^<re(6 
Xifup Todi irepiTjyriTdii airrCiv 8ia<f>0aprj»aL 
firj8i AfjiurBl tQv ^ivtav T&\ridk% iu^oT&eiv iOe- 
\7fff6irr(av {cf. Bliimner, Archaeol, Stud, 
zu Lucian, p. 100). — IvaWXOotfu: see 
In trod. 36 (a). — StoXi79a(vovr<s : both 
form and meaning vary slightly from 
classic use ; see L. & 8. and cf . Piac. 30 
dioXuaffdyoi, but In Vit. Auct. 12 8io\i^ 

ffOalvtov (as here) is used of a tipsy 

2. o^K &k6v8vXov: litotef^. Cf. the 
** knuckle sauce " served with the pud- 
ding, Ar. Pax 123, jcoXXi/pav fieydXriv 
Kal K6y5v\ov iSnffov iw airr^, as a sup- 
plementary piece de resistance. — t( 
. . . vddoi. : ^* what is (note Kal) a fel- 
low to do ? " a favorite expression ; cf. 
Men. 3; D. Mort. 10, 6; Tim. 39.— 
Ki|pvTTc<rdai . . . &vo8pdvTa: as Her- 
mes was himself Zeus's town crier, 
this would be an anomalous situation. 
In Fugit. 27 Hermes makes procla- 
mation for a lost slave. — as: = uare. 
We must insert this, or supply 5e^(r« 
again, or infer from K<a\6<r€i = compel 
not to the positive compel. See App. — 
6 TcX(&vT)s AlaK6s: Aeacus is usually 
judge in the underworld. It is part of 






ayavaKrTJa'€L firfS* ofiokou iixirokcov, oJ? Sc ra K€<f)d\aLa 
tS)v yiyvofi€V(ji>v tSot?, tovto rjSrf (TKeirreov. 

XAP. Auto?, cd *Kpfirjj iinvoei to fiekricTTov' iycj Sc 

45ov8€i/ otSa T(op virep yrj^ feVo? a>i/. 

EP\^. To fiep oXoi/, CO Xdpcju, infrqXov rti^o? Tjjitti' Set 
)(0}piov, C09 ttTT* iK€Luov TTOLvra icart 8019 • o^ol Sc ct {Lev e? roi/ 
ovpavov dv^\0€iv hvvaTov rju^ ovk dv iKdfjLvofjieu ■ €/c 7rcpta>- 
"TT^? yap ai/ aKpifio)^ dnavra Ka9€(opa<;. inei Se oi ^c/xt? 

50€iSa>Xot9 act ^vvovra iTnfiare'ueLv t(ov fiacriK^uav tov Atds^ 
(apa rifjuv injrrjXou tl opo<; TT^piorKorreLU. 

8 XAP. Oia^a, c3 'Epfirj^ drrep €uo0a Xeyctj' cyci Trpo? 
v/jia9 CTTCtSai/ 7r\€(0fjL€P ; orromu yap to Trvevfia Karaiyiaav 
TrXayta r^ oOovjj ifimixri Kai to Kvfia vi/njXoi/ dpOjjj t6t€ 

^y^VfieL^ fikv VTT* dyvoia^ K€kev€T€ rffu oOoirqv arctXat 17 
ipSowai okiyov tov ttoSo? rj (rvi/eKSpafieiv t(o irviovTi^ iy<o 
Se > TTii/ rjorv)(iav dyeiv Tra/oafceXcvo/xat viiiv • avro5 yap 
ciScVat TO fiekTiov. fcara ravra St) /cat crv npaTTe oirocra 
Kakio^ €^€LP i/ofiC[,eL<: Kv^epvrJTy)^ vvv yc c^v cyw Sc, (ocTrep 



Lucian^s method to raise an incidental 
or a fabricated function to the dignity 
of first importance. In Catapl. 4 the 
corpses do not go through in bond 
to Pluto without inspection f but Aea- 
cus must, as custom officer, cross ilie 
ferry and proceed to the actual fron- 
tier of Hades, at the tunnePs mouth 
{xar airb rb (rrdfuov), where he receives 
the invoiced corpses from Hermes 
and checks them off on the way-bill : 
ifju>v Todi v€Kpoi^, tas ^^os, dtrapidfiovyTos 
TV A.laK(p KdK€lpov \oyi^ofi4vov aOrods vpds 
rb trapd. Trjs (ttjs (Hermes is telling this 
to Clotho) &5c\ipris ir€fxtpdi» airf ai^fjL^- 
"Kov, — «9 • . . t8ots : for ^irws and f ut. 
indie. See Introd. 35(0). — Ik irfptoH 

irfjs : a favorite word ; Germ. Rund- 
bllck. Cf. Pise. 15, Cronosol. 18, and 
Symp. 11. 

3. KaracyCo-av : with a sudden squall. 
— vXa'yC^: SO that it sets aslant; the 
boats, it will be remembered (see Diet. 
Antiq. s.v. '*Navis"), were square- 
rigged. For pred. use see Introd. 23 (a). 
— 4vSovvai . . . iroSds : to let aut the sheet 
a little. — (rvvcK8pa)Mtv rf irv^ovri : to 
run before the wind. Although unable 
to sail close in the wind^s eye, ancient 
craft could make shift to lay a course. 
Charon's boat, apparently, insuffi- 
ciently ballasted by his light-weight 
passengers, has lieeled over so far as to 
scare them. — J-yM Sc . . . '^onix^av: in 



' EPM. *Opd(o^ Xeyei^' avros yap euroficu rC irovqriov koX 
i^evpTJoro) rrjt/ LKavriP orKomjv. ap* ovu 6 KavKoxro^ ini/ny- 
§€109 yj o Tlapvaaoro^ rj v^\6T€po<; dfjof^olv 6 '^OXvfino^ 

65€K€ti/o(rt,- KaiTOL ov <f>ouvi^6v Tt dp€fjLPijor6riP C9 Tov'^Okyfitrov 
aTTiScoi/ • (nryKafjL€Lv 8c rt koI imovpyTJacu /cat <r€ Set. 
XAP. npoararrc • vnovpyTjo'o} yap oca hward, 
EPM. OfjLTipos 6 TTOLrfTT]^ if>7)CL Toif^ *AXo>e(W5 vUa^, 8vo 
/cat airrov^; ovraSj en iralBa^s iOekrjcai irore rrjv ^Occav c/c 

io/3d0p(t)i/ di/a&Trdcairra^ iirid^ZvaJL t(o 'OXvjitTra), clra to 
IlTjXtoi/ ctt' avr^, t/cai/171^ ravrrjv KkifiaKa i^eiv oto/jteVov? 
/cat npocBaciv iwi tou ovpavov. iKeipcj fikv ovv rci /xct- 
paKuOy dracOdXio yap rjcrqvy St/ca? crtaarrji/- i/cu 8c — ou 
yap 67rt /caico) tcSi/ ^coSi/ ravra fiovXevofjiei/ — tC oi^t oiico- 

75 Sofiov/jLev /cat avrot /cara ra avra C7rt/cvXti/8oi)Krc9 CTraXXijXa 
rd opr), oJ? eypip^ev d<f>' infrqXoTepov dKpifiecrepav ttji/ 
CKomju ; 

4 XAP. Kat Svtrrfco/JLeda^ a> 'E/o/xtj, 8v' ovre^ dvaOicdai 
dpdfi€uoL TO HtjXlov rj ttji/ '^Occau ; 

D. Mart 10, 10, however, Hermes mountain-moving propensities from 

usurps command and gives the neces- their real father Poseidon, the eartli- 

sary orders: \v€ rd dTd7eia, r^v dxo- shaker. For their history see Od. 11, 

fidOpavdyeXufieda^rbdyK^piopdywirda-Buy 305 ft. — "Oovav : the Peneius drains 

rriraffop t6 IctIop, evdvift, Z iropdfieO, rd the Thessalian plain through the vale 

rriddXtou, — KavKoiros: Hermes is ex of Tempe between Olympus and Ossa. 

officio an exx>ert in matters topograph- Mt. Pelion is pai*t of the ridge that on 

ical. As the context shows, however, the other side of Ossa runs southward 

the scene is laid near Olympus. to the promontory of Sepias. — lx®^~ 

Lucian is fond of panoramic sugges- fuv: see Introd. 35 (a). — &KpipcirW- 

tion, e.g. Somn. 15 ; Icar. 16 ; Bis pav : for pred. use see Introd. 23 (a). 

Ace, 8; Fugit 25. — o4 ^aGXdv n: 4. AvaO^o-Ocu: sc. ixl t6p 'OXvfjivov. 

not a bad idea. Litotes. — 'AXw4«»9: Cf. Xen. ^na5. 2, 2, 4. Charon uses the 

the Aloeidae were named from their word almost professionally as of his 

stepfather Aloeus, but received their daily cargo. Hermes had used ^t^ftya^ 



80 EPM. Ata tC 8' ovK ai/, c5 Xdpcov; rj d£cot9 ij/xa? ayci/- 
p€crT€pov^ €wajL roZv Ppe^vWioiv iKtivoiv^ kclL raSra d^ov^ 

virdpxovra^j ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ .^^ /.. :. ^ 

XAP. OvKy dWd TO irpayfia BoKei fLoi diriBavov rti/a T171/ 
ILeyaXovpyiav €)(eLv, 

85 EPM. EtKOT€09' IBidyrrj^ yap ely (o "KdpcjVy kol 'nKLora 

irotijrtif 09 • 6 Se yci/i/aSa? ^O/xij/ao? airo Svoti/ orij^oii/ avriKa 

iffiiv oji^aTov iTTOtrjOHi rou ovpavov^ ovrw paSuo^ avvdel^ rd 

oprq, KoX Oavfidl^oi cc <roi. ravra Tepacma eli/at SoK€i toi/ 

ArKavTa orfKaoiQ eLOOTt,, 09 top ttoKov (ivtov ct9 (ov ^pepet 

90 di/e^cDi/ 17/Lia9 aTrai^a?- d/cov€t9 Se y€ urco9 kol tov dSek^ov 
rov ifiov TTcpt TOV *H/5aKXcou9, 019 StaSefatrd irore airop 
iKeZvov TOP ^ArXavra Koi dpairavcreU irpo^ okiyop tov 
d^Oov^ vTTodel^ iavTOP roJ <f}opTC<o. 

XAP. *Aicova> Koi raCra- ct 8c dXrjOijy aif dp, c5 ^Kpfiijy 

06 ^al 01 TTOtT^rat €c8€n7r€. 

EPM. 'AXij^ccTTaTa, o> XdpoDP. rj tlpo^ yap €P€Ka cro^oX 
dpSp€<; €\lf€v8opTO dp; cocrrc dpaiio^eSoifiep ttjp "Oo'cop 
frpcrroPy ^a-irep rjfiip v^ifyeiTai to etro^ koX 6 dp^iTeKTOiP, 

> » ♦. 


avrap en Ocraifi 
IlrjkLOP €lpoa'C(f>vWop. 

c. dat. — Totv Ppc^vXXCoiv : that brace 
of little brats. — dirC0av6v rtva: see on 
Somn, 1. — tSu^nis : a layman^ i.e. not 
a professional. Idnarris is contrasted 
with various words, e.g. Plato Phaedr. 
258 D Toiifr^f 4 ISiiiTtis a poet or a 
prose^writer ; so Thuc. 2, 48 larpbi rj 
Idiilbrrit; cf. Peregr, 13; Vit. Auct. 11 
and 27; Pise. 10 and 34. — dir^ Svotv 
rrlxm,v : the daal almost gives the force 
of voith a distich. The two verses are 
Od. 11, 315-316. — d|fcPaT^v: for Ionic 

form see the Homeric citation below. 
— dKo^is: '^The present tense of a 
number of verbs that involve unity 
of character or persistence of result, is 
often translated by the Eng. perfect." 
Gildersleeve, S.C.G. 204. — WoOtlt 
Iavr6v : i.e. the eleventh labor of Hera- 
cles.— aMip . . . : see Od. 11, 315-316 : 
'Oaaap irr OiM/xinfi lUfifurav 04fU¥^ a&riip 

IIi^XtOF tlvoai4>vWov^ tv oipavht dfi^rbs 


6pa<s o7r(o<; /5a8io>$ d/jta koI irovqriKiaf; i^eipydorfJieOa, <f>€p 
6 ovv ava^a^ tSca ct /cal auro) iTroLKohofieiv SerjacL. TraTrat, 

KctTct) ert iafxev iv VTrcopeia tov avpavov- dno (ikv yap tS)v 

i(pa)v fjLoyi^ ^Icovia Kal Av8Ca <^au/€Tat, ano Se Trj<; kanrepa^ 
105 ov irXeop 'IraXta? ^at SticeXwi?, aTro Se ra)!/ apKT(po}v ra inl 

TaSe Tou "icTTpov fxovoi/^ KOLKeldev r/ KpiJTrj ov irdw aa^S>^. 

fieraKivT^da yfpZvy c5 iropdfiev^ koX t) OLTrj, a>9 eoiKeVy etra 6 

ILapvaacTo^ €7rt Trdcriv. 

XAP. OvTO) TTOtcJ/jLCi'. opa fiovov fjiT) XeiTTOTepov ii^p- 
noyaacofieOa to epyov aKoiiTjKvvairre^ irepa tov iridavov^ clra 

(rvyKaTappL<f>€VT€<; ainto Tri/cpa? T^^'^^Ofii/jpov ot/co8ofnic^9 

neLpaucofjiev gwrpipevres tojv Kpavuav. ^^ 

EPM. Sap pel' d(T(f>a\a)<; yap i^ei airavTa. iieraiiOeL 

T7}v Olttjv' iTrLKvXii/SeUrdo) 6 Ilapi/acrcro?. iSov S17, inor 
lloveiixi av^t?- cu €;(€f Trdvra opco- dvd^aive yjhri Kal cru. 

5. irairal . . . virwpf C^ : whij^ ble8S between Caria and Aeolis. — KdKcCOcv : 
my soul! we are still down amhng the . i.e. drrb {t^s) fiearffifiplas. For designa- 
foot-hills of heaven. In Hermot. 3 tiona of points of the compass cf. 
the middle-aged undergraduate admits 'Hdt. 1, 142. — oCt« kt\. : Charon tries 
that he is iv rj imufxlq, Kdrta tn, and to live up to the naval discipline out- 
adds that the road is slippery (6\i- lined in §3. — Xcirr^Tcpov : compare 
ffdrjpd) and one that calls for a helping this legitimate use of the predicate 
hand(5€?x€*P«*^P^o'^oO» which repeats and the somewhat more strained n- 
the 6pc^o» . . . rrjv x"pa and rod 6\i- Kpas (just below) with the usage cited in 
cOrfpou of our passage below. — diri t»v Introd. 23 (a). — ir^pa tov iriOavov : at 
lipuv: cf. App. to Sojun. 15. It is just the outset (§ 4) the scheme had seemed 
as well not to apply an accurate scale of dvldavou. — r&v KpavCuv : for both the 
miles to this Trepiunrij ; but although (cf. catastrophe and the case of the noun, 
Chabert, op. cit., p. 39) it is the Greek cf. Ar. Pax 69-71 : 
world of the sixth century b.c. with dreira Xeirrd KXifidKia iroio^fiei^s, 
which we are mainly concerned, yet irpds raOr dvcppixcLr dv els t6v o0pap6y, 
later on, with the help of two more ?ws ^vverpi^T} t^j xe^aX^t KarappveU. 
mountains and another Homeric eye- The gen. is so used with Kariaye Ach. 
opener, Charon sees not only Sardes 1180, Feap. 1428. Schmid, I, 235, clas- 
and Samos, but also eastward, far be- sifies this and Tim. 48 Kariaya tov 
yoiid Lucian^s birthplace, to Babylon. Kpavlov as a special form of the parti- 
— 'IwvCa: i.e. the coast of Asia Minor tive genitive. — (8ov 8^ : there now! — 



XAP. "Ope^oPj w 'Etpfjirjj rfiv ^^ipa' ov yap iiri fjiiKpdv 

EPM. El ye koI l&/ip ideXeiSy c5 Xdpo^i/y dnavra- ovk h/i 
§€ dfjiffxi) Kal daff^akr} /cat ff^iXodeafjiova €&at. dXX' c^ov 

120110V r^9 Sc^ta? Kal <^€i8ov fii7 xara toS oXiaffrjpov nareiv. 
ev yc, di/eX>yXvda5 icat crv • ineinep 8c .8tKopv/i/8o9 6 11 ap- 
poarao^ ioTLj fjiiai/ iKdrepo^ aKpav anoXa/Soficv/^^^Kade^c^ 
fieda- <rif 8c' ^ot 17817 ci/ kukX^ Trcpt/SXcTrcoi/ err^rKOTrit 

^ XAP. *Opc!) y^i' TToXXi^i/ Kal Xifjivriv Tivd fjiVyaK'qv Trepip- 
peovaav koX 9p7j Kal norafioi)^ rov Kojkvtov Kal Jlvpt^Xe- 
ycffovTo^ fiei^opa^ Kal dvdpdrrrov^ irdw (TfiLKpov^ /cat riva^ 
(fxoXeov^ avrSiv. 

EPM. ndXct? iKelvaC ctcrti/, ov9 <^€oXcov9 cTi/at vofii^ei^. 

130 XAP. Ol&0a^'ovi/, c5 ^Epfirjj cJ? ov8ci/ 17/1111/ TrcVpaicrat, 
dXXd fjidrqv top Tlapvaaraov avr^j KacrraXtiQi Kal t^i' Oittji/ 
Kal Ta dXXa 0^17 fi€T€KLVTJ(raii€v ; 
EPM. ''Ortrt; 
XAP. Ou8€i/ aKptfie^ eyayye dno rov {nlrrfXov bpS)- cSco- 

iSbfirfP ov TrdXct? Kal op>y avro fiovov cjcnep iv ypa^ai<; bpav^ 
dWd Toi)^ dvOpfOTTOV^ airrov^ Kal d irpdrrovai Kal ola 
Xeyoucrtj', cjtrnep ore /jlc to npwrov ivruxatv cISc? ycXwi/ra 

|M|)(av4v: the Xopi^yiot jcXIfuuccf in the 
theatre gave Charon his exits and his 
entrances, hence he might well be par- 
doned for his reluctance to become a 
$c^ dv6 fiTixcL^f' — El 7c kt\. I sc. some 
apodosis like ** Well, you *U have to risk 
it.'* — 8iKdf»v|frpot : i.e. duchpviposy often 
used by the poets in describing Parnas- 
sus. With the two actual peaks of Par- 
nassus were sometimes confounded the 
two precipitous clifiEs of the gorge at 
Delphi. See Frazer on Paus. 10, 8, 6. 

6. X(|fcvi|v : for the Lake of Acheron 
where Charon plied his ferry cf. Ar. 
Ran. 137-193. — K«kvto{) kt\. : for the 
potamography of Hades the locus clas- 
sicus is Plato PAoedo 112 E,f. Cf. Dante 
Inferno 14, 1 12-138. — ^«Xcov« : lairs. 
Cf. S. Matt. 8, 20 a2 A\unr€K€t <f>(a\€oi>s 
^xovo-ty. — a^TQ Kao~raX(^ : Castalia 
and all. For Castalia cf. Frazer on 
Paus. 10, 8, 9. — "On tC ; pourquoif 
Book of Common Prayer, Ps. 16, 11, 
for why f — MTirfp 4v ^pa^it : juat as 


/cat yjpov ye o rt yeXonji/- dicovcra? ydp riuo^ ri(r0riv C5 
140 EPM. Tt Sc TOVTO ^v; 

XAP. 'Etti SctTTi/oi/, olftat, KXrfOei^ Tt? utto rti'O? Tcii/ 
(f)i\o}v €9 n7i/ varepaiaPy MaXtcrra ij^w, et^i;, ical fiera^v 
Xeyoi/ro9 aTro tou Tcyou? KepapX^ iinrtaovaa ovk oZ8* ottois 
Tou oiicrjfiaro^ aireKreipev avrov. • iyeXcura ovuy ovk CTrtrcXe- 
l45crai/ro9 t^i^ U7rdcr)(€crti/. eotfca 8c Kal'pyv VTroKarafirjo'eo'daLy 
a>9 /maXXoj^ l3\€7roLfiL Kal aicovot/xt. 
7 EPM. ^E;^* drpc/Lia?- Kal tovto ydp cyci touro/xat crot /cat 
o^vSepKearaToi/ crt iv fipax^^ airo^avS} nap* ^Ofnjpov tlpol 
Kal Trpo^ TOVTO CTTjpSi^p \afidiVj KaneiSav etrro} tol cthj, 
160 iMefjurqao fxr^Kcn dfifiXvonTeiv, dXXd G'a<f>(o^ irdirra opdv. 
XAP. Aeye jjlovov. 

EPM. 'A;^Xw 8' au rot an 6<f>0a\fiS>v iXovy 'q nplv inrjevy 
o<pp €v yivtaoTKig^ rifxev ueov '^oe /cat avopa. 

tC itrttv ; rjSrf 6pa9 ; 
155 XAP. ^Tn€p<f>v(o^ ye* Tv<f>\os 6 AuyKCV? iKelvo^ <o<s 
npos €/x€- cUcrrc cru to cttI tovt(o npoahiSao'Ke fie /cat aTTO- 
KpCpov ipanojvTL. aWd /SovXet /cdyd> /card toj' Ofjirfpop 

in pictures. — 6 rt ^cX^tiv: Hermes^s standing). See App. — o^k otS' ^irwt : 

words, § 1, were W 7cX$f. — KXi)Of(f : see Introd. 29. — ^YAoo'a: I burnt into 

hidden. In Gall. 9, a poor shoemaker alaugh. Iiigressive aor. Gildereleeve, 

receives a contingent invitation to din- 8. C. G. 239. — viroKaraP^jo^<r^ai : note 

ner; the host says, c^ Avt' iKcL^ov rfKc force of inro-, *'IU1 be going a little 

Xovcrd/Myof, rjp fiii 8 ye kXtjOcIs aMu dry further down." Cf. on 8omn. 4. — fXi- 

dipi^aSeu, tat vOp ye dfuf>lpo\6i iari. — iroi|u : see Introd. 35 (a). 
|UTa(^ : cf. note to Somn. 17. — dir& 7. dir<M^vd: reddam. Sousedpar- 

rov Wyovs Kfpa|i(« : cf. Light of Aida, allel with dToSeUwfUy Somn. 8 (q.v.). — 

Book III : |U|jivi]o^ |ii)Kfri : a faith-cure. — 'AxXiv 

A snake's nip, half a span of angry steel, kt\.: words of Athena to Dioinedes 

A chill, a flsh-bone, or a falling tile, U, 5^ 127 ff. See App. Virgil recasU 

And life was over and the man is dead. ^hem A en. 2, 604. In Icar. 14 Empedo- 

— roO olK^fuiros: note the article; i.e. cles cures Icaromenippus's myopia by 

the house (before which you saw me help of the eaglets wing. — AvyKc^: 

XAP12N ' 83 

ipTJaofxai crc, a>9 fiddjj^ ou8' avrov afieXerriTOP ovra fie tS)v 
^Ofiijpov ; 

160 EPM. Kal TToOev av e)(€L^ tl riov iKeivov etSei/ot va&rq^; 
del KoX TrpocKODWO*; top; 

X AP. *0/)a$ ; ovetSio'TLKOP tovto C9 ttiv T€^irrjp, cyci 8c 
OTTore SieTTopdiMevop avrov airoOavovra^ iroWa pailKpSovirro^ 
TrapaKovaa^ IvUov en fie/jLirrniat' Kairoi ^eLfx^v rj/Jias ov 

165 fiiKpo^ Tore Karekafxfidvev. inel yap rjp^aro aScij/ ov ndvv 
oUtlov TLva (oBrjv T0t9 TrXcoucrti', (o^ 6 IlocrciSaii/ (rumjyaye 
rds i/€<^c\a9 Kal irdpa^e top ttoptop (oawep Topvprjp npd 
6fi/8aXa>i/ rrjp rpuiLpap Kal irdaa^ rd^ ^vcWa? dpouvpe koI 
dWa woWdyKVKCjp ttjp ddXarrap irrro riop incoPy ^eifioip 

170 d<f>p(t} Kal yp6<f>o^ ifiweacijp okiyov Selp Trepierpe^^tep rjixtp rrfp 
pavp ' oT€ irep Kal pavridaa^s iKeiyd^ aTnJiAtq'e tS>p paiffwhicip 
Ta9 TToXXa? avTTJ 'SiKvWjj Kal Xdpv^Sei Kal KvkXcdtti. ov i^^' " ^' 
j^aXcTToi/ ovp ^p eK roaovrov ifierov okiya yovp Sta<^vXaT- 
8 r€ip. eiwe ydp jmol • 

176 Tt9 r dp^ oS* iarl ird^icrro<; dprfp iqvs re fieya^ T€, 

€^o)(0^ dpdpdmdiP K€<f)a\riP Kal evp€a<; wjxov^ ; 

one of the Argonauts, the stock exam- made a picture of Homer sharing, in 

pie (iKcTvoi) of far-sightedness, cf . Icar. thiswise, his good cheer with the starve- 

12. — r«v '0|iijpov (so. irCjv): (that not ling poets. Cf. the scholiast ad loc, 

even I have neglected) my Homer. — Urt 6 TaXdru 6 ^(oypdtftot iypayj^e rbv iiJkv 

*Op9« : see note on Vit, Auct. 4 and on 'Ofiripoy ifjuavvra^ Toi>f dk dXXovf xoci7Tds rd 

Peregr. 45. — oi vdw atcrtov: boding ifirjfjx<r/jJva dpvofiipovs. See Bllimner, 

no great IucJl — wcnrcp ropvyt^v rivd: op. cit., p. 82, who cites this among 

like one of your soup-ladles. Note Lu- other instances where Lucian had ac- 

cian^s patchwork of Od. 5, 291 f. : tual works of art in mind. Aeschylus 

wf e/x<iv ai^myev w^eX<£s, irdpa^c Si t6»- ^sed to describe his works as ♦» scraps 
^^y from Homer's table"; see Ath. 347 e. 

X€pal rplatvav iXihv • irdcraf 8* 6p6dvy€v ^' «**« If^ ' resuming the thought 

d4\\as. interrupted at iptjTuvri § 7. — tCs t 

&p* ^8': Lucian changes II. 3, 226-227 
— d'Hjiiio^ . . . kfirov : Galato, in the by substituting iarl rdxt^roi for dWos 
time (probably) of the early Ptolemies, 'Axai6s and dvOpiinrtav for *Apyei<a». — 



EPM. MOuov ovtos 6 iK Kporcoi/o? ddXyfTTJ^. iiriKpo- 
' Tovcrt 8* avT(p ol ^EWt/i/cs, oti top ravpov dpdfji€vo<; ^p€L 
8ta rov arraStov fxeaov. 
180 XAP. Kal ir6ar(fi hiKai&repov dv ifi€y c5 ^Epfjirj, iiraivol^Vj '' 
o5 airrov crot rov Mi\a>j/a /ler okiyov fvX\a/8a>i^ ivOtjcrofjiat 

€9 TO (TKa<f>lBLOVy OTTOTOI/ yjKJj WpO^ TlfJid^ VTTO TOV dvakwTO' 

rdrov tS>v dmaytaviOTrnv fcaraTrdXawr^ei? rov ^avdrovy 
firfSe ^vvel^ otto)^ avrbv UTrocriccXt^et ; -Kara olfjici^eTai r/fup 
ISsSrjXaSi) iL€fxv7]fji,4vo^ tS>v aTe^dvfav tovtwv koX tov Kporov^^ 
vvv Sc /xeya <f>pov€2 6avfia^6fJi€vo^ inl r^ tov ravpov ^opa. 
rC 8' oZp olTf6ct}fi€i/ ; apa cXTrt^cti/ avroi/ Kal redmj^^crdaC 

EPM. Il60€v iKeivo^ Oavdrov vvv fivr)iJiov€V(r€i€v dv iv 
190 aKfjiy roaavry; 

XAP. Ea rovrov ovk et$ jxaKpav yeXwra rffiiv Trape- 
^ovra, oirorav irkeg ft^jS* c/xTrtSa rifjuv ov)( oncos ravpov en 
9 dpao'doL 8vvdfi€vo^. av 8c /idt eKeivo elifi^ 

Tt9 T ap oo aAA09 o aefivo^; avrjp ; 

195 ov^ "EXXtji/, oJ? €Olk€v diro yovv rr^^ crroXi^s. 

EPM. Kv/)o$, ft) XdpcjVy 6 Kafifivcrovj 09 riyi/ dp)(7iv 
irdkai MijSwv i^ovrtav vvv Tlepaciv yjSrf eTroCrjo'ev elvoA,- Kal 

M(X«v: 8eePaus.6, 14, 2. Miloflor. 511 
B.C. and was a contemporary of Darius. 
By prophetic licence Charon sees him 
as contemporary of Cyrus the Great. — 
imKpoToOo-i: Sbdt. sees in this a pun on 
Kp&rtaif. — rAvradpov: t^ (well-known) 
bull. — KaTaira\cuor6<Cs : floored; this 
and vro<rK(\li;€i remind Hermes, the god 
of the palaestra, that he had better get 
his sea-legs on before setting foot in 
Charon^s boat. — Tf6Wj(f«r6cu : mid. for 
act. See Schmid, I, 242. — 4)&irC8a : in 

Aesop's fable (No. 235) it is a Ktlivdj^ 
that seata itself on the horn of the bull. 
**Milo/' as Lucian seems to suggest, 
**in his palmy days could pick up the 
bull aint} Ttf jc(i6kwxc, but now — !" — 
ovx ^iTMs : let alone. See L. & S. s.v. 
Hwm IT, 2. 

9. 'EXXti.v . . . <rToX{)t: in V.II. A 
11 Endymion concludes that his pris- 
oners are Greeks, making a guess from 
their garb (dTrbTfjiffToXrji). — Kvpos: i.e. 
Cyrus the Great, who died 529 b.c. — 




Acr(rupUov 8* evay^o^ ovrg^^ iKparqae koX "Qafivklova irape- 
o'TTJaaTO Kai vvv cXacrctoi^t CTrt AvStai/ eoiKeVj cJ? Kadekow 
200 TOi/ KpoLCOP ap^oi dirdpTCDV. 

XAP. *0 Kpoicro^ 8c nov wore KaKelvo^ iariv; 

EPM. 'Efcctcrc airo/S^Gpov e? rffp fjLeyaKr)v aKpowoXtv rrfv 

TO TpnrXovv retj^o? • XdpSe^ iK€LvaLy kol tov Kpolaop avrov 

opas 7)^ cVt KXivrf^ XP^^^ Ka0T]fji€POV %6\(apt r^ *Kdi)vai(a 

205 StaXcyo/xei/oi/. /SovXet gLKova'(i)fi€v airrSyv 6 rt koX Xeyovai ; 

XAP. ndpv pAv oZp. 
10 KPOI2. *fl ^iv€ ^KOiqvcu^j elSc? ydp /jlov tov ttXovtov koI 
Toif^ dr)aavpov% koX oaro^ aa7)p.o^ xpvao^ inTiv rjpiv Koi 
TTjp dWyjv TToktrreXeiaVy eine p^oi^ Tiva rjy^ t(op dirdpTtov 
210 dvdpamtav €vbaip.ov4(TTaTov elvai. 
XAP. Ti apa 6 iSdXcoj/ cpct ; . 
EPM. Sdpp€L' ovSkv dyti/v€^j <a XdpoDV. 
SOA. *fl Kpolcre^ oXiyoL ol €v^aip,ov€^ • eyci 8c &v 
olSa KXco^Sti' KoX BtrcDi/a yjyovp^ax €vhaLp,ov€a'TdTov^ yevi- 
2iGa0aty Toifs Trj<; Upeia^ iralSa^ Trji ^Apyodev. 

TT|v r6 rpiirXovv rtixos : see Introd. 30. 
— Kpoto'ov . . . S6X«vi . . . SiaXry6|uvov: 

the con venation as told by Hdt. 1, 29 ff. 
seems to be chronologically impossible ; 
see Abicht, Sayce, or Stein ad loc. and 
Abicht on Hdt. 0, 1 26. PluUrch, how- 
ever {Sol. 27) thinks the story too good 
not to be true ; and Lucian, also indif- 
ferent to chronology, improves on it 
by inventing a miniature Socratic dia- 

10. ft8«s ^dp : the ydp^ as often, an- 
ticipates the leading sentence; heretliri 
fwi. — &«n)|ios xpva'69 : bullion^ as distin- 
guished from xp^^^ov coin, plate, etc. 
Bat we also find xp^<^^^^ dcmtav in 
Thuc. 2, 13 of the dro^ij/xaro, etc. — 

i4|v &XXt|v iroXvrAf lav : the rest of my 

sumptuous estciblishment. — KXioPiv koI 

BCrwva: Tellus is usually mentioned 

first. In Hdt 1, 31 the young men, in 

default of the oxen, draw their mother, 

the priestess, to the Heraeum (more 

than five miles distant and up a hill). 

In answer to the prayer of their proud 

and grateful mother the goddess grants 

them her best gift — death. Falling 

asleep in the sacred precinct, they pass 

straight from the Heraeum to heaven. 

Cf. William Watson's Keats: 

... in recompense sabliine, 
The gods, alas ! gave him their faieU love. 

For the Argive Heraeum, excavated by 
the American School, see The Argive 



XAP. ^rfirlv ovro^ Toif^ a/xa irpeorfu airodavovra^y circt 

TO lepov, 

KPOIS. ^Ekrrw i^ertaixav eK^voi ra irpwra rfjf; €vSat- 
220/jioi/ta9* 6 Setirepo^ 8c Tt5 ai/ €Lrf; 

20A. TcX\o9 6 ^A^Tji/alo?, 05 cv tc e/8uo *cal awcOaveu 
imkp r^5 narpiSo^. 

KPOIS. 'Eiyco Sel, cS Kadapfiay ov aoi hoKta eifSaCfKov 

eipcu ; 

226 So A. OuScTTO) olSa, c5 Kpola^y rjv fU) irpos to Teko^ 
a^iKig Tov fiiov 6 yap davaTO^ aKptfirf^ €\€y)(o^ t(ov tol- 
ovTfop KoX TO a^pi npo^ to TCpfia 6vSa(./Lioi/€t)9 Sta)8ict>i/at. 

XAP. KaXXtora, (o XoXtoVy ort '^fxciv ovk CTrtXcXtjcrat, 
aWa napa to 'n'op6fj»€lop airro d^toi? yiveadai rfjv 7r€pl t5>v 

23J TotouTcoi/ KpCati/. aWa Tiva^ eKeivov^ 6 Kpolao^ iKne/jLiret 


EPM. nXCvOov^ TG) IlvOUt} ^pvaa^ avaTiOiqai yuadov tS}v 
XPV^H'^^y ^i^^ ^^ '^^^ aTToXciTat fiiKpbv varepov ^iKopLav 
Tt9 8c 6 avTjp iKTonoj^;, 

Heraeum, by Charles Waldstein. — »iro- 
S^vrcs: Hdt. adds inrd r^¥ ^e&yXriv: Plu- 
tarch (I.e.) inrodt&vres r j) ^j) (the Attic 
word). — tCs &v cCt| : who (in that case) 
might the necond one bef — T^XXos: see 
Hdt. 1, 30 ; he saw his children's chil- 
dren, his country prospering, and, well- 
to-do himself, died in her defence and 
was honored with public burial where 
he fell. — Kd6ap|Aa : you scum of the earth! 
Cf. Diet. Antiq. s.v. " Lufitratio.'* — rh 
riKo9 . . . ciScufi^vMs StoPtAvcu : a fa- 
vorite idea. Solon's words ( Hdt. 1 , 32) 
are, o-Kor^tiP 8i xp^ iravrbs xp'^t"^'^^^ "^^^ 
TfXfuri}*', ncj dwo^ifi<reTai, Tlie gloomy 
finale of Soph. O. T. (1529-1530) Is, 

. . . fJLtiSiv dX^l^eiu, vplv dv 
rip/jM TOV filou repd^if /ii^dip dXyeivdw 

And in Aesch. A gam, 028 : 

filou TeXevTT^atrr iv edecroT ^IX-g, 

So Schiller, Wail. Tod, v, 4 : " Man soil 
den Tag nichtvordem Abend loben." 
— &KpkPi)s IXfTx^f: 80, in 2>. Mori. 21, 
2, Cerberus asserts that even Socrates 
was bold up to the entrance only, t4 5' 
IIp8o0€p fKeyxoi dxpi^i^f . — 'YCvco^ai : for 
form, see In trod. 40. 

11. nXCvibvs: in Hdt. they are iifu- 
vXlyOia. — ^iX6|&avrit : daft on dimna- 


236 XAP. *Eic€ti/o yap iariv 6 ^pvao^;^ to Xa/JLirpov o airor 

(rTiX/S^Ly TO vvfajlpai/ jxer €pvdrjp.aTO^ ; vvv yap TrpSnov 

€&ov aKovQiv deL . . 

EPM. 'Efccti'o, <3 XdpcDPy TO aotSifjiOT/ ovofia /cat Trept/jta- 

240 XAP. Kat fiifv ovx opS> 6 tl dyadov avr^ wpoaeo'TiVy el 

firj apa & rt {jlovov^ otl fiapwovTOL oi <f>€poPT€^ avrd. 

EPM. Oi yap otada ocot iroXe/jiOi 8ta tovto /cat ctti- 

povKai Kai KjjOTyjpta Kai eniopKLaL Kat <povoL Kat oeafia Kat 

7r\ov9 fJiaKpo^ Kat iinropCai kol SovXctox ; 
246 XAP. Ata TovTOy cS ^lEtpfXTJ, to fX7] ttoXu tov ^aX^oi) 8ta- 

<^4pov; oI8a yap tov ^oKkov^ 6/3o\6i/y g)5 olada^ irapd T(ov 

KaTair\t6vT(s}v ckootov cVXeywi^.r,, 

EPM. Nat- dXXa 6 j^aX^os fikv ttoXv?, cSotc ov irdw 

(TTrovSa^CTat vtt' c^urcSi^- tovtov 8c oXtyoi/ e/c iroXXoG tov 
25O/3d0ov^ ol /xcraXXcvbwc? dvopvTTOvo'L' 7r\rjv dXXa ck y^9 

icat oxrro^ (aairep o fjioKvpoo^ Kat Ta aXXa. 
• XAP. ^eivrjv Tiva Xcyct? T(av dvdpamiav ttjv dfi^jepiav^ ^ 

ot TocovTov iparra IpSiciv (a\pov koX fiapeo^ KnjfiaTO^. 
EPM. AXXd ov 'ZoXtap ye eKeti/09, o) 'Kdpcjp, epdv airrov 
266 <f>aCveraLj gJ? opq,^- KaTayeXa yap tov Kpourov Kai rrj^ 

fieyakav)(Ca^ tov fiapfidpov^ Kat [xoi BoKelv ipeadat Tt fiov- 

Xcrat avTov eiraKovao^iiev ovv, 
12 So A. EtTTC iioij <a Kpoure^ otct ydp tl helcdai tUv ttXCv 

d(av TOVTtav tov Hvdiov ; 

Uon. — vTt»xP®v : paliah yellow. In yival of this, cf. the pennies put by old 
FugiL 27, of a slave, somewhat sallow. crones on the eyes of a corpse. — 

— do(Si|iov: storied,. — irXoOs |uucp6t : X^: plentiful. See L. & S. s.v., I, 2, c. 

long voyaging. In this list of plurals — irXi|v dXXd: see Introd. 24 (a). — 

the singular (in all Mss.) seems like &p<XTcpCav: fatuity. For brachylogy 

an interloper. — oPoX^v : for Charon's see on Sonin. 1 . — roo-ovrov Ipvra Ipm- 

fee cf. D. Mort. 22 et passim. For sur- axv : have such a passionate love for. 


260 KPOIS. N17 Ata- oif yap iartv avroi iv Ae\<f>oi^ dvadyjixa 

OuSci' TOiOVTOI/, 

So A. OvKovp /jLcucdpiov otei rov deov awoif^avelp el Knj' 
(TcuTO iv roi^ aWois koX nXivdov^ XP^^^^y 

KPOI2. na>9 yap ov ; 
265 So A. IloWyjp fioi Xeyct9, c5 Kpourey wepiap iv rol ovpavq}^ 
el €fc AvSia^ /xcTaoTcXXecrdai to ^xhtvov herjaei airrov^f 'qv 

KPOIS. Hov yap Toaovro^ dv yevoiro )(^pvao<; oco^ irap 
rfiuu ; 
270 So A. Eine fioi, aiSripo^ 8c <f>v€Tai iv AvSia; 

KPOIS. Ou irdvv Tt. 

SOA. Tou /Sekriovo^ apa ci/8c€t9 core. 

KPOIS. 11(0^ dfjieivoji/ 6 (r&qpo^ ^pvaiov; 

So A. *Hi/ dTTOKpLi/jj fiTjSci/ dyavaKTmVj fiddoi^ dv* 
275 KPOIS. 'Epcira, cS SoXgji/. 

So A. Tlorepoi dfieCi/ov^ oi^aip^oirres rtpa^ rj oi cr^^d^ei^ot 
irpo^ avTtai/; 

KPOIS. Oi cfot^ovre^ hrjXahij. 

So A. Ap* ovi/y T^p KvpoSy w? XoyonoLOvo'C Tti^c5, €7rt]7 
280Au8ot9, xpyads fxaxaipa^ arif noLTJcTi r^ OTparia 17 6 
aiSripo^ dvayKalos totc; 

KPOIS. *0 aCBripo^ 817X01' art. 

12. dvdOv))ui : for these Delphic ana- preceding question. — ^^nu: is pro- 

themata see Frazer on Pans. 10, 0, 2 ff. duced. 4>^ thus used of inanimate 

— dkiro^avciv : see Introd. 35 (c). — things reverts to the meaning of the 

IlAs Ydp oii; a frequent formula of Skt. stem hhu * become*; * arise/ — 

asseveration in Plato. For Platonic |iT|Scv dk^avairrMv: perhaps a reminis- 

reminiscence note the particles through- cence of Thrasymachus chafing under 

out the context. — noXXi)virfv(av: Soc- Socrates^s questions, Plato Rep. 338 d 

rates, Plato Apol. 23 c, says : ^i* vevlq, ff., and especially 354 a iitet^-fi fwi irpaos 

tivplif, did, — <r(Si]pos S^ : if d^ri fioi is iydvov Kal xa^^^a^>^>' iTra6<na. — |idOoi8 

construed parenthetically, the 5^ marks &v: see GMT. 505. — 'Ep^ra: go on 

a natural contrast to the XP^^^ ^^ ^^® ^^"^ V^'^'"' tn7<<^'^i<^^* — Xo^ovoiovo-v : 



So A. Kat €1 yc fi'^ rovrov Trapacnccvacrato, ot)(OLTO iv 
(rot 6 xpvaos is Hepaas ai^/xaXairos* 
286 KPOI2. Ev<f>7JiM€Ly dvOpfone, 

SOA. M-^ ydpoiTo (ikv ovtcj ravra- <f>aLirQ 8* GUI' dfieivo) 
Tov \pv(Tov Tov ar&yfpov ofjioXoyciv. 

KPOIS. OvKovv Koi TO) dew crtSr/pa? irXipOovs KeKevets 

avariOevai /ic, rov 8c ^pvaov oniao} aWis dvaKoKeiv; 

290 So A. Oi8c clStJpov iKelpos ye SerjaeToUy a\)C"qp re x^^" 

Kov rjy T€ xpvaov dvaOjjs^ d\\ot$ fxev irore KrfJiAa koi 

i^ ''^ T epfiaipv eafi dvaTedeiKw^ rj ^taKevai^v rj Boia>rot9 rj AcXc^ot? 

avrbl? Tj TLvi Tvpdvv(f rj Xjyrr^j rol 8c dew okiyov /xeXct rwv 

awv xpvaoTTOuwv, 

296 KPOIS. *Act (TV fJLOv Tw ttXovt^ TTpocTroXefieL^ Kal 

^doveis, ^^ 

13 EPM. Ou ^epei 6 Au8ds, w Xapcov, ttjp TrappriarCav koi 
rffp okiqdeLav Twv \6ywv^ aXXa ^evov airrw hoKeZ to 7rpay/xa, 
nevrjs avOpwiros oif^ uTroTjn/crcrcwj', to 8c irapiardfievdv 
30Q iXevdepws \eywv> fiefMinjo'eTaL 8''o5v fiiKpiv vaTepov tov 
26X6)1^099 oral/ avTou 8cjy aXoi/ra cVt ttju nvpdv vno tov 

cf. Lys. 22, 14. — Ei^^iui: bridle your 
Umgue. — lo^ &varcOciKd&s : for peri- 
phrastic form see Introd. 20. — ^mkcO- 
«riv . . . rvpdwfp ij X^o^fl : in the Holy 
War (360-346 B.C.) Onomarchus plun- 
dered the Delphic dya^/uara. Later 
Phayllus, his successor, melted one 
hundred and seventeen of the golden 
ingots and the golden lion itself which 
Croesus had set up. See Grote c. 
Ixxzvii. Cf. especially Paus. 10, 7, 1. 
Paus. (3, 10, 8), however, says: rbw 
Xpv<r6p OP Kpouroi 6 Avd^t t(} *Air6XXaiMi 
llT€fjul^€ T(fi IlvBaei, TO&Tifi 4t KdfffJMP TOV iv 
* KttJ&K\aii Kar€XP^<fo.vTO irfAXiioTOi. — 
tAv o-Av Yjffw^icwAAv : for your gold- 

amUK^s handiwork. In Byzantine Greek 
XpwroToila means * alchemy . * The force 
of the plural is, * your efforts in the line 
of goldsmithery.' See plurals in §16 
and cf. Introd. 22. See App. 

13. irappt|(r(av : a cardinal virtue 
with Lucian. ^'Parrhesiades*^ is his 
incognito in Piac. 19 and 62. — Ti|v 
irvpdv: Hdt. 1, 86 ff. gives a vivid 
account of Croesus on the pyre. In 
Bacchylides, 3, 31 ff., is found a differ- 
ent version to the eifect that Croesus 
himself builds a pyre and ascends upon 
it with wife and daughters to escape 
slavery by death. Zeus extinguishes 
the fire, and Apollo, in gratitude for 



Kvpov ava)(dy]vajL' rfKovaa yap rfj^ KXaidov^ Trp<grqv di^a- 
ytvcjcrKovairff; ra eKctoro) €7rtfC€fcXci>crfia/a, iv ot? koX ravra 
iyeYpaTTTOy Kpolaov fikv akSyvax vno Kvpov, Kvpop 8c avroi/ 

305 VTT* iK€iP7)(rl T79 MacrcrayertSo? anodavelv. opq,^ rfjv Xkv 
OiBay rffv €7rl tov lttttov tovtov tov XcvkoS i^eXavvova-av ; 
XAP. N^ Ata. 

EPM. To/xvpt9 iK€Lpri iarriy kol Trjv K€(f>aKijp ye aTrorc- 
fiovaa tov' Kvpov avvq C9 aaKov ifjifiakei nXyjprj at/xaros* 

Zlo6pq.s 8c KOL TOV viov avTov tov veavixTKov; Ka/x/SvoTj? 
iKeivo's icTiv • ovTO^ /SacrikevarcL fiera tov iraTcpa Koi fivpia 
a^akel^ ev tc Ty Al/3v^ kol Aldioirta to TcXcvraloi/ /Jiai/€i9 
airodaveiTaL dwoKTeivas tov^Attlv. 

XAP. *fl TToXXoC yeXorros, aXXa vvv tC^ dv airrov^ 

316 irpocr/8Xe/f€t€i/ ovrco? vn€p<f>povovvTa^ tS}v aXXcoi^; ij Tt? ai^ 
TTtcrrcvcrctci/ ws /xer' 6\iyov ovto^ fiev atj(/xaXo>ro5 ccrrat, 

14 OVT09 8c T^i/ K€<f>a\7iv i^€L iv dcTKo! ai/iaros; iKelvo^ 8c rt? 
ioTLVy (o 'Epfirj, 6 rffv 7rop<f>vpdv i<f>€OTpC8a iixwewopTrfJlie'' 
vo^y 6 TO 8id8i7^a^ .^ roi/ SaKrukiov 6 fiayeipo^; dvaZQoHri 

the gifts sent to Delphi, bears them 
away to dwell among the Hyperbo- 
reans. — ijKoiHra: often, as here, dra- 
ytypioffKbf is used of reading aloud, but 
in Philops. 25 we find Pluto iinXeySfi^pot 
r(av rtdvri^iiivw t A 6v6ijua,ra.. — rf^ii KX«>- 
6oiif : the respective functions of the 
Spinsters Three are given by Plato 
in Rep. 617 c. Lachesis sings rd 7€7o- 
v&ra^ Clotho rd tfvra, and Atropos rd 
/xAXoKra, but Clotho is apt to assume 
the rOles of all three. See especially 
the account in Catapl. 1-16. — rd . . . 
4vuccicXM<r|Uva : what has been spun out 
for each. Note tense here and in ^7^- 
ypairro : each man^s fate is ** sealed and 
signed" even if not yet ** delivered." 

— T6|ivf>t«: cf. Hdt. 1, 205-214. — |i»- 
pCa o-^aXiCs : Cffter meeting with no end 
of disasters^ e.g. the loss of his army 
sent to reduce the Ethiopians. Hdt. 3, 
25. — *Airiv: for the ** marks" of the 
sacred calf, his epiphany during the 
stay of Cambyses in Egypt, his death 
from the wound inflicted by Cambyses, 
etc., see Hdt. 3, 27-20.— ""n iraXXoft 
T^orrot : oA, what lots of fun I ' For 
gen. cf. note to Fit. Auct. 13. — irpo«r- 
pX^^wv: Reitz. tr. At nunc quia 
eos aspicere sustineat? 

14. 6 t6 Sid6i||Aa: see Introd. 30. 

— 6 ftd'YCipos : the ch(if. The functions 
of cook and buicJier were combined even 
in Polycrates^s establishment. — &va8(- 



S20 TOP i\dvv aparefKov, 

EPM. EJ yc irap^ets? (o HdpoDV. aWa IloXvKpdrriv 
opq,^ TOP XafJiUop Tvpappop irapevhaiyiopa rfyovfi€POP eTpav 
drdp KoX ovTo<; avro? xmo rov 'n'ap€0'TaiTos oiKirov Maiai^ 

325 8piov 7r/)o8o^ct9 ^OpotTg TG> aaTpaTTj) dpaaKoXoTrio'dTJa'erai 
adXio^ iKtrea^p T179 €v8at/ioi/ta9 €P aicapci rov \p6pov koX 
TavTa yap rfj^ KXtoOovs iinJKOva'a, 

XAP. '^Ayafxai K\(t)6ov<;' yeppiKO)^ KaV avrovsj (o ^cXrt- 
CTT), Koi Ta9 K€(f)aXd<; dnorefjiP^ fcaf ai/acr/coXoTrt^c, ol? €iSa)(ni/ 

330 apOpomoi opre^ • €i/ rocroi/np 8c inaipeadcop ds dp d<f>* vnlrqXo- 
T€pov dXyeiPorepop KaTaneaoviiepoi, iyo) 8c yeXdxrofiaL rore 
ypcjpura^ avrcjp eKaarop yvfipop ep t(o cr^acptot^ /iiyrc t^i' 
7rop<f>vplSa fiT/rc ridpap rj kXCptjp ^pvarjp KOfiitfipra^, 

15 EPM. Kat rd fiep rovnap ft>8c cfct. Tr)p 8c ttXtjOvp opa^^ 

336 c5 XdpcjPy roif^ irXeopra^ avrwpy rov^ TroXefjiovpTa^y tov^ 

Scio-t: restores. See II dt. 3, 41 ff., for 
story of Polycrates. — v^ip kt\.: the 
parody is a combination of Od. 1, 50 
and 5, 460. — dvfurKoXomo'O^jo^Tflu : a 
favorite Oriental punishment. That 
this word means also crucify is best 
seen in Jud, Vocal, 12 fufiriaa^vovs ai- 
Tov (i.e. the letter T) t6 xXdafxa JfirciTo 
O'XiJa"*'''' TOio{rr(p ^{\a rejcTiJwirraf dy$p<i- 
rous dwiffKo\oirl^€iv hr aurd. Of. also 
the references to the Crucifixion in 
Peregr. 11 and 13. — iKino-Mv rf^s liSoi- 
|AOv(a« : Oedipus is a stock illustration. 
Cf. Soph. O.T. 1189 ff.: 

tIs 7<£p, rlt dv^p wXdop 

ras eidaiftoylat ff>4p€i 

^ rocovTOv iffov SoKeiP 

Kal d^avr diroKXtpai ; 

Cf. Aesch. Again. 1327 ff., supra, p. 20, 

note 1 . — Kal raOra -yAp : (don't be sur- 
prised at my knowing so much,) for 
this cUso^ etc. — "A^ofMu KX«6oOs : Clo- 
tfio'8 the one for me! Give them, my 
dear lady^ a royal scorching. For de- 
fence of Ayafiai etc. see Fritzsche ad 
loc., who compares am a bo te, / en- 
treat you; but his best illustration is 
from Aristophanes Ach. 485-488: Z 
rdXaiva xapdla , . . r6\iiyi<ro¥ . . . (kyayjii 
KapBlas. — KaC*a^o^ . . . &ir6Tt|ivi . . . 
Avoo-KoX^iriSc refer respectively to Croe- 
sus on the pyre, the death of Cyrus, and 
that of Polycrates. — Tviiv^v: cf. D. 
Mort. 10, where the embarking pas- 
sengers are stripped of their fortunes 
and their fat, their pride of pedigree, 
their beards and baggage. — iiijrc . . . 
|i^: for ovT€: see Introd. 39 (e). 

^ '■'■ ' * 


TrpoaaiTovvra^ f"'"" ^^/ 

XAP. ^OpS> ttolkCXtji/ TLpa r^i/ SiarpLfirju kol fi^crrov rapa- 

^7^9 TOP piov /cat Ta? tto Act? yc avro)!/ cotfcvia? roi^ ap/qv^aiv^ €v 

340 ot? o^KfL^ fxev iStov Tt KevTpov e)(€t Kat Toi/ TrXyjaLov kci/tcZ, oXtyot 

Sc Tti/€9 (ocTrep G'<f>rJK€^ ayovcL kol <f>€pova'L to VTroSccorcpoi/.^ 

6 8e TTcptTTCTOfici/o? ttUTOV? CK Ta<f>avov^ ovTO<; 6)(\o^ rive^ eicrCi/; 

EPM. *EX7rt8€9, oj Xdpcjv^ kol Sei/xara Kat ayvoiai koX 

y)hovaX /cat ^ikapyvpiai /cat opyal Kolfiurrf /cat ra rotaSra. 

845Tourct)i' Sc ij ayvoia fiev Kctro) ^vvavapLefxiKrai avrot? /cat 
fu/jLTToXtTCucrat yc I'l) Ata Kat to pXao^ Kat ij op'yi7 Kat ^tqXoI^' 
tvttUl Kat afiadia /cat dnopta kol <f)L\apyvpLa^ 6 <f>6l3o<: Se 
Kat at cATTtoc? vnepavat) Trerofievoi, o fiev €pLTrnTT(av €KnKr)TTeLj 
iviore kclL v7ro7mj<ra'€Li/ iroieiy at 8' cXTrtSe? virkp K€<f>a\fj^ 

350 aiajpovfJievaL, oirorav ftaXto-ra OLrjTaC rt? eTn\rj}^te(T9ai avroii/, 

J / V 1y i \ y \ ^ ff 

avairrafxevai oi^ovrai Ke)(rivora^ avrov^ aTTOAtTroucrat, oirep 

Kat Toi^ Tai/raXoi/ Karo) 7rda')(OPTa opa^ vno rov vSaro^. 

Urfv 8c aTCi/MTTj?, Kardi/ict Kat ra? Motpa^ di/o> cVtKXco^oucra? 

15. SkKotop^^vs: this was a usual Athenian law-courts. — ^^ovo-kKal^- 

hit at tlie Athenians. So Strepsiades povo-t: cf. Lat. agere et ferre. — 'EX- 

(Ar. Nub. 208) cannot believe that he irCScs: the one solitary blessing is named 

sees Alliens on the map iwcl diKaariis first — that one saved in Pandora's jar. 

o6x opQ KaBrifjJpovi. In Icar. 10 the For the plurals see Introd. 22. — kcxv|- 

kingdoms of men and their mannera vdras: the ever-recurring thought. Cf. 

are seen from above : toi>s AlyvwTiovi Aesch. Ayam. 421 ff. : ** Beside him 

yeupyouvrai iTi^Xevoy^ xal 6 <I>om^ 5^ fancies stand that bring vain joy, aye, 

iveirope^eTo Kal 6 KiXi^ i\TJaT€V€ Kal 6 vain — for, when pne thinketh to be- 

AdKwv ^fjuuTTtyouTo Kal 6 *Adrjvaioi idiKd- hold what 's good, the vision, slipping 

frro. — iroiKCXt)v: motley^ ever-shifting. through his hands, is gone, or e'er it 

The meaning shifts from the purely hath appeared, with wings that com- 

exlernal, e.g. Joseph's many-colored pany on the paths of sleep." 

coat (Gen. 37, 23 rhv x(tu>mi rbv voikI- 16. rds MoCpas &vw 4irkKX«6o<>o*aifi : 

Xov), to the subtlety of Prometheus see the elaborate description in Plato 

(Aesch. Prom. 308 Kalvep 6yTi ToiJcfXy). Rep. 017 c (see above, § 13). The pious 

— K^vTpov . . . o-^i)Kcs: the Wasps of Pausanias (1, 40, 3), describing the 

Aristophanes ridicules the al) in the ** Hours" and the ** Fates" in the air 



€KacrTft> Tov arpoKTov, a<f>* ov i^frnjcrOat ^vyL^efi'qKei/ airavra^ ^ 
SbbiK XeTTTiou PTjixdroDU. 6pa<; Kaddnep apa)(yid riva Kara- ' 
fiaivovra €<^* ^Kaarov aTro rS}v drpdKTojv ; « 

XAP. *OpS} irdw XcTTToi/ iKdaro} vfjixa imneirXeyiievov 
ye rd TroXXa, tovto ixkv iKeCj/o), iKeivo 8c d\\a>. 

EPM. titicoraj?, ot> iropufxev' eL/iapTai yap eKeivw fiev vno 
360 Tovrov (f>ovev6rjpaLy tovto) 8c vn aXXou, kol K\rjpovofirj(rair<^^^ 

9 ^ 

ye rovrov fiev c/ccti/ou, otov av y fiiKporepov to vrffxay c/cci- 
vop 8c au Tovrov TotovSe ydp ri rj ciriTrXo/o) SijXoi* 6p^^ 
8* ovi/ diro XcTTToC KpeaapLevov^ diravra^; kol ovto^ fiev 
ai/acTTTacrcfet? ai^o) fxerewpo^ ccrrt Kat ^cra fiiKpop Karane- 

365cra>i/, dnoppayevTos tov Xivovy eweiSdi/ p/qKeri dvriy^ npo^ 
TO fidpo^y fieyav top iffo^op epydaeTaiy ovto^ Be oKiyov diro 
yrj^ ai(opGviiei/o^, rjv koX Treay, d\lio<f>rfTl Kcwrcrai, fioXt^ kol 
T0t9 yeiToaiv e^aKovadevTO^ tov Trrol/iarosi*'^ 
XAP. IlayycXota ravra, ciS ^Epfirj. 

„*J EPM. Kat /x'^i' ou8' cittcii/ €\ol<; dv KaTa t^i/ d^iavj 
07ro)9 ccrrt icaTaycXacrra, cy HdpajVy Kal /laXtora at ayaj' 
cr7rou8at avriav koL to /xcTofu roii/ eKirihtav ot^ccr^ot 

above the statue of Zeus Motpa7^i7s 
in the temple at Megara, is careful 
to explain 8^Xa bk Td<n ttjv HeTrpof- 
fUmjv fM&iKfi ol (Zeus) irel$c<rdai. — r6v 
&rpaicTov jcrX. : (spinning) their spindle 
from which (are suspended) by threads. 
Hence ArpaxTos does not here .mean 
thread (as Schmid, I, 801, lakes it) but, 
as the Eng. spindle may mean a given 
length (e.g. a spindle of cotton is 18 
hanks or 15,120 yards), so we find m 
Catapl. 7 <rx^b^v yap 8\oy fxot rbv drpa- 
KTov lir4K\<a<rai thou host almost spun out 
for me the whole spindle. Either mean- 
ing would be possible in Jupp. Conf. 19 
K\iitOiav ArpaKTOP roaoAroiv xpayyAnaw 

fi£<rT6y. Cf . Diet. Antiq. s. v. * ' Fusus. ' * 
The association of the Skt. tarM ^ spin- 
dle* with Lat. torque o and rpiiru 
suggests the probable derivation (alpha 
copulativum) for the Spinster Atropos. 
— rdiroXXd: the article is unusual (cf. 
Schmid, I, 234, for examples). — di|ro- 
<^tI KcC<rtTai: Kelaerai is used in a 
pregnant sense, will fall and lie there 
(and never a sound wUl have been 
heard). It would be more logical to 
have T€(T€tTai (see A pp.), but it is hardly 
necessary; cf. too, in Jud. Vocal. 2 
(where Sigma fears that he will turn 
into a mere \f/6<f>os), the expression iy 
tatfi Si KeurBai roO \l/&<f>ov. 

/ ■:*.. - 

44 sp:lections from lucian 

(ii/ap7raaTov<; yiypofi€i/ov<; viro rov p^KriOTov ^ai/arov. ay- 
yeXot 8c fcal vwqpirai, airrov fidXa ttoXXoi, 015 opq,^, '^wtaXoC^ 

375 ^at TTvperoL kclI ^06at Kal TrepLnvev/JiOj/ULi koI ^i^f) Koi Xr/- 
(rrjffpia koi Kcovaa ifcat St^aoral koI rvpavvoi • Kal TovT<av 
ovhkv o\(ji}^ avTov^ ctcrcp^cTat cor* av €v TrparroMrti/, orav 
he a'<f>aKa>a'Ly ttoXu to ottotoI /cat atai Kal oi/xoi. ei Sc 
evdifs i^ dp^rjs ivevoovv otl ffurp-oC re eiaiv avrol koI oXt- 

380 yoi/ TOVT01/ ^povov iin,hr)iirjaavTe^ r^ fiua dTTLaaiv aynrep 
i^ 6veLpaTO<; irdvra vnep yrj^ d<f>€VT€^y ei^coi/ T€ av coi^por 
viarepov /cat rjirov yfviS^v^o anodapovre^ - vvv 8c ct? act 
cXTTwrai^c? ^prjaeadai rot? irapovaiv^ ineiSav CTrtoras 6 
vTrrjperrjs /caX^ /cat dndyy ireSTJaas r^ irvper^ ij 7^ <^^oj/r 

385 ayai/aicToScrt Trpo? T171/ dycjyfiv ovnore TrpoahoKrj^avres 
dnoo'Traa'OTJaea'fiaL avToji/. rj tC yap ovk dv TTOtT^crctci/ 
c/ccti/09 6 jT^v^LKiav CTTovSy ot/co8o/iou/ici^o9 Kal tov<; ipyd- 
ra? eTnampxcjVy ct fiauoi on tj fiev cfct tcao? atrr6i, o oc 

a/)Tt CTTt^cl? TOI' OpO^OV CtTTCtCTt TG) KXrfpOVOflOi KaTokLTTCJl/ 

300 aTToXavcti^ avrg.9, avro? /xt78c Seinvrja'a^ 6 dOXio^ iv avrg ,* 
iK€Lvo<; ficv yap 6 ^aipwv otl appeva 7rat8a t€tok€v airrw rj 
yvmjy Kal tov^' <f>i\ov<; 8ta tovto ecTiiov koX Tovvofia tov 
iraTpo^ TiOefievo^, el TfTrUrTaTO ol? eiTTeTr]^ yev6fievo<; 6 7rat$ 

17. roH fUkrUrrov Bav&rov : my ex- tes the executioner, P/wcdo 116 b. ijiccr 

cellent (colleague) Sir Death. — K^vcia : 6 Ttaf ivSexa inrrif>4Trii Kal o-tAj wop oiVrAr. 

e.g. the execution of Socrates. And cf. Here it is one of the ifrriph-ai ^ . . 

Lys. 1*2, 17 wap'/iyyeiXai' ol rptdKovra rd woWol just mentioned. — AiroyncMrO^- 

iir iK€lifiav elOiafxivov irapdyycXfiaj irlvuv <rc<r0ai a(»rMv : from tkeiUj i.e. T(avirap6p- 

Ktivciov. — iroXvr^ . . . ot|&oi: thick and twv. — f^rfii: ioTod54: see Introd. 39(e). 

fast come the woe ! woe's! and the oh I — Sciirv^o-as: of the house-warming. 

oh^sl and the ah me's! — oX(«yov . . . — roii irarp6t: (giving it) his faiher's 

lffiSi)|i^0«vTfs rf pCip: after this brief name, i.e. of the grandfather. Cf. 

sojourn in life: contrast with Plato's Ar. Nub, 65. To mean the name of 

Aj)ol. 40 E €l 8' ad olou dirodrffjLi}<ral the boy's father the refl. gen. would 

ia-riv 6 6dvaroi ivBivbc els AWov r&irov. — have been used instead of rov varpis. 

Imo^ds 6 vin|p^n|s: so comes to Socra- This was also done, e.g. ArffjM<rB4rnt 



T€0inj^er(Uy apa av aoi Sok€l yaipeiv in airr^ yevvtofievoi ; 

396 aXXa TO aiTiovj ort top yAv eirrv\ovvTa cttI rfiJ ttcuSi iKeivop 
op^TOv Tov d6\7)Tov itaTepa tov 'OXv/A7rta v€vlk7ik6to^, top 
y^LTova §6 TOV iKKOfiCl^ovra ro iraiBCov ov\ opq, ovSe oTBev 
d<fi Ota? avTw KpoKjf^ eKpCfiaTO. Toifq fiev yap ncpl tcjv 
opcjv SLa<f>€poii€vov^ 6p^9 oaoL etaCy kol tov^ (rupayetpov- 

400 ra9 ra ^prjfiaTaj elra, irpXv (XTroXaScrat avrSiVj KaXovficvov^ 
v<f>* (OP elirop Toyp dyyeXoiP tc kol t(op VTrqperojp, 

18 XAP. OpSf TavTa irdpTa kol irpo^ ifiavTOP ye ippoS) o Tt 
TO ijSv avTot? irapa top fiiop rj ti eKelpo corti/, ov arepofiepoi 
dyapaKTOvaip. rjp yovp tov? jSacrtXea? JSjy Tt? avTCJp^ olnep 

40b €vBcuiiop€(rTaTOL elpat ^okovclp, e^cti toS a^efiaiov koI cJ? 
<^^5 dfiq>LPo\ov T7)^ TVX'*?^> ttXcmo Toij' ijSectii/ Ta dpiapai 
evprjaei irpoaopTa avrot?, (f^ofiov^ kol Tapa^^a? Kal /autt; Kal 
€7rt)8ovXa? Kat 6pya<: kol KoXaKcta?- tovtoi? yap aTrai/Tc? 
^vpeiaLP. iS) irepOi) koX poaov^ koI irdOr) i^ iaorifiia^ 

410 SryXa&l) dp^opTa avrwp • ottov 8c Ta tovtojp iroprjpdy Xoyi- 

[ccr^at Kcupo^ ola to, t<op ISiayrwp dp citj. iOeka) 8* o5i/ crot, 

01 ^Kpfi'^j eiirelp wtlpl ioiKepai fioi iSo^ap oi dpdpcDiroi kol 

6 pio^ aTra? avT(op. \ 17817 ttotc 7rofi<{>6\.vya^' ip vSaTi iOedao) 

viro Kpovp(a tlpl xaTapdrTOPTi dpiarafiipa^ ; Ta? <f>vo'aXC8a^ 

4l5Xeycti, d<^' (op ^vpayeiperai 6 dif>p6^' iKeipcjp toCpvp at ficp 


Kt i 

Afffu>9$4iwn, For the christening fes- 
tival celebrated on the tenth day see 
Gulick, p. 78. — vf vtin)K6Tot : famed as 
victor; note tense. For the fame accru- 
ing to family and to native place as well, 
see the serenade to Lachon^ Bacchyl.6, 
Kioy €6K\4t^at, — iKKOifcCtovra : i.e. to his 
barial. The classical word is iK<f>4f>u, 
and this is retained in Acts 5, 6-10. 

18. iropd t6v p(ov : in (the course of ) 
their life. This use of Topd is favored 
by Lucian. Cf . Pi9C» 25 otoi , . . ^ei^ 

fuOa irapd t^v ^iov and 32 irapA j^utrrai 
vfi%t ij i^h-aait . . . iyiyvrro. — 1{« : aside 
from. — ^^Povs kt\. : for plural of ab- 
stract nouns used concretely cf. Gil- 
dersleeve, S.C.G.AA and 45. — <( Wqitk- 
|fc(at : on the common level. — rd Toi»T«v : 
i.e. fiaaCKiav. — Kcupds: ifs high time. 
19. iro|&^Xvyas: onomatopoetic re- 
dupl. Around Charon*s boat the 
Frogs^ choral had burst in a triumph- 
ant blare of bubbles, iro/A^oXiryoTa^Xd- 
ffUMiy* Ar. lian. 249. — dirivptio-civ 



Tti^c? fiiKpaC elai Koi avriKa iKpayu.aai dnecr fiTjaav^ at 8' iirl 
irkiov hiapKOvd koX Trpoa'\(t}po\KrSiv avrat? tS>v aXkoiv vir^p- 
(fivadfievai c? fieyiarop oyKov alpovrai^ clra fiimroi KOLKtivax 
iravTO)^ i^eppdyrjcrdv irore- ov yap oXov tc aXXco? yeviaOai.. 

420 TovTo ioTLi/ 6 dvdpdmov pCo^ ' dnavre^ imo Tn^cv/jtaro? iinre- 

<f>v<r7fii€POL ot fikv iie!Z<ov^j oX hk Ikdrrov^' koX o% fiev oXt- 

yoxpoviov .€Xov<tt Koi (OKvuopop TO <f>v<rrjiiay ot 8c d/ia to* 

^voTTJvaL inavo'avro ' Traai 8' ovv diroppayrjvoL dvayKolov* 

EPM. OuScr \etpov crv rov ^OyLTJpov eiKaaa^y (o XdpcjVy 

426 o9 <^i5XXot? TO y4vo% avrSiP ofioiot. 

20 XAP. Kal- Totourot ovt€^j (o ^IStpfirj^ opa^ ola wolovo'l kol 
6)9 <^tXori/x,oSi^at tt/oo? dWijXov^ dpxS)v irepi Kal rifioiv /cat 
Krrjo'eiov diiikkcjiievoLy dncp dnavra Karakmovra^ avroif^ 
SeTJaeL epa 6pokov €)(ovra% rfKeip trap ij/ia?. )8ovXct ovvy 

430 cVctTTC/) c<^* \n\rr)Kov iafxei/, di/afiorjaa^ iraiifieyeOe^ irapai- 
peao) avroi? dTrc^ccr^at /xci' roll/ /xaratcor novtoPy ^rjv 8c del 
TO?/ ddvarov irpo 6<f>6a\fi(ov ^oma^y Xcyoii^, ft /idraioi, rt 
iairovhaKare irepl ravra; iravcracrde Kdfipoirre^' ov yap C5 
act ptoKTccrC/c * ovoci' tcdi/ evravua c^/ipcdi/ atOtor ecmvy ovo 

435 di/ dndyoL rt? avrcir rt fvr avrw dirodavwy dXX' dvdyKri 

. . . ^pp6.'ft\9'av : note the gnomic aor- jfx« d^ ruS/SoXt^ — perhaps aa payment 

ists combined with the presents. Cf. for a round-trip ticket. Certainly he 

GMT. 157. — 6 dv6p^ov p(o9: cf. the had occupied no cabine de luxe, and 

song : Xanthias had gone on foot around the 

Man's life '8 a vapor full of woea, lake. For the Roman equivalent cf. 

He bursts the bubble, Juvenal Sat. 8, 207, where unlooked- 

for death seats the corpse by the bank 
-ottkl^,,,^ovv: and others are ^^^ ^^^^^ ^^^^ porrigat ore 

no sooner formed than they cease to be; ^rientem. See p. 19.-6AvaTov irp& 

anyfww all...- +^XXois t6 yivas : cf. ^^^^^^ ^ ^he Egyptians provided for 

//. 6, 146 ff. : ^jjjg ^y bringing in at their feasts a 

otri T€p 0iJXX«v y€V€^, rolii bk Kal d.ybpGiv. wooden corpse (Hdt. 2, 78). — o^* &v 

20. {vaoPoXdv: Charon^s prescribed dirdYot rts airAv rt: cf. Job 1, 21 

fee. In Aristophanes's Frogs 270, ** Naked came I out of my mother's 

however, Dionysus gives two obols — womb, and naked shall I return 


avTOv [i€i/ yvyivov olyecrdai.j T7)v oiKiav Se koX rov aypov /cat 
TO ^pvaiov del aXKoyv elvai koX fi^ra/Saikk^Li^ rov<; SccrTrdra?. 
el ravra kol to. roiavra i^ iinjKoov lixfiorjo'aiiJLi avrot?, ovk 
av otct fieydXa (iJ(f>€\.T)dr}paL top fiiov /cat (Ta}(f>poi/€aT€pov^ 

440 ai^ yepecrdai Trapa noXv; 

21 EPM. fl iiaKapte, ovk our 0a otto)^ avrov^ r/ dyvoia /cat 
tJ aTTaTT) Starc^ct/coifftv, oJ? /jitjS' qr r/ovTrarco ert Starot;^^'^- 
i/at avrot? ra wra* Too■ov^^i Krjpw efivcrau avToC olop irtp 6 
*08ucrcrcv5 rov? cratpov? cSpacrc Sect ri75 ^eiprjvtav OLKpoor 

445 0'€a>9* irodev ovv dv c/cctj/ot d/couorat Svinj^ctci/, iji^ /cat cru 
/cc/cpayci? Stappayy^; ; oTrep yap Trap* u/iti/ 17 ArjOrj Svi/arat, 
Tovro IvravOa tj dyvoia cpyd^crat. 7rXi7i/ aXX* ctcrti/ airrSiv 
oXiyoL ov irapaSeSeyiievoi tou Kiqpov c? rd a>Ta irpo? T171/ 
akrjdeiav dnoKXivopTe^, o^if ScSop/cdre? €5 rd irpdyfiaTa /cat 

450 /caTcyi/(y/coTC9 otd icTLu. 

X AP. Ou/coui/ eKeivoi^ yovv lyL^orjcrtaixev ,• 
EPM. IIcptTTOi/ /cat TovTO^ \4yeiv irpo^ avrov^ d la'acLv. 
opa? oTTcy? dTTOcnrdaavre^ tcov ttoXXcSi/ /caraycXoicrt roSi/ yiyvo- 
fievayp kol ovSafJirj ovSa/x,a)9 dpicKOvrai avrot?, dXXd SijXot 

465 ctcrt hpacryLov rihi) jSovXcvoi/rc? Trap' v/xd? dTTo roS fiiov ,- /cat 
ydp /cat fiLCOvvrai iXiy^ovre^ avrmv rd? dfiadia^. 

thither. ^ ^ — licrapdXXf tv tovs Sfcnrdros : &at«2 and bawl again till you burst. For 
for vivid description of an inheritance the perfects in this paragraph see Gil- 
passing to the heir read Tim. 21-22. — deraleeve, S.C.G. 226-231 : xexpaydts 
i£ k7n\K6ov: from someplace within and 8c8opK&rei are *' intensive" per- 
earshot. Cf. Icar. 23, wlierc Zeus, iQQX&\ KaTeyviaKbTi^hammj come to know 
desirous of catching the prayers, ("maintenance of result"); irapade- 
goes ^s rh ivriKOibraTov tou odpayov^i.e. Seyixdvoi . . . wra their ears filled full 
where the vaulted sounding-board gave of the wax, 226. — ^i AVjOt) : for Lethe 
the best rasults. and also 6' A/iAtjs TorayMs cf. Plato Rep. 
21. 'ft ifcaxdpu: you blessed simple- 621 a and c. — IIcpiTTdv: superfluous, 
ton I — OS : = cS<rT€. See Introd. 26. — Sp<&o-f&^v povXciovrcs : Socrates had 
— 2<ip^vttv: Od. 12, 158. — tJv . . . condemned suicide as cowardly deser- 
KCKpaYws StappaY^s: no matter if you tiun (Xtiroro^^a). — |fci<rovvTai IX^YX^^'^s 







XAP. Ev yc, c5 y€PvdhaL' TrkTjp ttow oXtyot eiaip^ (o 

^iKavol Kol ovToi. aXXa Karuu/ACi/ ^Sij. 
^Ev ert eiroOovv, c3 ^Epu-n, ciSeVot, Kat uoi Sctifa^ 
avro ci/T€Xi7 €b"u rrfv TT€pvqy7)a'Lv TTknoL7)fi€vos — ra^ airoOif- 
Kas Twv (TCjfiaTCjp, ij/a KaropvTTovaLy Oedcraa'dai. 

EPM. 'Hpia, (o XdpcjVj koX rvfi^ov^ kol toa^ov^ koKovcti 
TO, Totavra-. ttXi^i^ rd irpo tS)v* iroXeoiv iKeiva rd ^oI/xaTa 
465 6/)^9 ^ai ra? <mj\as kol Trvpa/itSa^; iKetpa irdvra v€Kpo^ 
oo^ela KOL (TtafiaTo^vkaKid eart, 

XAP. Ti ovj' iK€LPOL aTe(f>ai/ov(rL tov? Xt^ov? Kal \pvovai 
fivp(j)j OL 8c Kal irvpdv mjiravfc^ irpo rS)p ^(ofidrcDP kol 
fiodpov rivd opv^avre^ KaiovaC re ravrl rd woXvTekrj S^lnva 

ktX. : this was the experience of Socra- be in Lucian^s mind as well as the 

tes (Apol. 21 e), Kal ivravSa KdKelvtp Kcd 
dXKois iroX\o?s dxrjx^^M'V'^i ^^^ i^ ^(^ 
Lucian's also (cf. Pise.). 

22. *Evlnk7r69ow%lSivfu:Ididwa7U 
to know stiU one thing more, — Jo-n . . . 
imroti)|i4vos : for periphrastic form 
see In trod. 20. — diro6yjKas: d&pOts. 
Charon, as an expert, would inspect 
the terminal facilities. — tva : where. 
— Mjo-olvBox: in appos. with cldivai, 
(if the text is correct). — *Hp(a . . . 
rd^vs : cairns and tombs and graves. 
— irp^ tAv ir6Xf«0v : there still remain 
in situ some beautiful monuments 
along the Street of Tombs, outside 
the Dipylon at Athens (cf. Paus. 1, 20, 
2-8 ; Gulick, pp. 9 and 296) . Thinking 
of later times Lucian might let Cha- 
ron see also the tombs along the Ap- 
pian Way. — x&^ra . . . irvpa|fc£8at: 
mounds^ memorial slabs^ and pyramids. 
For the stelae see Gulick, pp. 298 ft. The 
pyramid of C. Sestius, still a famil- 
iar landmark in the Roman wall, may 

pyramids of Egypt. — vfKpo8ox«ta ical 
<rtt|fcaro^XdKia : "' lodging-vaults and 
body-wards."*^ These are compounds 


made up for Charon ^s benefit. The 
first is meant to give comic force, as 
a technical term like Latin colum- 
baria (pigennrholes), but grimly sug- 
gesting ^€vo8oxMv. Cf. the compound 
vcKpaKaStifda V. H. B 23. <rw/Aaro0t;Xd- 
Ktop is as good for the purpose as xpv- 
fjLaTo4>v\dKiov treasury. — orf^votox : 
cf. de Luctu 19 where the corpse indig- 
nantly exclaims rl di (sc. px dMlnfirip) 
6 \mkp rod Tdif>ov \l0os iarcipaptapJvot ; — 
Kttl irvpdv : for the choice between bur- 
ial and cremation see Gulick, p. 296. 
In de Luctu 18 the corpse balances 
the probabilities tQv 6<f>0a\fitap Siaaa- 
T^VTiav 4 Kal v^ A/a KaivTwv fur 6\lyo¥^ 
ef 76 {supposing, oa is not impos- 
sible) Kavcal fxe dteyv<i>KaT€ (you have 
decided to cremate me). — KaCovo't: in 
Philops. 27 the ghost of Demaenete re- 
turns to insist upon the cremation of 



470 Koi €9 Ta opvy fiara olvov koX iieXiKparov^ co? yovp eiKourat, 

EPM. OvK olSa, CO nopOiievy rC ravra Trpo? tov<: iv 
AtSov • TTeTno'TevKaa'L yovv ra? i/n;;(a9 avatr^p/no\Liva% Karajr 
0€P SciTn/cIi/ /ACi/ ct55 oldi^ TC TrepLneTOfieva^ TrjP Kvurav koI 
475 TO?/ Kawpovj iriveiv hk airo tov fiodpov to fiekCKparov. 

XAP. *E*ccii/ov9 ert iriv^iv rj eaOUiv^ (ov ra Kpavia $rip6' ![ 
rara ,• KaiTOi ycXoto? et/xt crol Xeycoi/ ravra oarj/iepai Kara- 
yovri avTov^* , olcrfia ovv ct ^vvaxvr av en avekdeip airaJ^ 
vTro\d6vioi ycpofievoL. ineC rot /cat irayy4\oC av^ (o ^T&pfirjy 
480 e7rao7(C9, ovk 6\iya irpdy/iaTa ixojv^ ct cSct fir) KaToyeiv 
fiovov aurou?^ dXXa ^at av6i<; avdyetv inofjicpov^:. (o /utaratot, 
rij? dpoCas, ovk ctSorc? t/XCkol^ opot? Sta/cocptrat ra veKpcov 
Kal ra t^dyvroiv irpdyfiara Kal ola ra nap* rjiilv iari kol ort 

Karuav o/x,a>9 o r arv/ipo? ai/Tjp 09 T €AAa;(€ rvpipov, 
486 CI/ 8c t^ Tt/Jt^ *I/)05 Kpeuov T * Ayafi€fipo}p • 
Sepdry 8* wro? ©m8o9 Trat? iqvKOfioLo, 
irdpT€^ 8* ctcrti^ o/iS)^ peKvcjp dfLeprjpd Kdpr)pa, 
yvfipoi. T€ ^7) pot T€ Kar dcn^ohtkop Xct/utcoi/a. 

-^ « <• « 

her other golden sandal. — t£ raOra: sc. 
buvarai. Ct. Light of Asia^ Book III : 

No appetites, no pleasures, and no pains 
Hath such : the kiss upon his lips is nought, 
The fire-scorch nought ; he smelleth not his 

A-roast, nor yet the sandal and the spice 
They burn. 

So xn'deLuctu 10 the corpse exclaims: 
rl iffuv d^parai rbv dKparov iwix^if't — 
liracrxit: s^^l Mss. have (^iraaxoy. See 
App. Note tense of TriofjJpovs. — Stated 
KfMTflu: note tense; *^ there is a great 
gulf fixed." — KdrOav kt\. : a potpourri 
of Homeric parodies; II 9, .319-320 
will illustrate Charcots method : 

fy di li Tifi^ "finitv iraK&s 17^^ koX i(r6\6f * 
KirOcLv Ofiioi 6 r depybt di^p 6 re iroXXd 

For the rest of. Od. 10, 621 ; 11, 529- 
573. For Iros the beggar Od. 18, 1-6 ; 
for Thersites //. 2, 212. These disiecta 
membra Ilomeri may be translated : 

Died all the same the unsepulchred man and 

the man in his coffin, 
One and the same is the honor to Iros and 

Jjord Agamemnon, 
Fairhair'd Thetis's son is down on a par with 

Bald-pated corpses alike and together all 

feeble and ghostly 
Naked and bleaching they lie here and there 

on the asphodel meadow, 



23 EPM. *H/)a/cXct9, <o<s iroXifv top '^Ofnjpop CTrai^Xcts. 

490 aXX* ineinep aviixvyfcrd^ /ic, c^cXco <rot Sei^at rov rov 
*Aj(tXXcciti9 Td(f>ov. opq.^ TOP iirl Trj dakaTrg ; XCyeiop yAv 
iKelpo ioTL TO TpcjiKOP' dpTiKpif Se 6 Ata^ Tidawrax ip t(o 

XAP. Ov fieydkoLy c5 *lStpp.rj, oi Td(f}OL, ra? TrdXct? Sc 

495 ra? iTTKTrjfLOv^ Sei^op fioi rjhT), a? fcarcj aKovofiePj Trjp Nti^oi/ 
r^i/ XapSai/aTraXXov /cat Ba^SvXwra /cat MvKTjpa^ Koi 
KXewpd^ /cat r^i/ ^iXtoi' avrrjp - ttoXXou? yovi' iieiiprjfiai 
hLarrop0LL€V(Tas iK^idep^ dq Seirca oXojp irSip iirf peoiXKyjctu 
liTjhe Stai/fu^at to aKaij>iOi.op, 

500 EPM. *H Nti'o? ftcV, o) TTopdixev, dnoXcjXep iJStj /cat ovSc 

r^i^os crt XotTToi/ avrT7?, oiS' dp ctTTOts ottov ttotc iJi/* tj 

. BajSvXcij/ 8c <rot c/ccti/rj cortv 17 cvTrvpyo?, 17 toj' fieyap wepC- 

fioXoPy ov [lerd ttoXv /cat auTi7 tjiT7]6'q(Top.epi) ^nep r) 

Nti/o9- Mv/cTjj'a? Se /cat KXecji/a^ aia^vpofiai Sei^aC crot, 

605 /cat /jtaXtcrra to ^iXtoi^. dnoTrpi^ti^ yap cv otS* oTt toi/ 
'^OfiTjpop KaTeXda^p inl Trj ^e^qXriyopia t(op in(op. nXriP 
dXXd TraXat fiep rjaap ^vSaifiope^y pvp 8c Ttdpaai /cat auTat • 
dirodinjcKovaL ydp, Z Tropdfievy /cat irdXct? wanep dpdpojTroL^ 

23. 'HpdicXcts . . . {iravrXfit: Hera- 
cles! What a lot of Homeric bilge- 
water you do bale out on me ! — vc«»Xk1^- 
o-oi kt\. : to put my boat in the dry-dock, 
— 4| . . . inp£poXov : see Introd. 30. — 
diroirv((ctt : in D. Mort. 19 Aeacus has 
to call *' hands off'' to I*rotesilaus : rl 
d7X€i$ T^v 'FjX^vjjv irpo<nreo'u>v ; — KXci»- 
vds : although this necrology of ancient 
cities was substantially true for Lu- 
cian's time, yet at the time assumed 
for this dialogue Cleonae was adminis- 
tering the Nemean games (see Grote 
c. zzviii); it even survived for Pausa- 

nias (2, 15, 1) to speak of as tSXi^ . . . 
06 fuydXri, when on his way to see the 
ruins of Mycenae. — xal irdXcis: Servius 
Sulpiclus (Cic. Ep. Fam. 4, 6, cited by 
Williams) tries to console Cicero for his 
daughter's death by recalling his feel- 
ings on looking about him as 'he was 
sailing once from Aegina to Megara: 
Coepi egomet mecum sic cogi- 
tare: **Hem ! nos homunculi in- 
dignamur, si quis nostrum in- 
teriit aut occisus est, quorum 
vita brevior esse debet, cum 
uno loco tot oppidiim cadavera 

XAP12N 51 

Kol TO TrapaSo^oTaTOj/y kol Trorafiol oXot • *Ira;(Ov yovv ovSc 
510 r(i(f>po^ ert iv "Apyei /caraXctTrcTai. 

XAP. naTrat raJf inaivcjPy Ofir^pej Kai rSyv ovojxdTwVy 
24*lXi09 iprj KOL evpvayvLa Kal ivKripLevat KXeoii^ai. dXXa 

fiera^if Xoycji/ rtrc? iKeivoi eliXLv ol TroXejxovpTe^ tj virep rivo^ 

a\\rj\ov^ <f>ovevov(Tiv ; 
516 EPM. ^ApyeCov^ opa?, (o Xdpojv^ koL Aa/ccSat/ioi/tov? /cat 

TOP rjfLLdvTjTa eKeivov (TTpaTr)yop ^OdpvaZav top iiriypar 

<f)OPTa TO TponaLOP rol airrov at/xart. 

XAP. *T7re/3 tlpos 8' auroi?? <3 'Ep/jf^, 6 ttoXc/xo? ; 
EPM. 'Trrcp rov ttcSiov avroi) €i/ <o iLa^opTOLL, 
620 XAP. n TTJ9 apoia^j ol ye ovk IcracLP otl, Kap o\r}p ttjp 

WeKoTTOPPijaop c/caoTo? outcjv KTrjcr (opt ai, [loyt^ dp ^oSlolop 

Xdpoiep TOTTov napd tov AiaKov • to 8c TTcSiof tovto dWoTe 

aXXoi yempyrjcTOvo'L TroXXaict? e/c fiddpcjp to Tponatop 

dpournda'apTe^ t<o dpoTpo). 
525 EPM. OvTO) ii€p TavTa ccrraf tj/xci? 86 /cara^Sai/rc? 17817 

Kal Kara X(opav evOerTJaaPTe^ avdts to. opi) aTraWaTTdfieda^ 

proiecta iacent?'* — 'Ivdxov : the small, but important, frontier coast- 
modem Pontiza when swollen by win- strip between Argolis and Laconia. 
ter rains, uniting with th« Charadros Menippus (Icar. 18), looking down 
(mod. Xerias) between Argos and Ti- from the sky, says contemptuously 
ryns, still makes its way to the sea. that it is no wider than <f>aKov Alyv- 
Baedeker, Greece, p. 260. But cf. tttIov. — iro8taiov: probably a foot each 
Paus. 2, 15,6. "^^ayt I'G. a square foot; di front foot 
24. 'OOpvdSav: see Ildt. 1, 82 for on Acheron Avenue without a rear 
the story. Othryades fixes the atten- line would have been as incautious a 
tion somewhat as Iloratius surviving land-grant as those of our early colo- 
his two brothers in a similar, but more nies. Yet full-sized femora could not 
select, dii^/Zum. The ** Complete Rhet- lie flat in this space. Cf. also Men. 
orician" must have these stock allu- 17, where Aeacus recjuires each new- 
BioBS always at hand ; cf. Rhet. Praec. comer to pull himself tftgether, lie down^ 
18 Kal del 6 "Adus rrXeiadta , . . koI h and be content with, his quarters: dya- 
^Xtof inrb tUp JtirfdiKuy peXuv cKtiricrdtj irwvTa KaTaK€i<r0ai irpbs t6 fiirpop avve- 
. . . Kal tA *OdpvdSov ypdfifjuira dvayi- araXpJpov . . . SLSaxri di t6 fi^yurrov oif 
piOiTKiadia. — ircS(ov: i.e. Cynuria, the irXiov irobbi. — Ik pdOpotv . . . t£ dp<Srp4p: 




eyo) fi€i/ Kau a coraA-Tji/, <rv oe ctti to Tropufieiov Tjga) 0€ 
COL Kol auTo? fier okiyov v^Kpoarokiov, 

X AP. Ev yc iTroLTjO'a^y (o ^^pfii} ' cvc/oyerrjs ct? act ai/a- 
630 ycypcu/^. (ivdpLr)v tl Std <r€ ri79 aTroSrfiiLaS' — oia cort ra 
rcjv KaKoSoLfiovayv avdpamoiv TrpdyfiaTa, jSacrtXci?, TrkCvdoL 
Xpvaaiy iinTviLPiay iid^ai. XdpoDVo^ 8k ovSei? Xoyo?. 

cf. Southey's Battle of Blenheim. — Kafl^ 
a loTdXTiv : cf . supra § 1 dv^pxofMl ri 
StaKovria-6fX£Pos rtfi &vu Ail. One of these 
errands is immortalized in the Olympia 
group by Praxiteles, representing Her- 
mes with his infant brother Dionysus. 
— vcKpoflTToXAv : with ajlock of corpses. 
L. & S. 8.V. wrongly refer to Charon, 
and trans, ferrymg the dead. A sim- 
ilar confusion is to be assumed in 
the Mss. above, giving rise to l^xcurxov 
instead of the second person. — f^p- 
y4n\s . . . dvaYfYP^4n9 • Charon (of 
all persons) promises Hermes one of 
the conventional votive slabs 1 Cf. 
Pise. 38 tiepy^tip dpayeypd^Sai. — 
ola . . . &v6p^«0v : Charon exclaims 
(with Puck) *'Lord, what fools these 
mortals be ! ^^ — PacnXcCs . . . Xiyot : 
kings, golden ingots^ funeral rites, bat- 
tles, bvt never a word about Charon. 
From the foregoing dialogue Charou 

selects the important details in order, 
i.e. Croesus, Cyrus, Tomyris, Polyc- 
rates (/SotrtXttj §§ 9-18); the votive 
offerings sent to Delphi (irXiveoi xpwreu 
§ 11); the libations and other vain ob- 
servances at the tomb (see § 22 and 
App. on iiririififiia § 24) ; the contest 
between the Argives and the Spartans 
{fidxai § 24), which is the crowning 
absurdity in his eyes. — Xdpttvos . . . 
Xd-yot: this is a reminiscence of Ar. 
Ran. 87 ; 107 ; 115, where the slave 
Xanthias keeps interjecting Tepl iftoO 
d* qpSeU X^ot. Lucian uses the for- 
mula in two other passages, omitting 
the irtpl : i.e. Catapl. 14, where the poor 
slioemaker exclaims ciH fioi, J KXufOot, 
ifiov Si o^deit vfuv X670S ; and Fuglt. 28 
iltiuv Si oASels \Ayos. The words fiaci- 
Xett to fidxai inclusive, often left out 
by edd., are necessary to the artistic 
unity of the climax ; see App. 



In the Vera Historia more than in any other of his writings, the 
Asinus ^ perhaps excepted, Lucian has allowed his fertile fancy to 
have its way, careless of the moral to be enforced. A moral, indeed, 
there is. He must mock at the poets and pseudo-historians as 
inventors of fables. At the end, after our mad journey in the air, 
we glide down the iridescent rainbow of his fantasy to earth again 
and stand somewhat dazed amidst the contraband fardels that we 
have smuggled through the " ivory gates." 

As the Syrian Goddess ^^ mocking, scantily draped with ecclesi- 
astic stole, renders ridiculous the naive credulity of Herodotus or 
that of his lying imitators, so we turn not to Lucian's How [nof\ 
to Write History — that somewhat unsuccessful attempt to be didac- 
tic and constructive — but to its sequel, the True History, to find 
a better codification of the laws and a clearer map of the bound- 
aries of the neutral zone which lies between the belligerent armies 
of fact and fancy. 

The moral comes first, the sugar-coating is within. In the open- 
ing of Part A ' he makes his apologia. He mentions a few of the 
right honorable liars who have preceded him, like Homer's Odys- 
seus, like innumerable poets, philosophers, and the historians such 
as Ctesias ^ and lambulus '^ and others who, he says, will be recog- 
nized unnamed. He adds in substance (§ 4) : << I did not blame 

1 The authorship of the Asinas is much debated. Croiset does not accept it. 
3 For authenticity see Introd., p. xvi, note 2. 

* Part B only is included in these selections. 

* For Ctesias 'and Herodotus cf. Philops, 2. Also for Ctesias cf. Ctesiae/rag- 
menta de rebus Indicis, in ITerodotua ed. Carolus MUller (Parisiis, 1844), sub fin. 

^ For a possible epitome of his lost writings see Diod. Sicul. 2, 5&-00. 



them so much for their mendacity . . . but what did surprise me 
was that they expected to escape detection. Wishing, therefore, to 
play my part in the world of letters and liars, and having no facts 
to recount — since nothing worth mentioning has ever happened to 
me — I will say in advance this one true thing, to wit, that I am 
going to tell you lies. So, then, I write about what I neither saw 
nor experienced nor heard of from others, and, what 's more, about 
things that never happen at all nor ever could happen." 

After this preamble we take ship with Lucian and fifty other 
companions imbued with these same lofty ideals, and set sail from 
the Pillars of Heracles out into the Western Ocean. Atlas, vainly 
trying to hold heaven and earth apart, drops forthwith behind the 
horizon, and we are suddenly whirled aloft into the heavenly hemi- 
sphere away from even wireless worry except for brief glimpses of 
home affairs reflected in the magic mirror of the moon or seen by 
the light of the family lamp encountered, as luck would have it, in 
the Lamp-heaven. 

Lucian's conceits never degenerate into mere nursery burlesque. 
Through the whole narrative he holds us captive, like children, by 
his air of verisimilitude. He prolongs our appetite by the recur- 
rent intellectual spice of delicate parodies that pervade his satire. 
He out-Herods Herodotus, whom he really revered for his mastery 
of narrative style,* and he delights to borrow the charms of the 
Father of History to adorn in mockery tlie Father of Lies ; but in 
the end he is careful to draw aside the Babylonish garment and 
show us the ass's shins ^ before he bows us back again into " our 
own continent that lies opposite." 

To say that Lucian invented all his imagery would be to ignore 
passages,* well known to him also, of the Odyssey, of Hesiod, He- 
rodotus, Pindar, Plato (e.g. the Gorr/las and the pseudo-Platonic 
Axiorhus), as well as Horace. Photius, too, in his MvpiofiCfiXuiv ^ 
hi^kiodriK-q, gives extracts from the WoiKlers of the Island Thule 
(filtered llnllum de Thule hisjda llhri xxlr), by Anton ius Diogenes, 

* See Luc. Ilerod. 7. 

2F./f. B4r>. 

« Cf. infra, § 4, note. 


whose story, he claims, is imitated both in the Vera Historia and 
in the Asiniis^ 

More difficult is the question of Lucian's indebtedness to versions 
of tales found in the Arabian Nights which may have been current 
in his Syrian home. Certainly the kingfisher ( V.If, B 40) and the 
rukh in the "Second Voyage of Sindbad the Sailor"' are birds of 
a feather, and the leviathan fifteen hundred furlongs in length 
( V.H. A 30), which swallows Lucian's ship, is of the same school 
with the huge fish of " Sindbad's Seventh Voyage." • 

The alleged reminiscences of the Christian scriptures may most 
of them be dismissed as obvious allusions to other writings, such as 
those already cited.* It must be admitted, however, that Lucian, 
Syrian-born as he was, may have had a certain superficial familiar- 
ity with the teaching, and even the phraseology, of the Christians to 
whom he alludes with patronizing kindliness in the Peregrinus} 
The chief argument against the assumption of a covert satire upon 
the New Testament writings is that they were not the common 
property of his audience and the allusions would usually have failed 
of appreciation.* It must be admitted, however, that the allusion 
(y,H, B 13) to the monthly fruitage of the vines, while the other 
fruit comes thirteen times yearly, reminds us more forcibly of the 
Apocalypse (22, 2) than it does of the productive garden of Alcinous 
(OeZ. 7,112 ff.). 

1 KoX 7dp rw ir€pl dXriOQtf SntyrifidTuv AovKiavov xal rod vepl fitrafiop<f»ii><r€wv 
AovkIov TTify^ Kal ^ij^a. See fragm. of Ant. Diog. in Erotici Scriptores, p. 511, 
c. 13, ed. Ilirschlg (Parislis 1856). 

2 Lane's edit. vol. Ill, c. 20. « Ibid., note 90 on c. 20. 

^ For detailed discussion of these passages see Ktthn, Commentatio qua Luci- 
anu8 a crimine librorum sairorum irrisorum liheratur (1844), esp. pp. 17-22 for 
V.H. ; also see Sommerbrodt, Introd. to AusgewdhUe Schrlften des Lucian (1872), 
esp. pp. xxxili-xl ; and Croiset, pp. 195 ft. '• See Introd. p. xv. 

^ Kilhn (I.e.) reminds us that the canon of the New Testament was in process of 
formation and that only a few copies of these writings were accessible, and that 
those who betrayed them into the hands of the magistrate were known as tradi- 
tores. He adds: (Lucianus) nullo modo persiiadere sibi potuit tan- 
tarn fore lectoribus snis cum his libris familiaritatem, ut inter 
legendum tectam suam rerum Christianarum sugillationem per- 
cipere possent. 


The Yedic literature itself offers some equally striking parallels 
with the Vera Histaria, Thus the rivers of honey, milk, and wine 
(§ 13) recall the rewards to the faithful who are promised (Atharvor 
veda 4, 34, 6) ^< ponds filled with clarified butter, honey, milk, and 
curds.'' * 

Similar notions of future happiness reappear in various litera- 
tures, like the Teutonic and th^ Celtic. The Irish Tir Taimgire * 
(Land of Promise) is an island enjoying never-ending day, a fogless 
summer. The flowers never wither. Apple-trees abound, bearing 
at the same time flowers and fruit (cf. Od. 7, 122-128). It is rich 
in milk, ale, and pork. The breezes are laden with sweet music. 
The inhabitants are exempt from disease and death. 

The Vera Historia has in turn served as a model, directly or indi- 
rectly, for a goodly company • — Rabelais, Hans Sachs, Cervantes, 
Quevedo, Cyrano de Bergerac, Boileau, Swift, Baron Munchausen, 
down to Jules Verne ; but the model is also the master. Rabelais, 
compared with Lucian, is as coarse-grained as Rubens compared 
with Paul Veronese. When fancy — not purposed satire — would 
set our course towards the Fortunate Islands, next after Lucian we 
are attracted first amongst them all by the quaint German of Hans 
Sachs's * happy Schlarafferdand where cooks are but curious super- 
fluities, and sturdy workmen drop like ripe plums, not into the 
mouths of walking delegates, but each into a pair of honest boots : 

Von Malva&ier so sind die brunnen, 
Komnien eym selbst ins Maul gerunnen — 

Und fltiget umb (miiget ir glauben) 
Gebraten httner, genC und tauben. 

So "wachsen bawern auf den bawmen 
Gleich wie in unserm land die pflawmen. 
Wens zeitig sind, so fallens ab 
Yeder in ein paar Stifel rab. 

1 Cf. Arrowsmith's Kaegi, The Rigveda, p. 162. 

2 See Enc. Brit, V, p. 362. 

* See Introd. pp. xxi-xxviii. 

^ For bis own acknowledgement of his debt to Lucian see Introd. p. zxii. 

AAiieoTi; iSTOPiAi: 


1 To 8' awo TovTov yufKen ^iptav iy<o t^v iv to5 ic^TCt 
hiaxTav a)(d6fi€v6^ re r^ H'Oi^ /ATj^^avT^i/ riva i^iJTow 8t* 179 
dv i^ekdeii/ ycvoiTo- kol to ficv trpSnov eho^ev 'qfiti/ Stopv- 
^acL Kara top Se^iw toI)(op diroSpapaiy Kal dp^dii€POL 

6 hlCKOTTTOfieV ' CTTCt&l) 8c TTpOekOoVTe^ OCOV 7T€Vr€ OTa8u)V9 

ovSkp rjvvoii€Vy rov fikv 6pvyfiaro<: iiravadfieOay ttjp 8c vXtji/ 
Kavacu hLeyvcjfiep • ovro) yap dp to ktjtos dnodapetp • el 8c 
Tovro yepoiTOy pa8ia cftcXXci/ rjfup circo'^at ij C|fo8o9. dp^d- 
fiepoL oip diro tUp ovpauop eKaioiiep^ Kal r/fiepa^ fiep itrra 
10 Kal ura? pvKTa^ dpaiadrJTio^; cTj(c rov KaviiaTo^y oySoji 8c 
Kttt ivdrg avpUfiep avTov pocovpto^- dpyorepop yovp dpi- 
XacKCj Kal €L TTOTC dpa\dpoLy Taxif (Tvp4ilv€. heKaTjj 8c 
Kal epSeKaTji TeXeop direpepeKpovro Kal 8v<r£8cs rjp- rg 

1. |fci|K<ri: see Introd. 39(e). — Ivt$ . . . to-ot v^KTot: for seven days and 

R^TCi: mPartA 30of the F.H. Lucian nights to match. A set phrase, cf. 

and his fifty companionSf ship and all, § 35 and A 10. — AWxao^Kc : in A 40 

had been swallowed by a huge fish. — the periodic yawning of the monster 

•card: at; L. & S. s.y., B, 3. — 8uKd- marks the passing hours: t$ S* ivdnp 

irro|uv: we chopped away (conative). iirivl T^fiwTxi Iffm/juivov vepl riiy Sevr^ 

— T^v liXi|v: from the incoming flot- pav roO crdfiaTOi Avoi^ip — dwa^ ykp d^ 

sam and detritus the monster (see A 31) rovro Kwrh. r^v wpap iKdffrritf hrolti rb 

had gradually accumulated large hold- jc^ot, wore iinSit wpbt rdt dpol^eu rtKtuU- 

ings of real estate, including a well- pcffOai rds upas — . . . d<pv<a fio^i . . . 

wooded tract of land thirty miles in ^Ko^ero, — dinvfvfKpo&ro: he lay morti- 

circumference. — l|uXXcv lavxOcu: ^^fu- fying. For the compound dTeyFeicp6<i7 

ture of the past,*' Gildersleeve, 8.0.(7. see App. The plpf. ireOy^Kei below 

272, and cf . Soph. O. T. 067. — 4||i^pa$ means ioas dead, r Aeov must then 




15 avrov v7ro<rrripC^€L€ rov<; yofi^Low (oaTe iirfKen (TvyKXctcrat, 
KLvSvi^eucofjiev /caraKXctcr^cVrc? ei/ veKpw avroJ aTroXcicr^ai. 
ovTco 817 /jtcyaXot? SoKOt? to arofia 8i€pcwraKrc5 i^i' i^avi/ 
inecKevaiC^ofiev vhtop re co? ei't ttXciotoj' e/AjSaXXd/xei/ot Kal 
ra aXXa CTrtTijScta- Kvfiepvav 8' e/ieXXei^ 6 XKCpdapo^* ry 

20 8* iTrLOvajj ro ii€P 17817 iTedi/rJK^L, ij/icts Sc di/cX/cv<raj^c9 to 
TrXotoi' Kal 8ta toJi^ apaKofidroyv hiayayovr^^ koX ck toJi^ 
68di/Ta)»' i^dijfavTe^ iqpe/ia KadrJKafiev c? r^i/ OaKarrav 
inapafidpre^ he iirl ra j/aira /cai dvaavre^ roJ noo'€t8ciii/t 
avroC Trapa to rpoiraiov i7/x,cpa? re rpct? CTravXio'ct/iei/oi — 

26 vrfvepiia yap ^v — r^ rerdpTfj d7r€Tr\€vaafi€v. evOa 8^ ttoX- 
Xot9 tS>v €K r^5 v7)a'0fLa)(ia^ veKpot^ aTnjm'CJfiev /cat irpoa^ 
(OKcWoiiev, Koi TO, cdfiaTa KaTafJi€TpovvT€<: idavfidtpiiev, 
Kai rjfiepa^ fiev rii/a^ iiTkiofitv evKpdro} dept ^pdifievoLy 
CTTCtra fiopeov c^ohpov irveva'aPTos fieya Kpvo^ iyivero koX 

30 VTT avTOv irdv indyj) to ireXayos ovk cVittoX^? jjlovou^ dXXa 
KoX c? pdOo^ oaov eiil TeTpaKoda^: opyvid^y wore Koi dno- 
fidvTa^ hiadetv cVl tov KpvoTdWov. iiniiivovTO^ hk tov 
7rv€V[iaT0S <{>€p€iv ov hvvdyL€voi Toiovhe tl iTrevoTjcafiev — 6 
8c Trjv yi/(ofi7)i/ dTro^'Y)vdfievo^ yjv %KLvdapof; — cr/ccu/iai^c9 

36 yap iv Tw v8art cTTnjXaLOP iiiyi(TT0v Iv tovto) ifieipafiev 
r/fiepa^ TpidKoi^a, irvp dvaKaiovTt^ /cat criTovfitvoi tov% 
l\dv^' evpuTKOfiev 8c auTov<; dvopvTTome^. inetSri he 17817 

mean throughout, not completely. Cf. 
Sid T Aovs. — |Ji6Xts : just int ime. — «otc : 
the consecutive clause becomes also 
final. GMT. 687, 3. — SKtvOopos : a 
shipwrecked squatter found by Lucian 
(A 33) in the fish. 

2. &pcua>|&dr«0v : sc.rCjv6d6tn-<ijv. Cf. 
A 30. — Ik r&v oS^vrwv {|d^avTcs : usinff 
his teeth an davits. — irapd t6 rpdiraiov : 

the victors in the ** battle of the is- 
lands^' (cf. A 42) had staked up on 
the fishes head one of the hostile 
islands as a trophy. — irp<Mr»K^XXo|uv : 
sc. rijv yaOv : ice beached our boat. The 
dead bodies (cf. A 40) were &roi» ^/u- 
ffTaSiaioi rds ijXiKLai. — mtm . , . Kpv- 
(rrdXXou: TiUcian takes for granted 
a public unused to safe ice, as did 



ineXiTre to, cViTiyScia, vpoeXdopres Kal ttjv vavv iremiyvtav 
avaa'Trda'avT€s Kal Trerdo'airre^ Trjv odovrfv iaypofi^Oa oUanep 

40 7rX€oi/TC5 XcM09 Kal irpooTfuai^ iirl tov irdyov StoXtcr^aii^oi/TC^. 
7)ii€pa he irefinrji dXea re rjBrf ^v koX 6 Trdyos cXvcto Kal 

3 vSwp iravra av6i^ iyivero* TrXcvcrai^c? ovv ocrov rpiaKO- 
CLOv^ oraSiou? mja'at fiiKpa koX ipyjiir) irpo<rr)ve)(d7)fLev^ d<^* 
rj^ vhoip Xa^d^TC? — cVcXcXotTrct yap -qhr) — Kal 8vo ravpov^ 

45 dypiov? Kararo^evaaPTe^ aTreirXeva'aiiev. oi Se ravpoi ovtoi 
Ta Kepara ovk iirl tyj^ Ke(f>aKrjs el^or, dXX* inrb rots 6<f>da\' 
liOL^j oxTTTcp 6 Mcu/x,o? Tj^iov. /xcT* ov TToXv 8c CIS TTcXayo? 
ivefiaivoyLevj ov\ vSaro?, dXXd ydXa/cro?- ^al i/^<ros cV 
avraJ i(f>aii/€TO XevKrj irXrjpiqs dfiireXoyv, ^v 8c ij i^cro9 

50 Tvpo^ fieyLaTO^y irdi/v avfiTreirrjyd}^, (os varepov ipajyayovre^ 
ifid0ofi€i/y TTcVrc Kal eiKoai arahixDV to irepifierpop - at Sc 
aiiireKoi fiorpvcjp irXifpct?, ou fiemoL oXvov dWa ydXa i^ 
avrtav aTrodKipovres inivofiev. iepoi^ he ev p^ecg t^ injao) 
ipoyKohofiTjTO TaXareCas ttJs NijpTjtSo?, (os ihrjXov to cVt- 

66 y/oa/jt/jta. ocrop 8* ovv y^povov eKei ifjueLvaiiev, o\ffov fiev tjiuv 
Kal (TitLov rj yrj vTrrjp^ej ttotov 8c to yd\a to ck t(ov 
PoTpviav. Paakeveiv 8c tcju yoypixov tovtcjv ekeyeTo Tvpoj 
7) ^a\fi(ove(o^y fieTOL ttjv iirrevdei/ aTraWayr/v TavTiqv irapd 

Ovid (TristiaZ^ 10, 33); but cf. Thuc. 
3, 23, where the Plataeans crossed the 
ditch with diflSculty, Kp(KTTa\\fn re 7Ap 
^irein^7e( oi pipaioi. — XcU>s . . . SioXi- 
or^aCvovTfs : technical coloring. Cf . de 
JDoniO 12 T^v di vavv . . . Xefw; iir 
dxpuv ijpifM. du>\i<rOdvov<rav rdv KV/Mdrcav. 
3. kriXcXofirct : note tense, not a drop 
was left. — MAfios Tjjtov : cf. Nigr. 32 
iKcTvos (sc. 6 Mu>/tof) ifjJfnp€To TOV Ta6pov 
rbv 8rffuovpy6v debv oit wpoBivra tQv 
6<f>0a\tiMv rh Kipara. In Ilennot. 20 
Memos also criticizes Hephaestus, as 

architect, for not making windows in 
the human breast to facilitate observa- 
tion as to a /Sot/Xerai koI iirivotT Kal el 
rj/eiberai 17 a\7j0€U€i. — roXarcfas : for 
the sake of the pun on *' milk-white." 
In I). Mar, 1, 3 Doris thus taunts 
Galatea : i-KiK^aaa is rb vSup Idi fftav' 

T^V Oidiv dXXo 7} XP^^ \£VK^V iKpl^Qs. 

— Tvp^: there is a pun on Tvp6s: see 
D. Mar. 13 for her rival lovers Posei- 
don and the river-god Enipeus. In 
D. Mort. 18 Tyro is included among 
the canonized belles and beaux. 


4 Tov IlocretSoJi'o? Xa/8ovora ttjv TLfiijv. fieivavre^ Sc r/ficpa^ 
60 iv ry injcro) irei/re rp cJcrjy i^ajpfirjcafiep^ avpa^ jiev ripo^ 

irapaiT^inrovGif)^, XcioKVfiovo^ 8c oiJcnj? Trjq dakajrrf^' rg 
oyooji 0€ r/ficptf. ttacoi/tc? oiwccrt ota rov yaAaicro?, aAA ijot; 
€1^ aXfivp^ Kat Kvav^ vSari, KadopKOfiev avdpdlnrov^ ttoXXovs 
cttI roC TTcXayov? Sta^cbi^Ta?, otTraKra Tj/xtv irpocreot^Kora^ kol 

65 ra cdfiara Kai ra fieyeOrjy irXrfv tS)v ttoSkop fiovcuv ravra 
yap (f}€\\Lva cl^ov a<f>* ov St) oZ/jlox kol iKoKovirro 4>€X- 
XoTToSc?. idavfid^ofiep ovu Ihovre^ ov /SaTrrt^o^cvov? aXX* 
\nr€pe)(ovra^ tS)v KVfiaTojv kol aSea)^ ohoLiropovvTa^. ol Sc 
Kol irpocr-gea'av kol rjcnrdt^ovTO rjfias 'iXkr/vLKy <f}<ojr^ ikeyov 

70 T€ €19 4>€XX(u Trfv avT<t)v irarpCha iireLy^crd ai • y^^p^* /^ei/ ovv 
Tti'O? <Tvva}8onr6povp rjiilv napadeopre^y elra airoTpaTrofievoi 
T179 6S0V ifidSit^ov cvTrXotav -ij/Ltti/ iirev^dfieuoi. fier oXt- 
yoi' Sc TToXXal vfjcroL i<f}aCpoin'o, TrXyjo'Cop fikv i^ apiOTep&p 
7) 4>€XXa>, et9 '^p iKeipoi cctttcvSoj/, ttoX^s inl fieydXov koX 

76 oTpoyyvXov c^cXXov KaroiKovfiepri - iroppoiOa/ Sc icat /xaX- 
Xoi/ €1/ Sc^i^ TTCpre fidyioTaL kol vi/rrjXorarat, ical Trvp ttoXu 

5 dn avriop dpeKaCerOy Kara Sc ttjp irp^pap fiia TrXarcta Koi 
Tatr^iprjj ara&iov^ cVc^ovcra ovk Ikdrrovs TrepraKoauop. 
Tjhrj Sc ttXtjo'lop re rjfiep kol davfiaanj Tt9 avpa irepLeirpev 

80 crci' rifia^y ijScIa ical CV6JS179, otai' <f}7ia'lp 6 <rvyypa<f}€ifs 
*H/ooSoro9 aTTo^cti/ T179 cvSai/xoi^o? *A/)a/8ta9. otoi' yap a7ro 
poSoiP Kal papKiaciiiP koX vaKipdcjp kol Kpipiop koX uoPj en 
Sc fivppCpTf^ KOL 8d<f}pTis Kal dfiTrekdpdyj^y tolovtop rjfup to 

4. ^XXdvoScs: corkrtrotters. Cf. to vmchsafe us a good voyctge. iwe^ 

Irish ^^bog-trotters.'* <&eXXci^, Cork- x^t*^^ suggests their distrust of other 

oak Ridge, was a name in Italy and methods of seafaring. — o-rpoTYvXov : 

may help float the pun, but the cur- drum-shaped, 

rent meaning was * a stony tract.* — ds 5. xard Tf|v irpf pav : dead ahead ; 

^MA T^v a^Av irarpCSa: to the old cf. Thuc. 2, 07 xarii wp6fipay . . . t6 

courUry, to Cork, — ipdSttov . . . 4ircv{d- TPtvfM, with the wind astern. — ^o-W : 

fuvoi: qffthey walked, praying Heaven cf. Hdt. 3, 118 ixd^eidi rijt x^fiV^ ^V* 



TfSv wpocrePaWev. rjo'divr^^ Sc r^ oafL^ koX xfyqara iK 

86 fiaKpcjv TTOvtav iXiria'avTe^ Kar okiyov rjhn) ttXtjo'lov ttjs 
vrjcrov iyiyvoficOa. evda 817 koX Ka0€(opct)fi€u Xificva^ re 
TToXXov? TrepL irao'av aKkvarov^ koX fieydkovSy norafiov^ re 
8tavy€c9 i^iovra^ rjpefia €9 rrju daXarraVy en Sc \eifiSn/a^ 
Kal vXa9 Kal opvea fiovcriKdy ra jiev eirl rSiv tjlovodv aSovray 

90 TToXXa he Kal eirl rSiv Kkd&div arjp re Kov<f}o^ Kal evirvov^ 
irepieKeyyro rrfv ^dpav* koI avpai he rive^ ijSetat Sca- 
irveovaai '^pefia rrjp vXrjv SucraXevov, cworc Kal airo rwv 
icXaSa>i/ Kivovfievoiv repirva Kal avpe)(rj fieXrj aireavpiJ^ero 
eoiKora rot? eir eprffiia^ avXij/iao'L r<op irXayUov av\<!)v. 

96 Kal fijjv Koi fioTj (TUfifiLKTo^ '^Kovero adpov^y ov Oopvfid&'q^j 
aXX* Ota yevovr av ev (rvfLTrocii^y rS>v /lev ai\ovvr(oVy rwp 
8e eirahovToiVy evUav he Kpfyrovvrtov irpo^ avkou rj KiOdpav* 

6 ToiJrot? diraxT^ KTjXovfievoL Karrj^Oiqiievj opfiuravre^ he rrfv 
vavv dnefiaCvofiep rov XKivdapov ev airrg Kal Bvo r<ov 

'Apapiris $eav4<rto» (Jj ^d(; and 3, 23 6^eiy 
Si dir a^^f as tl ttav. — rf^s Wj<rov : to 
the Greeks, lovjug the Aegean and the 
** glittering CycladeSf '* islands were fit 
for the birth of gods and the joy of men. 
The allusions to the Islands of the Blest 
are various. The Elysium of the gods 
on Olympus blends (cf. Od, 6, 41 ff., and 
4, 663 ff.), with the Elysium for mor- 
tals. Ps.-Dem. , 60, 34, places the dead 
heroes, as irdpeSfni of the gods, h fjuncd- 
pw riaois, Hesiod, W. & D. 169-173, 
mentions the Islands by name and gives 
a typical, though meagre, description. 
In Oceanus the Heroes dwell afar, 
heart-free of trouble in the Islands of 
the Blest, and three times a year the 
earth yields her increase. Plato makes 
casual allusion in Symp. 179 e; Rep, 
6, 619 E and 640 b; more particularly 

mGoTg.b2Ak. But the locus classicus 
is Pindar OL 2, 109 ff . . . . ivOa fuiKdpfav 
pSuros (= ri^ovs) cJiceaWdef adpai xept- 
irwiotatv. Here there is the unlaborious 
life, with wreaths of flowers unfading, 
plucked on water and on land, while 
Oceanus breezes fail not, and crowning 
all is the company of the gi-eat and 
noble dead (cf . Plato Apol. 40 e). Pin- 
dar's Fragm. (10, 1 Boeckh) tr. by Sy- 
monds has also the sensuous beauty 
without the noble climax. Cf. also 
Horace Epod. 16, 41 ff. See p. 64. — 
ht lpT||&Cas: in deserto loco; i.e. 
hung up by shepherds as votive offer- 
ings. Jerram cites Virg. Eel 7, 24 : 

Hie arguta sacra pendebit fistula 

— irXa^Uv: see Howard, H.S.C.P. 
IV, 14. 



100 eralpwv aTToXtTroi/rc?. irpo'Covre^ 8c 8ta XeifiSivos evavdov^ 
ivTvyxdvofiep rol^ <f>povp6t% Kai ircptTrdXot?, ot 8c hrjaavr^^ 
Tjfia^ poSivoLS a'r€if>dvois — ovro^ yap iieyLaro^ Trap a\yroi% 
8co'/Lt09 ioTiv — ai/rjyov (U9 rov dp^ovra^ Trap &v 817 Kad^ 
ohov 'qKovcafiep (09 17 fi^v inycro? ^irj rwv MaKapcuv Trpocra- 

105 yopevofJiCPODPy OLpxo^ 8c 6 K/yi^s ^Vahdfiavdv^. koX 8t) dva- 

)(0€pr€^ a>9 avTov iv raf ct rS}v hiKal^ofiivKav ecTrjiJiei/ Teraproi. 

1 rjv hk r) jiep irpwrif hiKrf Trcpl Aiamo^ rov TcXa/Awi;o9, ctrc 

XP^ dVTov avv^tvai rot? Tipoxriv ctrc koX ixrj- Karrjyopelro 

8c avTov on fiefnjvoi Kal iavrov aTTOKrdvoi. Te\o% 8c ttoX' 

110 \S>v pTjOevroiv eyvo) 6 *Pa8dfiav0v^j vvv fi€v avrov Tnofievov 
rov ikXefiopov TrapaSodrjvaL ^iTTTTOKpdrei roJ Ka>o> iarp^j 

8 vcrrepov 8c a'(o<j>povT](ravra ixer^x^iv rov crvfiTroaiov, 8ci^ 
TC/ja 8c rjv Kpicri^ ipoyriKrj^ 0Tj<rca)9 'cat Mci/cXaov Trcpl 7^9 
'EXcVjjs hiay<t}vilfifji€v(x}Vj Trorepo) XPV ^^^^ (rwoiKeiv. koI 

116 6 ^PaSdfiavOv^ iSiKao'e Mci/cXaa> crvi'Cti/at avrriv aire Kal 
roaavra Trovrjo'avri kox Kivhvv€V(Tavri rov ydfiov iveKa- 
Kal yap av rol Srjcrei Kal aXXa? ctj/at yvvaiKa^ rrjv r^ 'Afia- 

9 l^6i/a Kal ra? rov MCvcjo^ dvyarepa^. rpirq 8' ihiKdcrdi) 
TTcpl TtpoehpLa^ *Ak€^dv8pa) re r(o ^iXiTnrov Kal ^Avvi^a T6) 

120 Kap)(7i8ovL<Oy Kal iSo^e Ttpoix^Lv 6 * AXi^avhpo^^ koX dpovo^ 

10 auTfti ireOrf Trapa Kvpov top Hcpcrqv rop irporepov. rerapr 

roL 8c yjfieL^ TrpoaiJxOTjfiei/' Kal o fikv rjpero rC iraOovre^ 

6. XcifLAvos ciavdoOf : so in Ar. Ran. 
373 the Mystae are to advance els roOs 
eiaydeis k6\wovs Xei/jubyfay, — rots <^pov- 
potf Kal 7rcpiir6Xoi$ : the watch and pa- 
trol. Note the article. — irap' wv : note 
the relative instead of another demon- 
strative, although the clause is logically 
co-ordinate with the preceding. Cf. 
Acts 24, 6-8. — tAv SiKato|A<vMv . . . ri- 
TopTOi : fourth on the court docket. 

7. |U|&Vjvoi : note tense and the shift 
to aorist. — diroKrdvoi: 2d aor. is poetic. 
— I^o-Tf pov : see § 23. 

8. tVjv Tc * A|La{6va : Antiope or Hip- 
poly te. — rds . . . Bvyaripa/9'- i.e. the 
ill-used Ariadne and her sister, the 
faithless Phaedra. 

9. 'AXctdvSpip . . . 'AwCpqi: in D. 
Mort. 12 Lucian hits Alexander hard, 
but gives him a first place with Scipio a 



€Tt l,(oi/r€S i€pov ^(apiov iiriPaCrffiev - ij/xets 8c irdvra i^rj^: 
SiTTyrjcra/AC^a. ovro^ 8c fi€TacrT7icrdfi€vo^ 17/1x019 TTokifv XP^ 

126 vol/ iaKewreTO koI roc? (rvv€8poL<: eKoivovro irepl -qfiwv. 
crvvrjhpevov hk ctXXot re ttoXXoI koX * ApLCTei^yis 6 8iKai09 6 
^Adrjvalo^. co? 8c cSo^ci/ avro), d7r€(f>TJvaro T179 /xci/ c^tXo- 
TrpayfiocruvT}^ koI r^9 aTroSrjfjiLa^;, C7rci8ai/ dnoddi/ayfjievj hov- 
pai rd<: evdvva^y to 8c ia!i/ prjTop ^.P^^^^ fieivavra^ iv ry 

130 vrjum KoX avvhiaLTrfdeirra^ toI<: TJpcjcnv aTrekOelp. era^e 8c 
Kat riyi' irpod^ap^iav ttj^ iniSrifiLa^ fir) nXeov fii)vSiv inrd, 

11 TOvvr€vdev tjimlv avrofidTcov ro)v crT€<f>dv(op Trepippvevrcop ike- 
\vfieOa KoX €19 Trjp ttoXip rfyofieOa kol ct9 to tcop Ma^a- 
pcjp (Tvinroo'iop. avri) fiep ovp t) 7rdXt9 irdora XP^^y "^^ 8c 

136 rctxo9 TTcptKCtrai afiapdyStPOP- irukai 8c ctcrii/ CTrra, Traaat 

flOPO^vkoi KLPPaflCJflLPOL ' TO fl€PTOL c8a<^09 T^9 7rdX€6)9 Kol 

Tf cWo9 ToO Tet^ou9 yyj ike<j>aPTLP7i - paol 8c irdpTcjp dewp 
firipvXkov \l0ov (OKoSofiTifiepoLy Koi /3(ofiol ip avTol^" fieyi- 

CTTOL flOPoXldoL dfiedvCTLPOly €(^' CJP TTOtOUCTt Ta9 iKaTOfJifia^. 
140 TTCpl 8c TTJP TToXlP pel TTOTaflO^ flVpOV TOV KaXKuTTOV TO 

irXdTo^ wqx^^^ itcaTOP /SacrtXiKcii/, ^ddo^ 8c neirnJKOPTay 
(ocTe p€LP evfiapS)^, XovTpd 8c icTip avrot9 oucot. fieydXoi 
vdXipoLj T6) KippaiKofiw iyKai6fL€POL' dpTi fiepTOi v8aro9 ip 

12 Tar9 7rvcXoi9 8/300*09 Oepfiij icTip. i(r07JTi 8c ^pwrrat 
146 dpa^i/1019 Xc7rror9, 7rop(l>vpol<:. airrol 8c crci/xara /xcj/ ou*c 

close second to please Lucian's Roman 
constituency, and Hannibal third. 

10. &irf <^yjvaro : so. yvufniy. — rots 
'qp«»(riv: the Heroes (technical term 
like ** the Saints and Martyrs "). With 
these the guests are least d6class6s. 

11. T| ir6Xis: see p. 55. — |iovd|vXofc 
Kiwa|i^|iivoi : single jdanks sawn out of 
the cinnamon tree. This is an improve- 
ment on the rolls of cinnamon bark 

brought (lldt. 3, 111) by the birds in 
their beaks from quartet's unknown. — 
)iov6Xi0oi : cf. the oUrffia fiovv6\i0ov in 
Ildt. 2, 175. Note in connexion with 
this and iJLoy6^v\oi above that the Eng- 
lish translation only, not the Greek, 
suggests a reminiscence of Rev. 21, 21 
dvd cts iKacTTos rCby wXtiyojif ^» i^ 
ivbs fjuipyapiTov. See p. 65, note 4. — 
otKOi: apartments. 



€)(ovcnv, aW dva<f}€LS Koi aaapKoC etcri, iiop<f}rjv Se kol 
iScav fiovy^v ifi<f>aipova'L, koI aawfiaTot ovre^ ofio)^ (rvve- 
OTacrc Koi klvovvtcu Kai ^povovai koX (fxovfjp a<f>ia(Ti^ kol 
oXai9 €OiK€ yvfivT] Tt9 17 ^X^ avT(ov TrepnroXelp ttji/ tov 

160 crdfiaTo^ oiioiorrqra 7r€p(,K€Lfi€vrf • el yovp firi a^airo rt9, ovk 
aiv i\€y^€L€ fiTj eh/cu crS^iia ro opd/ievov eicrl yap annrep 
(TKLal opdaCy ov fiiXaivai. yy]pda'K€f. 8c ovh^Uj dXX* €<^* 179 
aiv y^kiKia^ ^X^^j wapafici/ei. ov fxriv ovSe pif^ Trap* avrol^ 
yCveraUy ov8c rjfiepa ndw Xafnrpd- Kaddirep yap ro XvKav- 

166 yk^ 17817 irpo^ €0} iirjBeTrcD dvaTeiXavro^ yjXiov^ rotovro <^a>9 
CTT^ct T7fi/ yyjP' Kal fiivroi koX <apav fiCav uraxri rov erov^ • 
del yap wap* aurot? iap iarl Kal el^ dvefio^ Trap* avrols 

18 TTi/ct 6 l,4if>vpo^. 17 8c X^P^ Tracri fiev dvOeci^ irdai 8c 
(f>r/TOL^ i7^cpoi9 re kol CKi^epoi^ redrfXev • at fiev yap dfifreXot, 

12. &va^€tt : intangible, see App. — 
&o-apKOi : have no flesh anA blood. In 
the Atharvaveda 4, 34, 2: ** Bone- 
less, pure, cleansed by the wind, shin- 
ing, to a shining realm they go." — 
|iop^v Sc Kal I84av : contour arid form. 
For the connexion between fiop<pii and 
Kttnfffis in the jargon of the schools, 
see Vit. Auct. 4. — wvHrrBax . . . &^i- 
aax: have consistence and powers of 
locomotion, of thought, and of articu-- 
late speech. Cf. Plato Soph. 248-260. 
— &i|reuTo: grasp at. Not inconsistent 
with dyaipeU. — 1&^ itveu : see GMT. 686. 
— cSinrfp . . . |UXeuv«u: like shadows, 
(but) hoU upright and not black (like 
mere silhouettes). Sbdt. reads tipaiai 
for 6p$aL But shadows have their 
yagaries ; in Mark Twain ^s Follow- 
ing the Equator they are frozen to 
the deck, i.e. o^k dpdal ! — Ytipdo-icfi 
. . . voftaiUm: cf. Od. 11, 38-43. 
In Icar. 28 Lucian makes capital of 

this idea : dveXoyij^diJLrfp . . . ttQs ip to- 
ffoOrtfi XP^fH> ^ 'Ax6XX&)y ot& 0($e( irdbyapa. 
— oiSc vi(: a hit at the description of 
Thule in Antonius Diogenes, see p. 64 ; 
cf. Icar. 28, and possibly also Pindar 
01. 2, 109-110; no reference to Rev. 
21, 26 or Zech. 14, 7 need be assumed. 
— XvKairyis: cf. GaU. 33. — dfl . . . 
lap : for whole description cf . Pseudo- 
Plato Aziochus 13 ovre ydp x^^f^ <r<f>o- 
dpdtf ovre BdXwos iyylyverai. — (i^vpof : 
due W. or N.W. wind, and in Homer 
thought of for the Troad as blowing 
raw and stormy from the snows of 
Thrace ; but in the Elysian fields (Od. 
4, 667-668) and in Alcinous^s garden 
in the west (see Perrin on Od. 7, 119) 
it blows, as in Italy, grata vice veris 
et Favoni (Horace Carm. 1, 4, 1, and 
4, 7, 9). In Athens, too, Lucian would 
have seen on the Tower of the Winds 
Zephyrus floating gently and shower- 
ing flowers. 

AAH0H5 I2T0PIA 66 

160 So}8eKa<f>6poi elcrl koI Kara fiijva cKoaToi/ Kap7roif>opova'L' 
Ta9 Se po(,a^ kol ras firjXea^ koX TTfi/ dWrjp ondpav eXcyoi/ 
fiev elvaL rpia'Kaih€Ka<if>6pov' kvo^ yap firjvo^ rov irap av- 
Tot9 TAivifov 8I9 Kapiro^opei, avrX 8c trvpov ol ordxye^ 
apTov eroLfiop in aKpiov if>vova'iv onnrep fivKrira^. iniyal 

166 Sc Trepl TTji/ ttoXlv vSaro? ficp nevre Kal iiiJKOPTa koI rpia- 
icdcrcai, fidXiro^ §€ aXXot rocravrai, fivpov 8c TrcrraKocrtat, 
fiiKpoT^pajL fiivToi avrai' koI iroTa/iol yaXa/cro9 CTrra kol 

14 otvou oKTco. TO 8c ovfiTTOO'iov c^o) T^9 TToXco)? ireiroiifTOL iv 
Tif "HXvcrtfti Ka\ovfi€P(^ 7rc8t^' Xct/ia>i/ 8c ccrrt icaXXwrro? 

170 KOL TTcpl avTw vXtj TTaKToia, irvKinjy iTnaKidlpvcra rov^ 
KaTaK€Lfi€uov^' Kal OTpoyfLvrf fi€P €K Tcjv dvdecDv v7ro/8e- 
Pk'qraLj hiaKovovvrai 8c koX hiaif>4pova'iv clcoora ol av^fioi 
7r\rjv yc rov oivo^o^iv rovrov yap ov 8coi/tcu, ntpX 8c to 
avfiirocrioi/ vdXtvd cWt fieydka hiuSpa rfj^ hiavyeoTdrq^ 

176 vaXov Kal Kapno^ cort tc5j/ Sei/Bp(ov tovtojp iron/jpia wairrola 
Kal Ta9 KaracTKevd^ koX rd fieyedrj. C7rci8di/ ovv Trapig T19 
€9 TO (TVfJLTrocnoVy Tpvyrj(ras iv rj kol 8vo tUv iKwcofidrcDP 
iraparWeraLj rd 8c aurcica oii/ov irkTJprj yCyperai, ovro) fikv 
nCvovo'Lv. dml 8c r&u oT€(f>dva}p at a7}8di'C? ical rd aXXa 

180 fiovcriKa opvea ck toJi/ TrXijo'toi' \€iii<iv(i>v Tot9 OTOfiao'Lv 

dvOokoyovvra Karavuf>€L avTov? /xct* ^8^9 vTr^pirerofieva, 

Kal firjv Kal fivpU^ovrat. She- v€(f>€\aL irvKvai dvadirdaaa'aL 

13. 8«8cKa^poi: act. compound vs. streams of water and monthly crops 

pass. 6KT(hipopos borne of eight. Note of the vines, while the Jewish and 

that the alleged parallel in Rev. 22, 2 Roman weeks (nundinae) respec- 

(i.e. TotoOv Kofyiroin Stidexa) coincides tively are reflected in the seven rivers 

verbally only in carA fiijva liccurrov. — of milk and the eight of wine. This 

&pTov Itoi.|mv: still better than the conception of heaven is as old as the 

ready-made crops — &<nrapra and drfj- Vedas, see p. 66. 
pora — in Od. 0, 109. Hans Sachs im- 14. TpvyVjo-at: note the nonchalant 

proves on this again, cf. p. 66. — irfi^aC: technicality of the expression. — ko- 

Lucian makes the most of his calendar: rav^ci : transitive. Cf . Ar. Ach. 138 

we have three hundred and sixty-five (sc. 6 Oe^) Karipti^e x*^^'- 'f'^" Bp^Ki^i^. 



jivpov €K TO)v irqycDv Kai rov irorafiov Kai CTrtoraorai xm€p 
TO avfiiToo'Lov Tjpdfia Twv ave/Kov {mod\iP6vr(siv vovci Xerrrov 

^^ ^(Tirep hpoaov. iirl 8c T<a 8€t?n/<^ fiovcriKy re Kai ^Sat9 
cr)(oXd^ova'Lv ' aScrat Sc avrot? ra rov 'OfiTjpov eirq /xaXt- 
crra- kqX avro% yap irdpeam Kai (rvv€U(o)(eirai avrot9 imep 
rov 'OSvcrcrca KaraKeifievo^. oi fiku ovp X^P^^ ^'^ naZtai/ 
elcrl Kai irapdei/cjp- i^ap^pvo'i 8c koL crvvahovo'iv ^vpojio^ 

190 re 6 AoKpo^ Koi *Apuov 6 Accr^io? Kai *AvaKp4(ov Kai XrrjarC- 
Xopos' Kai yap rovrov nap* avroi^ ideatrdfjiriVy yjhrf rrj^ 
*EXcV7j9 avTO) 8t7jXXay/x6^9. C7rct8ai/ 8c ovrot. travo'tavrai 
a8orrc9, 8cvr€po9 x^P^^ irapipx^rai iK kvkvcdv Kai xcXt8o- 
vo}i/ Kai drjhovwv. ineihav 8c Kai ovrot ao'coo'Ly rore ij8ij 

^® nao'a r/ vXtj CTravXct royv dvifioiv Karap^ovrtov. fieyLorov 
8c 8^ TT/oo? €v<f>po(rvP7jv Ikwo €)(ovcn • irqyai cio't 8uo irapa 
ro (TVfiTroarioPy t] fikv ycXcoro?? rj 8e 17801/^9- cV rovrwi/ €Ka- 
Tcpas Trainee ev OLpxV '^^ eva);)(ta9 irivovcn koX ro \017rov 
rfSofievoi Kai ycXaJj/rc? 8tayovo't. 

^ BovXo^at 8c ctTTCti/ Kttl rail' i7rL<njfi(ov ovariva^ nap* 
avrois ideacrdfiTiv • ndvra^ fikv roi)^ rifiL0€ovs Kai roif^ cttI 
*lXtoi' orrpartvaravra^ irKrjv yc rov AoKpov Aiavro^- iKttvov 
8c fiopov €(l>aa'KOv Iv r(o rS^v do'^^iov X^PV KoXa^ccr^at. 

— r«v irti^Av: tA6 (above-mentioned 
five hundred) fountains. 

15. 4irl 8i . . . arxoXd{ovo%v: of. Pin- 
dar l?Va^m. 106 (Bergk).—E<ivo|io«: the 
musician upon whose cithara a cicada 
sprang and supplied the deficiency 
caused by a broken string. Strabo, 6, 
p. 260, states that at Locri in Italy his 
statue was shown, rirriya M r^v Ki0d- 
pap K<k0imM¥ov tx^*' — *Ap(»v: see D. 
Mar. 8 and Hdt. 1, 24. — 8iT|XXaY)UvT|s : 
i.e. thanks to his palinode, cf. Plato 
Phaedr. 243 a quoting Fragin. 32 : 

oiK icr frvfjuos \6yos ovrot, 
oud' ipas 4p yrivaly ei^<rA/Aots, oM' txeo 
ll^pyafia Tpolas. 

— ImivXit kt\.: echoes as with the 
strains of a flute, the winds leading off. 
17. tAv iirio^|&«v : the notables. — 
Tovt 4|&i0^vt: cf. Flato Apol. 28 c 
rCjy rffu04(av Scot ip Tpolgi TtreXevri^Kounp 
and Hes. W. & D. 168 dpSpwp riptitap 
$€top y^poij ot KaX^oprai iffjU0€oi. — 4mCvov 
|fc6vov : as having violated the rights 
of sanctuary. He was one of the *^ in- 
curables^* {dpidTuft Ix^tf)} cf. Flato 



^ap^dpwv Se Kupov? t€ afiifxyrepov^ Kal tov XkvOtjp *Ai/ar 

205 x^P^^^ '^^^ ^^ ^paKa ZdjioX^Lv Kal No/xai/ top 'IraXiarrrfPy 
Kal firjv Kal AvKovpyov top AaKeSoL/JLOvLov Kal ^(oKitova Kal 
Tc'XXoi' TOV9 'A^i/atov9, icat roif^ croc^ov? avev HepiaivSpov, 
elSoi' 8c Kat XwKparqv tov %0H^povUrKov dSoXco^ovj/ra /xera 
NccTTopo^ Kal HakafirjSov^ ' irepl 8c airov Jjaav ^TaKivdo^ 

210 TC 6 AafccSat/xoi'109 icat 6 ©ccrTTtcv? Napicwrcro? icat TXas /cat 
aXXoi iroXXol icat icaXot. icat ^ot eSdicci epai/ roO ^TaKivdov • 
ra TToXXa yovj^ iKtivov BiT]\€y)(€v, ekiyero Sc ^aXcTrat- 
v€iv aural 6 *Pa8dfiavdv^ Kal ^TretXTj/ca'at ttoXXcxki? c*c/8a- 
Xeti' avToi' €K T7J9 mjaovy rjv <f}\vapfj Kal firj idiky d<^€C9 

215 TTjv €lp(ov€iap evm^^o'dai. IlXdrcoi/ 8c fiovo^ ov iraprjvy 
dXX' iXcyeTo avro? ci/ rg apairXaa'OeCa'jf v<f}* avTov troXct 
ocfccci^ XP<^IJ^^^o^ Tjj TToXiTCia Kat TOC9 vofJLOi^ ol? (rvv€ypa^€P. 

18 ot fiivToi a/iif}* * KpixTTiinTOv T€ Kal *Em'LKOvpov Ta irpoyTa 
Trap" avTOLS iif>€povro ij8ct9 T€ 6pt€^ Kal Kex^pitrfia/OL Kal 

220 crvfiTTOTLKwraTOL. Traprjp 8c *cal AtcrcoTros 6 ^pv^' tovt(j) 8c 
o<ra *cal ycXajroTrotoJ j^poirrat. ALoycprj^ ficp ye 6 %LP<t}Treif^ 

Phaedo 113 e. — 'Avdxapo'tv: in Lu- 
cian^s dialogue Anacharsis and Solon 
represent barbarian and Greek train- 
ing respectively. — ZdjAoXtiv : the Thra- 
cians were tricked into deifying him 
(Hdt. 4, 05).— Nojittv: i.e. Nuina Pom- 
pilius; see App. — <^MK(Mva: though 
an anti-jingo, Phocion is admitted to 
heaven ! — T4XXov: see Char. 10. — &vfv 
Ilf piAvSpov : a mock concession to con- 
ventional opinion. Periander is often 
left out of the canonical list of the 
Seven Sages. — IlaXai&VjSovt : cf. Plato 
Apol. 41 B. — ^"YdKivOot ktX. : cf. D. Mori, 
18, 1. — TT|v clpttvcUiv : cf. Plato Hep. 
337 A *Q 'HpdicXeff, avrti ixelyTi ij elojOvia 
elpuftftla Zwfrpdrouf . — a^ds : cUone (see 

L. & S. 8. v., 1, 3). — Iv rg dvairXa<r6cCo^ 
kt\.: i.e. Plato^s Republic; cf. the 
noble passage (ir6Xet) ry iv Xiyois 
Keifiip'O' 4ir€l yrjs ye oifSafwO oJfiai aiVri^y 
elpai 501 A B. In Fh'dops. 24 the liar 
claims that through the pro tempore 
crevasse he saw Socrates in Elysium, 
but ** Plato he failed to distinguish.^* 

18. ol &|i^* 'ApCorrttnrov: originally 
the school of Aristippua, then Aristip- 
pus and his school^ then simply Aris- 
tippus. So both ifuf>l and wept often in 
Lucian ; cf . § 23, and Symp. 29 ; 36 ; 37 ; 
42; and especially 43. — 'ApCo-Tiirir o v ; 
see Vit. Auct. 12 ; for Epicurus, Vii. 
Auct. 19. — 'yfXoiToiroif : a fixture in the 
convivial programme; cf. Xen. Symp. 



roo'ovTov fi€T€/3a\e tov rpowov, oJcrrc yfjfKU fiev AatSa ttjv 
iraipavy op^elo'daL 8c iroWdKLS ifrro fieOrf^ avL(rTdfi€vop koI 
napoLvelv. t(op 8c 2ra>iica>i/ ov8ci9 iraprjv • en yap ikeyovro 

225 apa/3aiveip top r!}^ dperfj^: opdiop \6<f}ov. '^Kovofiev 8c icat 
Trepl Xpvo'imrov otl ov irpoTepov avr^ iTnfirjpcu t^9 injcrov 
defiL^ irplv TO rerapTov iavrov iWefiopUry^ rou9 8c *AKa- 
hrjiiaiKov^ eXeyov ideXeiv fikv iXdelvy iwe^eiv 8c ert icat 8ia- 
crK€Tn'€cr0aL • firjSk yap auro tovto ttco KaTaXa/ifidpeLVy ct icat 

230 vrjcro^ Tt9 TOLavTT] i(rrii/. dXXa>9 t€ koI TrfP iirl tov *Pa8a- 
fidvdvo^y olfioA^y Kpurtp iheBoLKecaPy are Kal to KpiTrjpiov 
avToX dirgprfKOTe^. iroWoifS 8c avTiov iifxiCKOi/ opfirfdcvTa^ 
aKokovOelv rots d(f>LKVovfi€voi^^ vtto poiOeia^ 8c aTroXctTrccr^at 
^17 KaTa\afi/3dvoirra^ Kal dvaa'Tp€(f)€LV Ik fi€(rrj^ ttJ^ 68ov. 

•^y ovToi fji€v ovp ^(Tav oi d^LoXoyarraTOL Ttov irapovTdiv, Tifioia'i. 
8c p.dXio'Ta TOV *A.\iXX4a Kal fierd tovtov ©Tjcrca. wepl 8c 
(Twovtria^ koX d^^pohicrlbiv ovto) <j>popova'L- fiCayovTaL fikv 
dpa(f}av8ov Ttdmrnv 6p<oi/T<t}v Kal yvvai^i Kai appeal^ koI 
ov8afiS>^ TOVTO ai(r)(jpov airroZ^ 8o*c€l- jiopo^ 8c XmKpdvr)^ 

1, 11 ; also Lucian Symp, 18, where the 
jester is brought in between courses 
and commanded elTtXv rt rj xpai^at ye- 
\oiov, (at (ti fiaWoy ol ffVfiTSrai diax^- 
6etev. — AwyivTfi: see VU. Auct. 7. — 
Too'ofrrov |UT4paXc . . . &m Yijijuu : cf . 
Athen. 588 c-e. Lucian, in his post- 
Menippean pieces, is never tilled of hold- 
ing up to ridicule the preaching and 
practice of the Cynics. Cf. Symp. 12 
fl. ; Peregr. passim ; Pi8C. 45, 48, etc. — 
T^v Tf)s &pcTf)s ^f>6iOv X6^v: cf. the 
»*Hill Difficulty" in Hermot 2^5* 
*Ap€T^ wdw irdppta irard r6v 'Halodov oUeT 
Kol tariv b olfws iir a^ifv ftaKpis re xal 
6p$ios Kal Tfnix^- Hermotimus, already 
forty when he began and a student now 

these twenty years (not the stripling 
of Pater^s chapter zxiy in Marin3 the 
Epicurean) has only reached the foot- 
hills. *'It will require," says Lucian, 
***other lives' for * other heights.*" 
See Simon. 58. — Xpvo-Cinrov : see Vit. 
Auct. 21 ff. — r6 r4rapiTov lavr&v iXXf- 
PopCcrti : VU. Auct. 23 (rpli). — 'AkoSti- 
l&aucovs . . . itr^civ : for the confusion 
between the Academics proper and the 
Sceptics, see note on Vit. Auct. 27. — 
l&T|S4 : for oi>d4. Cf. Introd. 39 (a). 

19. SMKpdnis : the repetition of 
this stock story (see Plato's Sympo- 
sium 219 b) means just as little serious 
malice as the classification of Herodotus 
and Ctesias with other liars in § 31. — 



Tot, 7rai/T€9 avTov iinopKelp KareyivwaKov TroXXaict? yovv 6 
fjukv ^TaKLvOos rj 6 Napictorcros dfJioXoyovvy eKeivo^ 8^ ijp- 
veiTOn at 8e yvvaiKi^ ctcrc iracri icoii/at ^al ovSets <f>0ov€i 
r(p TrXrfcrLov, a\)C ctcrl Trcpt tovto fidkicrra TlXarcoi/ticairarof 

246 icat ot TratScs 8c irapeyovcri t6i<; Povkofiivoi^ ovhkv aimr 

20 OvTro) Se 8vo 17 rpci? r/ficpai 8tcX7/Xu^€0'ai/, fcal irpoo'eXdo^v 
cyco 'Op/qpip r^ ttoitjt^, o^oXtJs ovotj? ap.<f}oli/y rd T€ aXXa 
iirvvdavofiriv Kal odev citj, Xcy<ui/ rovro /xaXwrra Trap* 17/111/ 

250 eiaen vvv ^rfreicrOai,. o 8c ou8' avro? ftei' ayi^octi/ €(f>acrK€v 
0)9 Ot jLiei/ Xtoi/9 Ot 06 XpA)pvaiovj TroAAot oe /cat KoKo<f>a}i/Lov 
avTov vop,i^ovariv. elvcu p.4vToi ye eXcyc Ba/8vXa5i/to9, ^at 
irapd y€ rot9 TroXtrat? ov^ ^O/xTjpo?, dXXa Tiypdvr)^ *caXct- 
aOai' vorepop 8c ofirjpevaras irapd rot? "EXXijo^ti/ dXXa^at 

265 T171' Trpo(rrjyopLav. en 8c icat Trcpt rcii' dOerovfievcDV cri^ayv 
iTrrjpwTfoVy ct vtt* eKeCvov eicrlv iyyeypafifi^voi. Kal 09 
i(f}a(rK€ irdvra^ avrov eTvcu. Kar^yivtaaKOv ovv rSiv afi(f}l 
Tov ZtjvoSotop koX ^Apurrapxop ypafifiariKcop ttoXXi^i' rriv 
ifwxpoXoyULv. CTTCt 8c Tavra tKai/a)9 dire^KpivaTOj irdXiv avrov 

260 'qpdroyp ri hrj irore diro rrj^ MtJplSo^ Trfp dp^p itrovrja'aro • 

nXaTMviK^Tarov : the allusion is to 
Rep. 5, e.g. 468 b and c. 

20. OfiTM . . . 8uXT|Xv0co-av, xal 
. . . : parataxis. Cf. Iiitrod. 28 and 
Somn. 1 and 3. — rd n &XXa . . . cUrtfrv 
v«v: the "Homeric Question" was al- 
ready an old story by Lucian's time. — 
ot |uv Xtov kt\. : Lucian apparently 
follows the epigram of Antipater of 
Sidon (see Jebb's Horner^ p. 87): 

ot fjJp (Teu Ko\o<f>taifa riBrfyi^TeipaPy'' Ofiijpey 
oi di icaXdy "LpApvap^ o\ S* ivitrovffi 

He mentions more of the conventional 
names, Encom. Deniosth. 9. — BapvX^ 
W09: in Gall. 17 we learn from the 
cock (Pythagoras) that Homer was a 
Bactrian camel at the time of the Tro- 
jan war. — dOcTov|&4v«»v : r^ected as 
spurious : see Jebb*8 Homers p. 94, note 
2. — d|fc^l r6v Zt|v68otov xal * ApCo^rop- 
Xov: for the Alexandrine recensions 
{SiopOdfo-eii) by Zenodotus (first libra- 
rian at Alexandria, 280 b.c.) and 
Aristarchus (flor. ca. 160 b.c, cf. Lu- 
cian Jud. Vocal. 1 and 8) see Jebb^s 



Kal 09 ehrev ovt(o<;. cVcX^cti/ airrw fjLrfSev eTTtTTjSevcravn. Kac 
fiTjv KOLKelvo eTredvfiovi/ elSevaiy ct irporipav eypw^e, T7fp 
'OSucrcretaj' rfj^ *lXta8o9, co? oi iroWoC <f>acrLv • o 8e ripveiTO. 
on /!€!/ yap ovSe TV(f}\o<: '^v, o Kal avro irepl avTov Xcyovo'ti/, 

205 avTLKa yiTTiarraLp/qv ' icopa ydpj oicre ouSc Trvvdav^crdai cSco- 
fvqv. iroWoLKL^ Se koX aWore tovto inotovv^ et irore avrov 
(r)(okrji/ ayovra idpcjv' 'npoariojv yap tl iTrvvOavofj/riv avroO, 
Kal o9 Trpodvfio)^ irakiv aTr^KpivarOj koL fidkiorra fxera rrfp 
hiKyji/y cttciSt) iKpoTTfO'ev' '^v yap Tt9 ypa(f}rj Kar avTov 

270 i7r€irrjpeyfi€v7) v/8/)ca)9 vtto ©cpo'trov €<^* 019 avTou iv rp 
iroiTfO'^i ecrKctn/i€, koX ivLKTfcrev 0/x7jpo9 *08uo'0"€a>9 (rvvayo- 

21 pevovTO^. Kara 8k tov9 avrou9 xpopov^ a<j>LKero Kal Uvda- 
yopa^ 6 ^ajtxio9 iTrraKi*; aXXayct9 kclI iv roaovTOi^ £c|)oc9 
/8iOTCvcra9 Kal eKrcX€0'a9 tt79 ^X^^ ™^ 7r€ptd8ou9. ^i' §€ 

276 xpvo"ov9 0X01/ TO Sc^toj/ rjfiCrofiop. Kal iKpCOrj fikv (rvfiiro- 
XiTevo'aa'dai avrol^^ ei/c8ota£cTO §€ ert irorepov Hvdayopav 
rj ^v<f}op/3ov ^pT) avTop 6pofid[^€LP. 6 fxepTot *E/Lt7r€8oKX^9 

^X^€ /ikp Kal OUTO9, lT€pU^0O% KdX TO (TWfia 6\op (iTTTrffiePO^ ' 

ov firjp irapeSe^^Orf KaiToi ttoXXcL LKercvcjp. 

Horner^ 02, 93. — |&i)8fv liriTuSc^o-avrt : 
cf. In trod. 39 (e). — irpoWpav: Luciaii 
ignores the Chorizontes (Jebb p. 103). 

— i&pa : he was using his eyes ; cf . dpqi 
A 25. For the emendation to iibpuv see 
App.— KttUs: L.&S.s.v. Cf.§20,line 
256. — S£ici|v. . . YfKK^ CPpcfi»9: cf. Dem. 
524, 22 ypa(f>rjp v^pewi (criminal prosecu- 
tion for assault) xal dlKiju KaKrjyoplas 
(action for defamation) ISlay (^eiJ^era*. 

— 08v<r(r^«»8 •* the shifty (ToXurpowos) 
Odysseus was qut out for a criminal 

21. Kard rovs airovs XP^^^^' i-^- 
(roughly speaking) seven hundred 
years from Pythagoras to Lucian. — 

lirrdKis . . . ircptdSovs : calculated on 
the basis of Plato Rep. 615 a tovto 5'el- 
yai Karii iKaTovTaerriplda iKdirriiv, w ^lou 
6vTot Tocro&rov toO dvBpunrlvov. In Gall. 
17 ff. the chronology of his transmi- 
grations is not reckoned so carefully : 
after six human incarnations he be- 
comes a horse, a jackdaw, a frog, 
then dXXa fwpla^ and finally time and 
again a cock. — ^ov r6 8c(tov 4||iCro- 
jiov: his golden thigh (cf. Vit. Auct. 6) 
and accrued interest. — IvcSotdj^rro: in 
Gall. 20 lie prefers the ** rooster " 
avatar. — 'EfiircSoKXf|s . . . uim||U- 
vos: cf. D. Mart. 20, 4; Peregr. 1 ; Pise. 
2. — KaCrov : for xaivep. In trod. 27. 



2gQ \VpoiovTO% o^ Tov ^povov ci/coTTj o aycDi' o Trap avrot9 ra 
©ai^arouata. rjyoDVoOeTeL 8c 'A^tXXcv? ro irefnTTOv Koi Srf 
(reus TO ifiSo/ioPn ra fikv ovv aXXa fiaKpov aa/ eirj Xeyeiv* 
ra 8c K€(l>dkaLa rS}p 'irpa^divrtov hvqyrfo'oiiai. irak-qv fxci/ 
ivLKTfcre Kapo^ 6 d<f>* 'HpaicXcov? 'OSvcrcrca irepl rov are- 

285 <j>dvov KarayoypLcdfievo^ • irvyfiif 8c Zcnj iyivero ^ApeCov re 
rov AlyvTrrioVy 09 ei/ KopCvdio redanraL, Kal 'EttcioC ciXXt;- 
Xot9 (TvveKdovroiv. irayKpariov 8c ou riderai aO\a irap* av- 
Tot9. Toi' fihnoi hpofiov ovKeri. fiefivTjfiai ocrri? ivLKrjcre. 
iTOvqrSiv 8c r^ /xci/ aXTjdeiq, napd noXv iKparei ''O/ATjpo?, 

290 ivCtcTjO'e 8c o/xa>9 'HcribSo?. ra 8c adXa ^v dnaci aT€<f>avo^ 
TrXaKel^ cV Trrcpoii/ racDveuov. 

28 ''ApTL 8c rov dyoJi^o? crvvrerekeo'iiivov riyyiWovro ol iv 
TftI X^PV '^^^ daefiSiv Ko\ai,6fJL€POL diroppij^avre^ ra Seafid 
Kal rfj^ <f>povpd^ imKparijcram'es ikaweip cVt rr/i^ vrjaov* 

205 7)y€icr0ai 8c avrSiv 4>aXaptV re roi/ ^ AKpayavrlvov koX Bouort- 
piv rov AlyvTrriov koX AiOfnjhrjv rop %paKa koX ro\)% irepl 
XKeipcjva Kal IIiTVOKa/jtTmji'. a>9 8c ravra -qKovaei/ 6 *Pa8a- 


) \ 

> / 

fiavuv^y eKrarret rovs rjpcja^ ctti ttj? 17101/09 • 7}y€iro 


22. rd OavaroifO'ia : MortcUia, cf. 
K^i'Mi Saturnalia. — Kapo« : unknown 
unless it be the Human poet in 
Ovid Epist. ex Ponto 4, 10. The juxU- 
position of incongruous pairs is appar- 
ently the motive. — 'Ho-CoSos : tliis was 
comparatively modern. Plutarch had 
told of Hesiod winning a prize unfairly 
from Homer, and the Certamen Ho- 
meri et Hesiodi was written just before 
Lucian^s time. — tcmvcCmv : for the con- 
ventional metaphor cf. Aesop Fa6.397 *» 
where the peacock boasts to the crane: 
iyClf flip xpvabv ical Trop<p6pav ipS^Svfiai, 
ffi) Hk oifSiv Ka\6p 0^pcis iv TTcpoh. The 
same suggestion seems obvious in Stral- 

tis Mared. 7 and in Ar. Ach. 63 (but 
see scholiast ad loc.) : 

wolov pa(rt\4us ; dx^ofiai 'ytb xp/cr/Sccrt 
Kal ToTs TatStri roh r* d\ai^oy€6fuunp. 

23. &iropf>^avrcs rd Sc(r|id : cf., In- 
trod. p. xxiv, Boileau's Le8 H^ros de 
roman. — ^dXoptv : among Lucian^s 
writings are two rpo\a\tal in defence 
of the tyrant Plialaris. So Isocrates, 
or. 11, had whitewashed Busiris, the 
next on this list. See Bentley's fa- 
mous dissertation on the Epistlea of 
Phalaris. — SmCpMva : the Corinth 
Railroad now nnis along the Skironian 
Cliffs, see Baedeker's Greece, p. 14r). - 



©Tjcrcv? T€ KoX *Aj(tXX€V9 Kal Aia? 6 TcXa/LKuj/tos ijSt; crow^po- 
300 i/cSi/- /cat (Tv/jLiiL^airre^ ifid^ovro koX ivUcqaav 61 rjpoje^ 
'A;(tXXco)S ra TrXctora KaTopOcjcavro^. '^ptarevo'e 8c ical 
AOiKparr)^ ctti ra> ocgto) Ta;(C/€t9 iroKv fiaKKov rj ore Lfi>v ctti 
At^Xio) ifid^ero. Trpociovnov yap riov TroXefiuov ovk €<f>vy€ 
Kal TO Trpoo'coTTOv arpewro^ ^v i^ ot? kqX varepov i^'g- 
306 pedrf avT(p apicTT^Zovj /caXds T€ koX /xcyioros TrapaSctcro? ci' 
TO) Trpoaareuoy ivda koX <rvyKa\Siv tov9 iraipov^ SicXeycro 

24 NeKpaKaSrifiCav tov ^tottop irpoo'ayopeva'a^. <rvXXa/8oi^C9 
oui/ T0U9 veviKi)fi4vov^ KoX hrjcTavT^^ avOi^ ancirefjitlfav en 
fiaWov Kokao'dTia'Ofievov^. eypaiffc Sc Kal ravrqv rrfv fid- 

310 X7IV ''Ofirjpo^ Kal diriovri fioi eSoiicc ra jSifi^Ca KOfiLlL,€u/ rot? 
Trap' ij/xti' dvdpwiToi^' aXX* varepop Kal ravra fiera tS>v 
SXK(s}v aTTcjXecraiJLep. rjp 8c 17 a/>X^ "^^^ iroirjiiaro^ avnj, 

i/Ci' 8c /xot €PP€n€^ MoCora, fid^rjp peKvtop rfpcjoip. 

Tore 8' oSi' KvdfjLov^ ojnjo'aPTc^j ctwrTrcp Trap* avrot? pofio^ 
316 cTrci8ai/ Toi/ TToXc/xoi' KaTopOdfraxriPj elaTiiopTo ra iiripLKia 
KoX ioprrjp fieydkifp ^yop- fiopo^ 8c ravri)^ ov fi€T€L^€ 
Hvdayopa^y aXX* ctcrtTo? noppa) iKad4l,ero /xva'aTTOficpos rfip 

25 "Hhr) 8c p/qpSip i^ SlcXtjXvOotcop Trepl fiecrovpra top cJ88o- 
320 jLtoi/ P€WT€pa crvPLOTaTO irpdyfiara' 6 Kipvpa^ 6 roi) ^KipOd- 

pov Trat? fi€ya<; T€ cSi/ icat *caXo9 '^7/oa ttoXvi' ^popop tJStj rr}^ 
*EXci^9, Kal auTTj 8c ovk dtfyaprfs ^p iirtfiapios dyairSxra top 

4)8ii o-M^povAv: see §7. — rd irXcto-ra 
KaropOd^vavrot : cf . II. ly 166-100 dXX& 
rd ju^i' vXcioir iroXvdiKOs toX^/lioco | x'^pes ^/biai 
dUvovcr. — TipUrTfiNrc: cf. Plato Symp. 
221 A B. Lucian, as usual, outdoes 
his original. — NcKf>aKa8ii|iCav : Socra- 
tes (not Plato, see § 17) is head master of 
this Deadfiead Academy — tuition free. 

24. Ka\ Ta^m|v : i.e. as well as those 
in the Iliad. — &ir«»X^9a|uv : see § 47. 
— v^ U )iov jctX, : parody on Od. 1, 1 : 

Sing to me, Muse, now slug of the combat of 
corpses heroic. 

— |iv<raTT6|uvo9 : cf. Vit. A^ict. 0. — 

TT|v KvafjLo^aYCav: this bean-baiiing. 

25. vc«^Tfpa irpdY^iara : novae res, 

AAH0H2 I2T0PIA 73 

veavuTKOv • rroXXaicis yovi/ koX hUvevov a\\rj\oi^ iv T(f crv^- 
TTOcrty icat irpovirivov icat fiovoL i^avLOToifievot, iirkavtavro 

326 TTcpt T171/ vXtjv. Koi 8ij TTOTe VTTo €po}TO^ Kol OLii/q^avla^ 
i^ovkevaaro 6 Kii/vpa9 a/OTracra? n^i' *EXo^i/ <f}vy€LV. 
eSoKCt 8c KaKeLirg raura, ofj^ccr^cu (XTrtdi/Tas ej rti'a roii/ 
iTnK€€i/(op vrj(T(ov, rjToi €9 r^i/ <I>cXXa> 17 €9 rrfv Tvpoecra'av. 
(rvi/w/idra? Sc TraXot 7rpocr€(X7]<f>€a'ap rpcts rcSj/ iratpcjv r<ov 

330 c/xoJi/ TOU9 dpacrurdrov^* roJ fiivroi irarpX ravra ovk ifiyj- 
vvarev' jjiriicrraTO yap vn avroS K(o\vd7i(r6fJi€vo<:. 0)9 §€ 
cSdfCCi avTOt?, ircXovv ttji/ ctti/SovXi^i/, ical cttciSij vif^ 
iyivero — cyai /X6i/ ov irapTjfirjv irvy^avov yap iv t<j) aufi- 
iroo'Ltfi Koifidfji^vo^ — ot 8c XaOovre^ Toif<: aXXov? di^aXa- 

^ fiovre^ TTJI/ *EXanji/ inro (nrovSrj^ avrj^difa'av. irepl 8c to 
fieo'oiruKTiov aveypo/ievo^ 6 Mcj/cXccds cttci e/iade rfjp evvfjv 
Kevfjv r^9 yvvcuKo^y ^onrjv T€ umi Kal rov a8cX<^ov Trapa- 
\a/3iiv ^ct 7rpo9 Toi/ fiacriKia top 'Fahd/iavOvv. rjfiepa^ 8c 
\mo^aivov(rr)^ cXcyoi/ ot {tkottoI KaOopap Trjp pavp ov ttoXv 

340 dwe^ova'ap ' ovto) Stj ififiLpda'a^ 6 'Fahdfiapdv^ TrepTiJKOPTa 
tS)p Tjpoxop ct9 pavp fiopo^vXop dcr^oh^Xipi^p wapTjyyeiXe 
Sia}K€LP ' ot 8c VTTO TTpoOvfita^ cXawoi^TCS Trepl ii€(rqfiPpCap 
KaTa\afipdpov(rLP avrou9 dpn c? top yaXaKTCjSrj (OKeapop 
ififiaipopTa^ Tr\j)<Tiop t^9 Tvpo€a'<rri^' napd tocovtop rjXdop 

346 SiaSpapai • ical dpah'rja'dfi€POi ttjp pavp dkvaei pohipiQ /carc- 
ttXcoi'. 7} fi€P ovp 'EXepTj ihdKpvi t€ kol i^axvpero Kal ipe- 
icaXuTTTCTo, TOV9 8c a^<^i TOP Kipvpap dpaKpCpa^ irporepop 

cf. L. & S. — 4irvKCi|Uv«»v : adjacent. ness. — &8cX^v: Agamemnon returns 
The l8le of Cork in §6 was described his brother ^s devotion (II. 2, 409). — 
as T6pfMa$€y and the Isle of Cheesea (§ 3) — |aov6{vXov do^ScXCvT|v : a dug-out 
was more distant. — irap^|iT|v: see In- (cf. Xen. Anab. 6, 4, 11) made from a 
trod. 18 (6). Cf. Schmid, I, 231. single trunk of aspJiodel. The aspho- 
26. KCir^v: see Introd. 23 (6). — del plants are here good-sized trees ; so 
fM\v to^ : Menelaus (/3o^y dya06i) had in the Isle of Dreams (§ 33) the pop- 
not yet acquired the Hades hoarse- pies are tail trees. — KarlvXfov : sailed 


o 'Pa8a/Ltai/^v9, ci tlp€<; kol aWoi auroi? (rvvtcraciVy <W9 
ovScva elirovy iK t(oi/ aihouov Sifcra? aneTrefi^ev e? top tS)v 

ggj a(r€/3(ov \S)pov ftaXa^iy Trporepop fiaaTLy(ti$€VTa<;. i}\rq^i- 
(ravro Se ical 17/1,019 iinrpoOio'fiov^ eKwefiTreiv iK rfj<: vrjcov 
T7fp iiriovcrav TjfLcpav fiomjv iTTLfieipapTa^, ivr avda 8r) iyo) 
inoTVLcofiriv re kol IhaKpvov ota e/AcXXoi/ dya^a /caraXtTrcI)!^ 
au^t? Tr\avi)drja'ea'dai. avrol fiei/roi iraptfivOovvro \4yovT€s 

355 ov 7roXX<3i' eTwv dij^ti^ccr^at irdKiv d^ avTov^, KaC fioi rjSrj 
Opovov T€ Kai KKidiav C9 rovinov eTreSeLKwa'ap Trk7](rCop rS)v 
apurr(siv. iyo) 8e irpocrekdcjv t<o ^Vahafidvdvi TroXXd iKerevov 
elTreiv ra fiekkovra koI vTrohel^ai fiot. top ttXovj/. o Se 
€(f}a(rK€v d(l>L^€cr0aL fikv €9 rijv trarpiha TToXXa wporepov 

360 TrXavrjOevTa kol KLv8vv€V(ravTay top 8c ^povov ovKen 7^9 
inavoSov irpoo'O^ivai yjOeXyjcei/ - dXXd 817 kol heiKinj^; ra9 
ttXtjo'lov vrjaov^ — l^aivovro 8^ tto/tc tov dpidfiovy aWr) 8c 
eKTTj TToppcodev — ravra9 ficv elvai €(f>aa'K€ Ta9 tS)v d(r€/3(0Vy 
Ta9 iT\j)a'iov, *A(^* cSj/, cc^tj, 1787/ to ttoXu ttG/o 6pa9 KaiofiepoVj 

366 cicTTj 8c iK€LV7) rSiv 6v€Lpa)P Tj 7roXt9* ftcrd ravnqv 8c 17 7^9 
KaXin|fou9 i^cro9, dXX' ov8c7roj crot ^aiverai. iTreiSdv 8c 
Taura9 irapaTTXevarj^^ rore 8^ d(l>i^r) e9 T171' fjL€yd\r)i/ rJTreipov 
rffv ivavriav rrj u<^* u/ioii/ KaToiKovfjievr)' ivr avda 817 TroXXd 
iraOan/ Kal TTot/ctXa ci^i'Tj 8tcX^cii/ Kat dvdp(!moi<; dfjiiKTOL^ 

home. — i&aXdxn '• ^^^ mallow was not 6p6pos by way of vpoeSpla at the Olympic 
normally prescribed for external use, Ecclesia and a dining-couch (/cXt<r(a) 
but cf, Fugit 33. at the celestial Symposium.— tA ji^X- 
27. l|MrpoO^<r|iovs : only six and a Xovra: still in parody of the Odyssey^ 
half of the seven months allowed (see cf. Circe's instructions Od. 12, 37 ff. — 
§25) had elapsed. —4trorvk^|ii1v : late IJircipov Tt|v JvavrCav : called (§ 47) t^v 
Greek, but see L. & S. — airoi: (they) dvriw^pap. Sometimes vaguely described 
personally. But both here and in § 12 as the Island of Atlantis. For the con- 
nearly equivalent to a personal pro- tinent *' outside this world (i.e. Europe, 
noiin. — ov itoXXmv 4t»v: Lucian was no Asia, and Libya),'' cf. Aeliau Var. Hist. 
longer young (Bolderman,.S7?«Z.Lwctaii. 3, 18.— dp.CKrots: unsociable. Cf . Eur. 
p. 134). — Op^vov T€ Ka\ KXi<rCav: the Cycl, 42d AfxiicTop dvdpa. 


370 iTnSrjfiTJa'a^ ^povoy ttotc tj^ci? €19 rr^v irepav TJiretpop. to- 

28 cavra elne. kol avaairdcra^ airo rrj^ yy}^ fiakd)(ri^ pfX^av 
(ope^i fiOL, TavTjj KeKevaa^ iv toi% /Ltcyurroi? Kivhvvoi% irpocr- 
evaded ax • irap^veae Sc icat e? ttotc d(f>iKOLiirii/ C9 TJJuSe rtji/ 
yrjvy fiTJrc irvp /xa^aipa cTKoKevuv firjrc Oepfiov^ iaOUiv fi^jre 

376 TratSi imp rd ofcrcDfcaiScfca irrj TrXijcna^cii/ • tovtcov yap dv 

fi€fivrfii€POi/ cXTTiSa? €)(€«/ T^9 C19 T^i/ vrjaov d<f>C^€a)^. t6t€ 

fiep ovv rd irepl top ttXovp irapeo'Keval^oiirjVy kol errcl Katpo^ 

^v, <TVP€L(m(0fi7iP auroc?. ry §€ iinovaig Ttpoaekdiap irpo^ 

O fir) pop TOP TTOLTfTrfp iSeyjOrip avrov iroirja-ai fioi hlxm^op 

380 inCypafifia- kol C7r€t8i7 iiroiy)^^^ anjXTjp ^rjpvWov Xidov 

dpaanjaa^ iireypa^a npo^ tgJ Xifiepi. to 8c eTriypafifia '^p 

ToiopSe • 

AovKiapo^ TctSc vdpTa c^iXo? fiaKdp^cro'i deoiap 

cISc TC ical TTctXii/ 7f\0€P kifp c? TTttTpcSa yalai/. 

*7 /iC(i/a9 oc KaK€Lpr)p Trjp rjiJiepap ttj^ CTrtoucrTj? aprfyofirjp t(op 
Tjpdxop irapanefinopTcop. €p6a fioL kol 'OSucrcrcu? TrpocrcX- 
^cii' \d0pa ri}^ TljjpeXoTni^ SlSojclp eTTLO'ToXTiP ci? *ftyiryiai/ 
7^71/ pyjcrop KaXin/iot KOfiiC^eip. cvpeTrefiif^e Sc /xot 6 *Pa8a- 
fiapdv^ TOP nopOfiea NavrrXtoi/, ti'* ct KaTaxOeirjfiep C9 ra? 

390 pyjaov^j fiTjSel^ rjixd^ (ruXXa)8g arc fcar' dXXiji/ ifinopiap 
KaTairXeopTa^. cVcl 8c toi' cucoSt; dcpa npo'CopTe^ napeXrjXv- 
0€L(i€Py avTiKa ij/xa? oafXTj T€ 8cik^ 8tc8c;;(cro oioi' daifidXTov 
Koi deiov Kal ttlttti^ dfxa KaiofxepoiP^ koX KpZaa 8c iropyjpd 
Kal d(f)6pr)T0^ aio'Trep dn dpOpamcop oiTTOjfiepcjPy kol 6 drjp 

28. AovKiav6s (scan ya) ktX.: lion with modern Naiiplia see Bae- 

Lucian, the friend of the gods that are <leker's Greece. - Kvla-a . . . 6wt«|U- 

blessed for ever and ever, v«v : SO Zeua (Fug it. I) complains as 

All this belieldand return'd to his coun- he recalls the perfume of Peregi'inus 

try, the land of his fathers. roa^sting: iroW^p r^u &7ihlav fjJfi^fjiai 

29. 'ilYv^Cav : this lay next beyond ivaffx^fJi^fos t6t€ ifirb Kviar\i voirtjpaSy otav 
(§27) the Islands of the Danmed. — c(k6s arrotpiptaBan. dvrtayAvwv dydpurtrcluu 
NavirXiov: for his legendary connec- autftdrujit. 


395 ^o(f>€po^ KoX 6fiL)(\cj^^, Kol fcaTCOTa^ci/ i^ avTov Spoao^ 
mTTLvrj ' rfKovofiep 8c kol fiaarCyo}!/ i|io<^oi^ Kal oificryrfv 

30 avOpwrttiv ttoXXcSi/. rat? ph/ ovv aXXot? ov irpoaiaxop^v^ 
y 8c CTTcJS'Jj/xci/, Toia8c '^v kvk\(o p€P iraaa Kprffivcj^^ koX 
ano^po^y 7rerp<u9 kol rpaxSiai KarecTKk'qKvLay h4vhpov 8* 

400 ovhkv ovhk v8(op ivrjp' avepmia'avre^ 8c opo)^ Kara rov^ 
Kpi)pvov% npoyeipev 8ta rti/09 dKav0(iSov^ Koi aKoXoirtop 
p^arrj^ arpairovy ttoXX^i/ dpop<f>iav r!}^ x^P^^ ixovcrq^. 
i\06vT€^ 8c ivl rr/v ^ipKTrjv Kal to KoXaanjpiov irpiora pkv 
Trfv (f>va'Lv rov roirov idavpd^opev • to pev yap cSa<^09 airro 

405 paxaipai^ Kal cTKoXoi/rt iravn) i^vdrfKeiy kvk\<o 8c irorapol 
irepUpptoVj o pkv /3op/36pov, 6 8c 8cvrcpo5 alpaTo^y 6 8c 
cv8oi^ TTvpo^j iravv p4ya^ ovto^ K(U direpaTo^y Kal ippei 
cjcircp vhcjp.Kal iKvpaTovTO cScrTrcp ddXarray Kal ix^y^ 8c 
clj^c TToXXov?, Tov^ pkv 8aXol9 TrpoaeoLKOTa^, tov^ 8c piKpov^ 

410 avdpa^i 7rc7rvpa)/xci/ot9, iKoKovv 8c airrov^ Xu^i^MrKou^. 

31 euroSo^ 8c /Ltta orcin) 8ta irdvTwv ^Vy koX TrvXoipo^ cc^cwm;- 
fcct TCptov 6 ^Adrjvalo^. irapcX^oj/rc? 8c o/xcu? roC NavTrXibv 
Ka0Tjyovp€POv iaypiopev Ko\a[,op€vov^ iroWoif^ pkv ^SacrtXca^? 
7roXXov9 8c Kal ISicjTa^y &v iviov^ Kal iyvtop^opev etSopev 

30. { Sc : 8C. i^o'ffi — rpcix^^ • ^Kodero koI olfuay^ rQp irl rov irvp6t 
stony tracts, Cf . Tox. 49 /i^xP^ ^<^^ ^P<^~ dTma/jJpup KtU <rTp4p\cu koX tcO^^favef koX 
Xwros piiuiv. — icard Tovs Kpt)|ivovs: al rpSxoi, Kal i^ Xlfuupa ifftrdparre Kal 6 
the crags. — dxavO^Sovt . . . drpavoO : K4pp€pos iddpSarrew kt\, — l(i|v64KCi : 
cf. Plato Rep. 616 a, where the fiery was in full bloom. The plpf. (see 
demons card Ardiaeus and the other Chabert p. 188 ; cf. Schmid, I, 240) is 
sinners on the thorn-bushes by the redundant, as the present itself de- 
wayside : €T\kop rapd. rijv 6d6p iKrbs ir notes a State. In Pise. 6 the verb is 
dairakdOtav Kpdxrovres. Cf. the con- constr. with cogn. ace. — o ^v P^pP^ 
text in the Republic I.e., and also the pov: cf. Plato PJiaedo c. 60. — Xvxv(- 
Pfuiedo^ for the physical geography of cKovt : lampkins. 
the Greek hell. — KoXao^piov: Lucian 31. TCfutv : see Lucian's dialogue 
gives with much relish the stock de- Timon for the previous career of this 
scription of this House of CoiTection human Cerberus. — SyLm%: i.e. even with 
in Men. 14, fiaaTlyvy rt 7d/9 ofAoO \lfb<pQ% ^ gatekeeper liK^ that | — l^v«»pC(o|My : 



415 8c Koi TOP Kiinipav Kairvta v7roTV(f)6fi€POv iK rSiv alhouov 
a7rrff}T7)ii€vov. Trpoceridea'av 8c oi irepLrjyrjTal koX tov? 
cicaoTcui/ jSiov^ Koi ra? airta? i<{>* at? koXcO^ovtcu - koi fieyC- 
OTa^ dnao'cjv TifKopia^ vnefievov oi ^^^vadfjitvoi rt napa top 
/Slop koI oi firj rdXij^i^ avyyeYpai\>6T€^j cV 019 koX KTrjaCa^ 

420 6 Ki/tSto9 ^p Kal *Hpd8oro9 koI aWot voWoC tovtov^ ovv 
opS^v iy<o xpnTiara^ ^\ov ct9 rovtriov rd^ cXrrSa? * ovhkv yap 

32 c/xavro> i/f€{)8o9 titrovri avirq'tnaTdfnjp, ra)(4o}% 8* oui/ dva- 
CTpe^a^ iirl Tr/v vavv — ovhe yap '^Svvdfirjv <f>€p€Lv ttjp o^lfiv 
— dcrTTCwra/Ltci/o? rov NavTrXioi/ dneTrkevo'a • Kal fier okiyov 

425 i(f>aLV€To 'trXrjO'iov rf r&v oveipcov vrjao^y dfivSpd Kal da'a(f>ri^ 
iSeiP' erraaxe 8c Kal avrfj rot? opeipoi^ ri TrapaTrXijcrtoi/ • 
uTTC^cupct yap trpoaiovTiov rjiicov Kal V7r€(f>€vy€ Kal troppajr 
ripta vn€/3aLV€. Karaka/SouTe^ 8c nore avTrfv Kal iairXev- 
aavre^ c? top "^Tttpov At/icVa ^trpoaayopevofiepop ir\i)a'iop 

430 rSiP irvkSip T(op i\e(f)aPTip<op, rj to tov *AXc*CTpuoi/o9 iepop 
ioTL, nepl SciXiji^ oi/^tai/ dne/SaCpofiePy irapekdopre^ 8c c? 7171^ 
TToXii/ TToXXou? opeCpov^ Kal 7roifctXov9 i(opa)fi€P. irpiorop 8c 
jSovkoiiaL nepl T179 ttoXccu? ctTTCti/, cVcl /Lt778c dXXci> ri^'l 
yeypaTTTOx tr^pl avrfj^, 09 8c Kal fiopo^ iTT^ixprjo'di) "O/xijpo?, 

435 ^^ Trdi/v aKpifiS^^ crvi/eypai/ic. fcvicXo) /Ltci/ Trcpi irdaap avTfjp 

see details in ilfen. I.e. and of. the ac- 
count of the tyrant Ardiaeus recognized 
by Er (Plato Rep. 616 c) ; so Dante, 
{Inferno^ passim), pays off many an old 
score. — Oi irfpii|Yi|Ta(: for these local 
ciceroni see Char. 22 and 1 (note) and 
Philopa. 4. — rdt airlws kt\. : so the de- 
mons, Rep. 616 a, announced (SvfvtKd re 
Kal €ls 6 ri iyLir€<ro6iMvoi Ayoiyro. — ol i|rfv- 
vd|uvoi: in A 2-4 Lucian gives his views 
on lying historians, citing Odysseus as 
the very father and teacher of lies. 
32. "Yirwv AifUva : Sleephavcn, — 

TMv iXc^avrCvMv : note the particular- 
izing order. Lucian wishes to be per- 
fectly fair, i.e. not the gates of horn 
(Of. 19, 562). — T* ToO 'AXfiCTpwivos 
Up6v : St Rooster^ 8. The cock, as we 
leani from Lucian^s 'AXeicrpviiv (20), 
was no mean bird. He was the 
favorite avatar of Pythagoras, and 
Socrates {Phaedo sub fin.), passing to 
the bright dawn — or the dreamless 
sleep — of eternity, bids offer a cock to 
Asklepius. — Jml |iT|8i: for oi>9^. See 
lutrod. 39 (c). 



v\r) dpearrfKey to. ScVSpa 8c icTL firJKcove^ w/rr/Xat kol fiav 
hpayopai koX iir avrojp noXv tl 7r\rj0o<; vvKrep&tov tovto 
yap fiovov iv rrj vrjata yiverai opvtov. 7rora/i09 8e Tra- 
papp^L Tr\7)crLov 6 vtt*. airrSiv Kokovfiepo^ Nv*CTt7ropo9, 'cat 

440 Trqyal 8uo napa ra? wvXas' ovofiara koX ravrat?, rg /Ltci/ 
N>jy/3cro9j r^ 8e Tiavw)(ia^ 6 nepi/Soko^ 8c T179 ttoXccd? 
w/rr/Xd? re fcal ttoikiXos, tpiSt rf/v \^p6av 6/xotoraro9. irvXat 
liivToi cTrcwriJ' ov 8uo, Kaddnep ^Ofirjpo^ eiprfKCPy dXXa rer- 
rapesj 8vo /xei/ irpos to T179 BXafccta? nehiov dTro^SXcTroucrai, 

445 iy ^ci/ aSripdy rj 8c c/c Kepdfiov TreiTovqp,4vj)^ KOiff a? iXeyovro 
dTTO^TifieLv airrSiv 01 re ^o^epoX koX (f>opLKol kol dirrjpel^y 
Suo 8c 7rpo9^ TOP Xifiepa kol rrfp ddXarraPy t] fiep Keparipi)^ 
fcat/ Tji/ i)/xct9 napyjKuofiePy tj be eke<paPTLpr)» eicriopTi oe c? 
T^v TToXti/ eV 8c^ta /Ltci/ cort to Nvktojo^'- crc)8ovcn yap ^coij/ 

450 ravrrjp fidXiara kol top ^AXeKTpvopa • iK€Lpa> 8c irXTjaiOP tov 
Xifiepo^ TO iepop ireiTOvriTai, ip dpiarepa 8c Ta toO Tttpov 
^Sao'tXcta. OUT09 yap 817 ^PX^^ Trap* avrot? aaTpdira^ Svo 
KOL vtrdp^ov^ neiroirjixepo^y Tapa^Uopd t€ top MaTatoycpov^ 
Kal nXouToicXca toi' ^aPTaauopos* ip p-^O'JI 8c Ty dyopa 

455 TTTjyr/ T19 icTLPy Tjp KaXovai KapeioTLP' Kal ttXtjo'Cop paol 
8vo, 'Attcittj? ^al 'AXij^cta?' cif^a Kal to dSvTOP iaTLP airrols 

33. |Jk^K«»vi9: {fi'^KutPos) 6irioy is opi- 
um. For this and fia,vdpay6paL cf . Shak- 
sperOf Othello, iii, 3 (cited by Jerram) : 
** Not poppy, nor mandragora . . . shall 
ever medicine thee to that sweet sleep. " 
— 5pvfov : the reversible bat — now 
mouse, now bird — was a time-honored 
zoological illustration. — NvKrCiropos: 
Noxford. For accent cf. BSarofw 
(Oxford) and vavtrliropos. — N^-ypcros: 
Never-stir. — IlavvvxCa: MaJce-a-night- 
of At. — BXaKcCos: Sloth-shire. — -q \tkv 
aiSr\pa: the ''golden gates'' (Gall, ij) 

are not provided for here. — koJ^ i^v 
T||&cSs : to reiterate the veracity of his 
tales. Cf. the Homeric (Od. 19, 562 £E.) 
play upon K^pas — Kpaivta and i\4ipas — 

0% Si did ^CirrCap Kepdutv leXOuxri $iipa^€y 
ot ^' lerv/xa Kpalyovffi, ^p&nav 8t€ k4v th 

— NvKT^ov: ^octeum, vid.siipraon §22. 
— Tapci{(«»va : these thinly disguised 
derivatives are like the tags in Pti- 
grim^s Progress ("Mr. Ready-to-halt" 

AAH(=)H2 12TOPIA 79 

KaL TO fiavrelop, ov irpoeioTrJKei irpo(f)7fT€V(ov ^Avri^iov 6 t(ov 

6veip(t>v vTroKpiTij^, ravrr]^ irapa tov "Tttvov \a\(oi/ T179 

34 Tt/x'^9. avrSiv fiem'oi tS>v oveipcov oure (^vcrt? ovre iSca 17 

460 aimj. dXX' ot fiev fiaKpoC re Tjaav koX fiakaKol kol koKoI 

Kol CVCtSct?^ ot §€ CKXrjpol KOL flLKpol KOL a/XOp^OLy KOL ot 

fi€p )(^pva'€oi, 0)9 ihoKOvvy oi 8c Ta7r€LPoi T€ Kal cvrcXct?. 
"^(rap 8' iv avrot? Kal nrepayroi tlv€^ kol reparcoSci?, kol 
aXXoi Kaddnep €9 iroixirrfv 8iccr/ccua(r/Lt€Voi, oX [lev €9 /Sacrt- 

465 \€as, ot 8c C9 Oeov^, ot 8c ct9 aXXa roiavra KeKO(r(i7)iJi€' 
VOL. 7roXXov5 8c avTciv KoX iyvtapicrafiep TraXat Trap* 17/iti/ 
ccupaicorc?? ot 817 /cat TrpociQ^crav koX ricriraJ^omo ci? ai/ fcal 
avvrjOei^ VTrap^OKrc?, ical Trapaka/Sopre^ i7/xa9 /cat KaraKoi- 
fiCaavre^ ndw Xa/X7rpai9 #cal 8c^tc!)9 i^evi^ov^ njp re dWrjp 

470 v7ro8o^^i' fieyaKonpenrj KaTaaK€vda'apT€<; koX V7n(r)(Povix€POL 
^SacriXca? re trovqcr^LP /cat aaTpdnas- €plol 8c fcat dirriyop 
Tfixd^ ct9 ra? 7rarpt8a9 /cat rou? otfcctovs cVeSctfcrvo^' fcat 

36 avOrjixepop inapyjyop. i)ii4pa% fi€P odp rpidKOPra koX tcra? 
i/v/cra? Trap* aurot? ifieipafiep Ka0€vhopT€S fcal €V(»}^ovyL€POi. 

475 CTTCtra d<f>p(o jSpoprfj^ fieydXr)^ icarappayctcTT/? dpeypofi^poi 
Kal dpadopopTes dpTJ^drjfiep iina'LTia'dfiepov. rpiraLoL 8* 
CKeWcp T'g 'Xlyiryta PTJa(o Trpoaaxopres im/SaLPOfiep, irpo- 
repop 8* cyci Xvcra? ttji/ CTTtoroX^i/ dpeyCpoxTKOP rd yvypapr 
/icW. 191/ 8c Tota8c- ^* *08u(r(rcu9 KaXw/iot \aipeip. "IcOl 

etc.); e.g. Confusion son of TAin-cw- pe^XrifjJvos. — ws&v: quasi. Alsowrit- 

arr; Plutocles son of Day-dreamer. ten w<t4i'. 

Kapeurrts (if /cdpos = drunA:e?i sleep) Sno- 35. to'as : see § 1. — irpoco^^vrts : 

rusian Fount. — 'Avrt^Av: perhaps also sc. vavy. — x^^P*^^- usually alone, sc. 

a play upon words ; but the sophist and X^et or KtXetki^ like Lat. salute m 

epic poet Antiphon, the opponent of (dicit), S. (D.). For the relative mer- 

Socrates, wrote a work on the interpre- its of different greetings see Laps. 

tation of dreams. in Sal. 2 ff., where Plato is cited as 

34. ot |uv xpvo'<0(>: cf. Gall. 6 authority for rf irpdrretp. In the 

where the shoemaker^s dream was 4TrurTo\al KpovLxal Lucian uses x<^^P^*-^ 

Xpvcovs Kol aOrbi xal XP^^^ Tdrra Tcpt- throughout, but the epistles to Nigriuus 


480 /xc, 0)9 ra irpSyra i^eTrXevaa irapa crov rf/p cr^cStai/ Kara- 
CKeuao'diiepo^y vavayia ^(^pria'diievov /idXt9 vno AevKoOea^ 
SLaatoOrjvaL ct9 Trjp T(op ^at.dK(ov x^pav, V(f>* wv C5 rfjv 
olKeuiv d'troTr€ii(f>0€l^ KareXa/Sov noWovs rfj^ yvvcuKO^ M^" 
arfjpa^ ip rot? rjfierepoL^ rpvif>&pra^' diroKreCpa^ 8c anap- 

485 ra? vno TrfXeyopov vaT€pop rov ck KCpKrj^ fioi y€POfL€POv 
apypedrjPy koI pvp el fit. ip ry MaKapojp prjcfa irdpv iierapocjp 
iirl TO) fcaraXtTTCii/ ttjp irapd (ToX hiaxrap koX Trjp vno aov 
7rpoTeLPOfi€P7)p ddapaaCap. rjp ovp Kcupov Xd/Scoficuy cLtto- 
opa^ a(pi^o/x(u irpo^ crc. raxrra [lep cotjKov rf emoToKr), 

^ Kol TTcpl rffiSip^ OTTCJS ^€pia'6S)p.€P. iyo) 8c npoeXdaip okiyop 
diro TTJ^ da\dm]% evpop to (rirrjXaiop toiovtop oXop ^Ofijfpos 
cIttc, Kot a\rn)p raXaxTiovpyovcrap* cJs 8c tj)p intaToXrjp 
eXa/Sc KoX cTTcXc^aro, irpwra fikp itri irokv iSdKpvePy crrctTa 
8c TrapcfcaXct rjfid^ cttI ^ci/ta Koi ctorta Xap/irpS)^ koX irepi 

495 Tov *08u(r(rca)9 iirvpOdpeTO koi nepl rrjs IXtji/cXottt/?, oiroia 

T€ €L7f T7IP OHJ/LP Kol Ci CCO^pCJPy KaddlTCp 'OSuCTCrCV? TTClXat 

Trepl airrfjs iKofiTraC^e- koi 'qfiei^ roiavra dn^KpLpdiieda i^ 

wp eiKd^ofiep €v(f)pap€ia'0cu aimjp. Tore fi€P ovp dneXdopre^; 

37 CTTt pavp TrXTjCLOp cttI rrj^ 1)101/09 iKOLfiTJdyffiep^ itodep 8c 

500 dp7)y6fi€da a'<f>o8p6T€pop KarvoPTO^ tov TTPeufiaTOS' fcal hrj 

^ct/iao'^cVTC9 rjfiepa^ Suo ry TpCrji irepiTrLTrrofiep rol^ KoXo- 

KVpdoTreiparaLS' dpdpioiroi 8c cto"ti/ ourot aypioi ck tcjp 

irXTfa-iop prjaoiP Xjiarevopre^ tou9 napanXeopra^. rd irXola 

8c €)(ov(Ti fieydXa KoXoKVpdipa to firJKo^ injxecjp i^TjKOPTa- 

605 C7rct8av yap ^Tjpdpcoo't. ttjp koXokvpOop^ KoiXdpapTe^ airrrip 

and to Cronius (see Peregr. 1) begin told how Telegonus slew his father in 

with €9 wf)dTT€iv, — T^iv o^c8Cav: see Ithaca. — iwvo^oX^ : cf. Penelope's let- 

Od. 5. — dT0irf|i^6c(ff : escorted home. ter to Odysseus, Ovid Her. 1. 

— Ti)Xry4vov : the Telegonia by Eu- 36. r^ inHjXaiov : cf. Od. 5, 56 ft. 

gammon of Cyrene (ca. 668 b.c.) con- — JinX^aro: see note to D. Mar. 6, 2. 

tinued the story of the Odyssey and 37. KOi^dvarrf^: see Introd. 16. — 


KoX c^cXoj/TC9 rr/p ivrepL(ovT)v ifinXeova^Vy torot? fxev XP^ 
lievoi KokafiLvoi^y dprl 8e T179 o66v7)% roJ <f>vW(>} 7179 ko- 
XoKvvdjf^. TTpoc/SaKovT^^ ovv rjfiLV airo Suo nXyjpcDfidra)!/ 
i(id)(ovTO KOL TToWoif^ KarerpavfJidTL^ov /SdWovre^ r<o airep- 

610 [laTL ra)v KokoKvvdSyv* dyxyip^dXta^ 8c iirl ttoKv vavfiaxovv" 
T€^ nepl fieoifffi/SpULP etSofiev Karoiriv r&v KoXoKvvdoTreipaTwp 
*!rpo(rtfkiovTa^ rov% Kapvovavra^. iroXe/xtot 8c ^aav aXXij- 
Xoi99 ^ cSct^ay • iirel yap iKelvoi ycrdovro airrovs imovra^y 
'^fi&p yJev (oXiyciprfa'aVy rpairo/ici/ot 8c in eKeCpov^ ipavfjid" 

/uf X^^^' Vl^^^^ 8c ip ToaovT(o indpapre^ tt/p odoprfp i(f>€vyoii€P 
d7roXiiroi/rc9 avrou? fiaxofiepov^. Kal 817X01 ^aap Kparrj- 
aopT^^ oi Kapvoi/avrat arc kol irXeiov^ — ir€PT€ yap cT;(oi/ 
7r\rip(oiiaTa — Kal dno liTXvpoTepwp p^Sjp /xa^^o/xcvot * rd 
yap TrXota "^p airroi^ kcXuc^tj, Kapvtop rffiLTOfiay K€K€P(ofi€pay 

620 fieyeOo^ 8c eKdarov rifiLTOfiiov C5 firJKo^ opyvial Trci^Cfcat- 
ScKa. CTTcl 8c diTeKpv^afiep avrov?, idfiedd r€ Toif^ rpav- 
fiaria^ Kal to Xolttop ip rots 077X015 ^/icv 015 ininap act 

39 rti/a5 ini/SovXa^ npoo'SexoiiepoL' ov [idTrjp. ovTrco yovp 
cScSvfcci 6 17X109, Kal dno Tii/09 iprjiiov prjaov irpooijXavpop 

526 ij/LLti/ oo'oi/ €lKoa'LP ap8p€^ inl 8€\(f)LP(op /xcyaXcui/ oj^ou/xci'Oi, 
Xi^orat Kal oSroi- fcal 01 8cX<^ri/C9 avrov? €(f>€pop do'c^aXo)^, 
Kal ai/a7r7;8G>i/T€9 ixp€fien(,op coo'Trcp iTTTrot. cttcI 8c TrXyiaiop 
^aaPy 8taoTdj/TC9 ot /ici/ epdePy dt 8c ci/^ci' e/SaWop rjixd^ 
<nj7ridt5 ^Tjpal^ Kal 6(f)da\fiOL^ KapKipcjp. ro^evopTotp 8c 

630 Kal Tfficop Kal aKOPTL^oPTCJp ovKeri viriyitipaPj dWd rpojOepres 

lvTfpUtvi|v: pulp. — dYX**H^<*t: aThu- Mar. 15, 3 irapfirircvov ^2 rwv S€\<f>lpwp. 

cydidean reminiscence, see L. & S. s.v. For story of Arion cf. D. Mar. 8 ; for 

— KafvovavTOfi : the Shellharkers. The Boy and the Dolphin^ Pliny Ep. 

38. oi |Adn)v: note the tragic so- 9, 33. — 4xpc|Urilov uo^irtp tinroi: cf. 
lemnity of the asyndeton. Gall. 2 where the horse of Achilles 

39. oihrM . . . KaC: for parataxis ^*bids a long farewell to neighing,^' 
see Somn* 1. — M ScX^Cvmv: cf. D. iiAKp^ x'*'^?^^^ i^pd^a^ t^ xP^furl^eiP, 



40 oi noWol avTcop npo^ rfjp injaov KaT€(f>vyov. ir^pl 8c 
TO fieo'oiwKTLov yaXTjinj? ovcnjs ikddofiep TrpocroicctXai/Tcs 
dXkvopo^ koKl^ 7ra[ifi€y€0€L ' cTahUov yovv Jjv aim/ e^rj- 
Kovra TO Tr€pL[i€Tpov> CTTCTrXct 8c rf d\Kva>v to, (od ddXnovo'a 

536 oif iroXv /leUou rf}^ KoKi^d^. Kai Sr/ dvaTrrafievrj [iLKpov fieu 
fcarcSvcrc Trfp vavv tgJ dvipLw twv Trrepwp- ftJ^cro 8* ovv 
(f>€uy ovaa yoepdv Tiva ^(ovtjp irp6UiL€irq, iafiavre^ 8c rffxels 
rffiepa^ tJStj viroi^axvovaif}^ idedfieda rrjp Kakidp cr;(c8ia 
fi€yd\ji "rrpoaeoLKvlav iK 8ci/8pa)i/ fieydXtov crufnr€(f>op7ifi€vriv • 

540 iTnjp 8c Kot (id TTCJ^aicocrta, cJcaoroi/ ovtcjv Xlov ttLOov ir^pL" 
TrXrjdeoTepov. rj^rj fiei/roi, Koi ol veorrol h/hodev i(f)aCvopTo 
KOL €Kpa)l^ov. TrcXcicccni/ ovv 8ta#coi/iai/TC9 ip t(op (ocjp i/cot- 

41 TOP diTT^pop i^€Ko\d\ffaii€P eLKocL yv7rS>p dSpoTepop. cttcI 
8c ttXcoktc^ dveL)(Ofi€P rfj^ fcaXia? ocrop crTa8tov9 8tafcoo'tbi;9, 

546 Tcpara rjfilp [leydka Koi OavfiacTTd ineaijixapep- o t€ ydp 
ip Ty Trpviipji ^picTKo^ d^po) iTirepv^aTo koI dpe/Sorjaey koL 
6 KvfieppTJTTi^ 6 XKLP0apos c^aXaicpo? 17817 aip dp^KOfirjO'c. 
KOL TO TrdpTfop hrj irapaSo^OTaTOP ' 6 ydp laTos Trj<; i/ccu? 

40. dXKv6K0« KoXi^: for the story 
of the Kukh in the Arabian Nights 
see p. 56. The dialogue Halcyon,^ in- 
cluded in Lucian^s writings, is admit- 
ted to be spurious. — MirXfi : was 
floating along on it. The nest itself 
floated. — d8p6Tfpov: buUcier. 

41. Wpara . . . 4ina^|jkaviv : prodi- 
gies like this, freely recorded by 
Lucian^s contemporary ** historians,*' 
could be traced back to the Homeric 
hymn to Dionysus. Cf. Ovid (Met. 3, 
661 ff.); and h. Horn. 7, 38-41 : 

a^rlxa S* dxpfnarov irapk larlov i^eravO- 

AfiirtKos f¥0a xal Ma, KareKfnuipCirro 5^ 


(Lw$€in TijfKeBdiav, x^P^^' ^* ^^^ Kapxbt 

So here : 6 io-rAs i^XdaTijae and iKop- 
iro<p6prf<r€p. — x^^^*^^* *^ ^^^® vessers 
stern. Cf. Lucian's description of a 
ship, Navig. 5 : ^ vpipiva fiiv itraviffTri- 
K€V ifpipjOL Kafiw^Xyj xpwrovv XV^^'^^^ ^t" 
Kei/Jbivri, KarayriKpd 6i difdXoyov rj vpippa 
^€pp4priKC» it t6 irpbata diroiArfKVPOftiyr], 
T^v iinawpjov t^j vewj tx^^^^ ''"V" !<'"*'' 
iKaT4p<a$ev. — dvfK6|it|o^ : like the bald 
head of the Jackdaw of Rheims {In- 
goldshy Legends). — r6 irdvT«»v irapaSo- 
(drarov: for this superlative cf. Schmid, 


i^epkaxm)a'€ koI kKo&ov^ avi^vae koX cttI tgJ afcpo) iKapiro- 

560 ^opTiaeVy 6 8e Kaptro^ Jjv avKa Koi a'Ta(f>v\rj fieXouvay outtcd 
iritrtipo^- ravra iSome^ oJ? to €tfco9 irapa^difiitv koX 
7}v^6p.€0a rot? 0€OLS airorpe^ax to aWoKOTov tov (f>apTar 

42 CfiaTOS' oviTOi 8c irevTaKoavov^ CTahiov^ hi^Kdomt^ eiSoficv 
vkriv fieyumji/ koI kdcLov mruiDv koI KVTrapCrrcjv. Kal 

666 Tj/xct? fi€P cifcacra/xcy yjireipov elpai • to 8c rjp ttc Xayo9 d^va^ 
aov dppil^OL^ 8a^8poi9 KaTaTretf^vrevfia/ov - eiaTTJKei 8c ra 
8cV8pa o/iai9 GLKivrfTay 6p6d KaOdnep iimrXeovTa. irXTjcria- 
(rai/T€9 yoOi/ fcal to ttcIi/ KaTavorjaavT^^ iv dnoptp ci^o/xc^a 
Tt ^fpi) SpoLP' ovT€ yap 8ta tcSi/ BeuSpcjv TrXcti/ 8vi/aTw ^i/ — 

660 iTVKvd yap koX npoae^^r} vrr}jp)(€v — oiJtc dpaxJTp€(f)€LP c8dicci 
paoiov. eyoi oc av^Kucjv ctti to fieyioTov oevopov eirecKOr 
irovp TO. C7rc#ccti/a ottcus ^ot, fcal icjpcjv cttI crTa8u)V9 /aci^ 
trevTrJKOvTa rj oXtyo) ttXciov? t^i^ vXtji^ ovcav^ hrevra 8c aS^ts 
erepov (oKeavov eKSexofM^POP. Kal 8tj c8d#cci rjfilp dpade- 

565 fi€pov<; Tr)p pavp im rfjp KOfJLTjp t(op SepSpojp — wkptj 8c '^p 
— inrep/SiPdo'aLy ct hvpaifi^Oa^ C9 tj)p ddkaTTap ttjp Ir^pap - 
Kal ovTCJS inoLovficp. iKSyjaapTe^ yap avrfjp KaXoi fieydkco 
Kal dpekdopTe^ iirl to. 8cV8pa /xdXt9 dpLfi7)(rdfi€daj Kal OepTe^ 
inl Tojp KkdBcjPj TrerdaaPT^^ to, larui Kaddwep ip dakdrrji 

670 hrkeofi^p tov dpcfiov irpooiOovpTO^ iTrLaupofiepoi ' €P0a 817 
icat to *ApTLfid)(ov tov ttoltitov ctto? iiruayjkdi fie. c^tjcti 


Tolaip 8* vkrjepTa 8ia nkoop ip-^ofiepotcrL. 

42. ftpvccov dpp((oi« kt\. : like the used of the rope {Ifiopid) in a well, but 

seaweed in the Sargasso Sea, of. Jan- variously transferred ; e.g. in Alex. 14 

vier^s romance. — 4K8ix^|Mvov:soHdl., the embr>'onic go<l is drawn from the 

and cf. Lat. ezcipere^ e.g. Pliny ^p. 2, mud {dyifiarai) in a ifudXrf, so in Xen. 

17, 2, utrinique excipit iter ali- ^na&. 4, 2, 8 the soldiers draw their fel- 

qua ex parte harenosuni. — KdX«p lows up by their spears. — 'AvTi|idxov: 

jAcydX^ : the ship was suspended by, or of Colophon, flor. ca. 405 b.c. The £m- 

from,acable. — dvi|i.t|O'd|M0a: properly peror Hadrian ^s reported preference 



43 fii^aa'dfievoL Se ofio)^ rrfv vkrjv a^iKOfitda €9 to vSoip, icat 
576 TTokiv oiiouo^ KaraOevT^^ rrjv vavv lifkiofiev 8ta Kadapov 

KoX Siavyou? uSaro?, <*XP^ ^ ineaTrjiMep xdcfiarL fi^yakif 
eK Tov v8aT09 SteoToiTos yeyeprjfiepo)^ Kaddnep €i/ r^ yg 
7roXXaict9 opS^i^v xmo <TeL(rfia>v y€p6fi€va Sia;(a>pur/xara. 17 
/ici' oSi/ I'aS? KadeXovTtav rjiiSiv to. tcrrta ov pahixa^ ecm) 

580 Trap* oXtyoi/ cX^oucra KaTeve^dyjvai. vnepKwffavre^ 8e i7/xct9 
i(opoifi€v fiddo^ o(rov araSUop ^iKuav /xaXa ^ofiepov koX ira- 
pdSo^op ' eioTTJKeL yap ro vh(op (oanep fiefiepLCiievov • Trcpt- 
/3^€7rovT€^ Sc opcjfiev Kara Sc^ta ou Trctio; iropptadei/ ycc^v- 
pai' i7r€(,€vyfi€jrr)v v8aro9 ouvdirTOPTO^ ra irekdyi) Kara rrjp 

585 i'm^dv€Lap, cic 7179 erepa^ da\dm}<; C9 T171/ kripav hiappe- 
ovTo^. npoaeXdaavre^ ovv rat? iccoTrais fCar* cic€ti/o irape- 
hpdfiofiep Kal fierd ttoWt)^ dyoii/ia? iir^pdaapitv ovirorc 

44 irpoahoKTJaavTe^. ivrevdev rffias VTrcSej^cro TrcXayo? re 
wpo<rr)P€s Kal vfjao^ oi /xcyaXij, evTrpoaiTO^y avpoiKovfiepri' 

590 ip^fiopTO 8c airrrip dypioi dpdptairoi^ Bovicet^aXot, Kcpara 
exopre^y olop Trap* rjfilp top Mipciravpop dpairXdrrovcLP. 
aTTofidpre^ 8c npoyeifiep vSpevaofiepov Kal airia XrjxffOfiepot,^ 
€L irodep hvpyi$€Lr)ii€P ' ovkctl yap etxofiep. Kal vhcop fiep 
avTov 7r\r)o'Cop evpofiep^ dWo 8c ovhep i(f)aCperOy ttXtip 

595 llVKTjdllO^ 7roXv9 OV TTOpptoO^P '^KOV€TO. S6^aPT€<; ovp dy4- 

\7}p €ipai fiocjpy Kar okiyop irpoxfopovpre^ iireaTTjfi^p rot? 
dpdpdmoi^, 0% he tSoi/rc? 7^10,^ iSuoKOPy Kal rpct? ficp t(op 

of Antimachua to Homer is even more 
surprising than the preference for Bac- 
chylides over Pindar on the part of the 
author of irepl "X^ovs. 

43. PiardiMvoi : with ace. hasa mili- 
tary flavor like Thuc. 7, 72 pidaaadai 
rbv f«rirXovy, to force the ezit,—iK to© 
{;Saros SucttAtos : no reference to the 
parting of the Red Sea need be thought 

of. See p. 55, note 4. — |u|upi«r|iivov : 
in P8.-Dem. 1149, 21 this perf. is used 
of * Agoing shares^* in the inheritance, 
i.e. **a division for good and all.'^ 

44. BovK^^aXoi : a burlesque on Cte- 
sias^s dog-headed men (xvyoic^^aXoi), 
Ctenlae Fragm. de rd}tis IndicU 20, cf. 
Hdt. 4, 191. Possibly also a suggestion 
of the Minotaur and of lo. Perhaps 


iraipiop \afifiavova'iVy ol §€ Xoitroi irpo^ Trfv dakarrav fcarc- 
<^cvyo/i€i/. evra fxivroi travre^ OTrXiadfiepoL — ov yap eSdicet 

(JOO rjiiLi/ aTifiwpiJTOv^ nepuSeip rou9 (f>Lkov<; — ifnrunrofiev tol^ 
BovfC€<^aXot9 TO. Kpea tS)v avgprjfievcjv Sicupovfievoi^ ' fioij- 
craKTC^ 8e iravre^ ihiwKoyi^Vj fcal KT^ivoiLev re oaov irevrrj" 
Kovra Kai ^cSi/ra? avrcSi/ hvo Xafifidvopxv, koX aWi^ oiri" 
ao) apearpopafiev rov^ ai)(fiaKciTovs €)(ovTe^. airiov fiemoi 

606 ovhkv €vpoix€v. oi fiev ovv aXXot nap-Qvovv dnocifxiTTeLv 
Toifs eiXyj/ifiepov^y iyta 8c ovk iSoKLfia^op^ aXXa ST^o'a? i<f>v- 
Xarroi/ avrovs? ^XP^ ^V d^^Kovro napd rtov ^ovKe^d\(oi/ 
7rp€cr/8ct9 airovvre^ inl Xurpoi? tovs {rvveiX-qfificj/ov^ ' avvU- 
fi€v yap avTwu SiavevouTO)!/ Kal yoepop tl fivK(Ofi€V(ov <aa"ir€p 

610 lK€T€v6vT(i}V. TCL kvTpa 8e ^P TVpol TToXXot Kal t^^^UCS ^TJ- 

pol Kal KpofjLfiva Kal eXa^oi rcrrapc?? rpels iKdarq TrdSa? 

ej(ou(ra, 8vo /xci/ tou9 oniaffei/y oi 8c npoaa) cc? ci/a crvj/circ- 

^vKccav. inl rovrot? airoSdi/TC? tou9 auveikrjfifiepovs Kal 

45 /xuii/ iffxipav iirifi^ivavrt^ dinj)(07)fi€v. rjBr) 8c i)(0v€^ T€ 

615 17/xti/ i(f>aLPOVTo Kal opvea irapenerero Kal dXX' OTrocra yi^? 

TrkrjO'iov ovar)^ (rqiiela wpov<f}aCp€ro, fier okiyov 8c ical 

dvhpa^ ei8ofi€v KOJLvm rpowcf i/avriXia? xpoifievov^- avrol 

yap icat i/aCrat Kal i^c? ijcrai'. Xcifo) 8c ro5 7t\ov top rpor 

TTOV VTTTioi KCt/xci/ot CTTt Tov v8aro5 6pd(oaavT€S rd aihola 

620 — fieydXa 8c ^ipovaiv — cf avrcov 666v7)v irerdcravr^^ koX 

rats X^P^^ TOV9 7ro8caii/a9 #carej(Oj^€s ifi^triTrroin'os tov dvi- 

fiov iirkeov, aXXoi 8c fierd tovtov^ iirl (f>€\\a)v KadTjfievoL 

^cvfai/TC9 8uo ScXc^ii/a? i7Xai;i/di/ tc fcai rjPLOXOvv • ot 8c 

he thinks of their firfrpAvoXn as Bu- Ctesias^s Pygmies (cf. Ctesiae Fragm. 

cephalUy with the horse of Alexander de rd)ua Indicis § 11 p. 81 in Didot ed. 

included. — ir68a«: legs. Cf. Rev. 10, of Herodotus) who use their hair and 

1 . 80 x^^P ^or arm, e.g. Hdt. 2, 121 Axo- beard dtn-i Ifiarlov. AlSotoF Si fi^a (xov- 

rafuiv iv rt} ufitfi T^if x^^P^' ^^^ "^^^^ — ifXavv^v re Kal t|vuSxovv : 80 

45. |ifYd\a Sc ^^povo-iv : parody on paired in Somn. 15. 


npoCopre^ inetfiepovTO tov^ <^eXXov9. ovrot ij/xa^ ovrc TjSi- 

625 Kovv ovT€ €<f>€vyovy dXX* TjXavvop dSeci)9 T€ Koi elprfVLKO)^ to 
cI8o9 Tou Tjixerepov irkoCov Oavixd^opres kol travrodtv nept- 

46 {TKOirovvre^, iaircpa^ 8c TjSrj tTpo<rrj')(d'r)fL€v vrjaa) ov /ic- 
ydXij- KaT<oK7fTO 8c avrrj utto yvvaiKCJVy oJ? ivofid^ofievy 
*EXXd8a (fxoiniv TrpoUfieviav • npocQea'av yap Kal iSe^iovpTO 

630 fcat 7j(rTrd^oi/ro, ttcii/v iraipLKOx; KeKOCfirffia/aL Kal fcaXai 
vaaaL Kal i/cdi/i8c99 iroSTJpeL^ tov^; yvrtova^ iiTKrvpofi^vcu. 
T) /xep ovv vrjcros cfcaXctro Ka^aXovcra, tj 8c ttoXi? *T8pa/xap- 
8ta. Xa^Soucrat 8' ovi/ rfixa^ at yvj^aiiccs iKOcmj npo^ iavTrjv 
aTrrjye Kal fcVoi/ CTrotctro. cycu 8c yuKpov viroo'Tas — ov yap 

635 \p7)crTa ifiavrevofxjjv — dfcpi^Scorcpdi/ re irepifikencji/ opSi 

TToWSiV avdpdiTTOiV OCTTa Kol KpaVia K€Lfl€Va' Kal TO fl€V 

/Soriv loTavai Kal Toiff; kTaipov<; cvyKakeiP Kal €9 to, oirXa 
)(a)p€iv ovK ihoKLfxal^ov. 7rpo)(€ipiG'diJLevo<; he tj)v iia\d)(r)v 
TToXXa Tfixofirji/ airrrj Sia^vyclv c/c tS>v irapovTiov KaKa>p, 

640 fiET okiyov 8c r^ 9 fcV>j9 8iaKOPovfi€V7)^ cISoi/ to, CKeX-rf ov 
yvvaLKOSy dXX* ovov OTrXd?- Kal 8rf (TTracrdjotci^o? to ^i(f>oq 
crvWayL^dv(o t avTrju Kal Sijcra^ irepl tS>p o\(op dveKpivov. 
ij 8c aKovcra fievy cIttc 8c ofiay^j avra? /xci/ etpai dakaTTL" 
ov^ yvpalKa^ 'Oj/ocrfceXca? npocrayopevofiepa^j Tpo(f)rfP 8c 

645 TTOielcrdai Tov^ iinSriixovvTa^ fcVov?. *E7rci8ai^ y^P^ ^^V^ H'^' 
Ovacjixcp avTov^j cvpevpTjdclo'aL KOLfKOfiepoL^ iiri^eipovyiep. 
dfcoucra? 8c Taxrra €K€lp7)p fiep avTov KaTekmop SeSe/xeprfPy 
avTO^ 8c ap€.\6a)p inl to CTeyo^ ifiodiP t€ kol tov^ eTaipovs 
cvpeKaXovp, cttci 8c (Tvprjkdop, tol irapTa ifjLijpvop avrot? 

650 Kal Toi T€ ocrra iSeiKPVop Kal ^yop ccrco Trpo? Trjp SeSefxeprfp • 

46. KaPfliXoOo-a: (PicajSdXXi/s, nng) loio (§28) into my hands^ i.e. in order 

Mare Island. — 'YSpofiopSCaf Widir- to pray to it. — 'Ovoo-KcX^at : Jenny- 

bury; rf. infra, rj 5^ . . . vSotp 4y4»€To. jdinheaux. Cf. 6vo<rK€\U used oi the hoh- 

— irpoxcipiO'd|uvo9 : taking the vial- goblin Kmpusa, who also fed on men. 



9^ Be avTLKa vBwp iyivero koX d<f>ajrri^ ^v. ofio)^ 8c ro ^uf>o^ 

47 cs TO vSoip KadrJKa ireiptafievo^ - ro 8c al/xa iyevero. rax^ai? 
ovv CTTt vavv KaT€k06pT€^ d7rc7rXcuo'a/i€v * Kal cttci Tjfjidpa 
virqvyatjey ttjp rjireipop dnofiXeTroiiepoL elKoi^ofiep eu/ai rrjp 

655 avTiirepav ry v<^' tjiiwv olKoviieirQ K€ifi€P7)p. TrpoaKwrj" 
aavre^ 8' ovv koX irpoaev^dfiei/oi irepX rS}v /xcXXoi/rcui/ icKo- 
TToS/xci/, Kal rot9 /ici/ cSoKct iwi/Sdo'i yiovov aWi^ oirCcrct} 
dvaaTp€(f>€LVy rot? 8c to fiev ttXolov airrov Karakinelvy di/cX- 
dovra^ 8c C9 tjjv fieaoyaLap Treipadrjpcu tcop ipoiKovPT<op. 

660 CI' o(r6> 8c ravra cXoyi^d/u-c^a, ^eipLiop cr<f>ohpo^ iin'rrea'wp Kal 
npoaapd^a^ to CKOtfio^ rw aiyiaXo) 8tcXv(rci/. rffiel^ 8c 
/ioXt9 i^€PT)^dfi€da rd oTrXa cicaoro? icai ci Tt aXXo oto? re 
-^1/ dpnacrdfiepoL. 

Tavra fikp ovp rd fi^XP'' ''^^ crcpa? yyj^ avpepe^^depTa fiot 

665 ip Ty daXdTTy koI irapd top ttXoui/ cV rat5 i^crots *cal ci/ rol 
d4pi KoX fierd ravra ci/ r^ icifrct ical C7rci8^ i^rjXdo/iePy napd 
Te TOL^ rfpoHTt Kai tol^ 6p€ipoL^ Kal ra rcXcvrata napd rot? 
Bovfcc(^dXot9 icat rat? 'Oj/oo'fccXcat?, Td 8c cVt n^? yfj^ ip 
rot? cf^? )3t)SXtot? hirfyqcrofLai^ 

— €8«»p iy^vtro : this has been one of 
the conventional transformations from 
the time of Proteus; cf. Od. 4, 458 
7f7»rro f iyp^v vS<ap. At the begin- 
ning, F. H. A 3, Lucian notified his 
readers that the Odyssey was one of 
his models. — at|ia kyivtro: so in the 
case of trees into which human beings 

have been transformed, the sap very 
properly reappears in its original con- 
dition as blood ; cf . the bleeding cornel- 
trees in Virgil's AeneidS, 28 £E. 

4 7. Ti|v dvTiir^pav : cf . § 27. — Tadra 
|uv ovv kt\. : a r<^uni^ of V. II. A and 
B.— Tf\« Mpas y^: cf. §27 ^s t^v 
iripap rjweipop. 



The Vitarum Auctio and its sequel, the Piscatory are of Lucian's 
best; but the two are different in character. In the former all 
proprieties and probabilities, facts and philosophies, are subordi- 
nated to the exigencies of comedy. The Piscator, too, is comedy, 
Aristophanic at once in its roguery, in scenic vividness, and in fer- 
tility of invention ; but it has the seriousness that inheres in Plato's 
dramatic setting. It is an antidote, held in readiness, or after- 
wards prepared, to counteract the effects of the Vitarum Auctio. It 
is possible, of course, that the vehemence of contemporary protest 
may have been conveniently assumed by Lucian to give him mate- 
rial for a sequel. But this protest was probably reaL For it is 
entirely possible to misunderstand the animus of the Vitarum 
Auctio. Not all the laity nor all philosophers possess the saving 
sense of humor, the mental flexibility, that welcomes the wanton 
breeze of comedy blowing where it listeth. Lucian has never 
lacked for commentators to rise up and call him sacrilegious.^ But 
he had as little intention of dragging Socrates, for example, in the 
mire as had Aristophanes. Indeed, the distorted dummy in the 
Clouds might well work injury to the living Socrates in the minds 
of his easily swayed contemporaries, but Lucian's masquerade with 
worthies long since dead could not in the face of the ratified ver- 
dict of centuries be harmfully misunderstood by the saner sort for 
whom Lucian preferred to write. By this it is not meant to assert 
that he allowed any squeamishness to stand in the way of comic 

^ E.g. Margadant, De Luciano aequalium suorum cenaore (1881), where Lucian 
as humorist comes off rather badly, pp. 48 ff. ^'Modo (i.e. in the Vitarum 
Auctio) fuit maledicus, nunc (i.e. in the Fixator) fiet idem mendax.'^ 



effect, nor that he had no sense of irritation at the dogmas even of 
the Platonic idealism. The sword of comedy is two-edged, and, as 
our mood may be, we laugh or are cut to the quick by the irreverence 
which makes Socrates, for example, (D. Mort, 21, 1) cry out as Cer- 
berus snaps at his heel and the spasm of the hemlock jerks him down. 
And more orthodox souls than Lucian succumb upon occasion to a 
fit of tedium that supervenes upon the established proprieties and 
ostracizes Aristides the Just or flouts Penelope as the prudish 
mother of a prig. The Piscator, it may be added, states (§ 46) very 
seriously Lucian's attitude towards right living as he conceived it. 

The two pieces may have been separated ^ in publication by sev- 
eral years, but they should be read together.* In the Vitarum Auctio 
samples of souls are put up, described, examined, and knocked down 
to the first bidder at the auctioneer's own price ; or, if they prove 
unsaleable, set aside. There is, strictly speaking, no "auction." 
They are sold, or withdrawn, at a fixed price.' 

Tlie heads of the schools are not mentioned by name, but the dis- 
guise is thin. We start, indeed, with " a certain Pythagorean,"* but 
the master himself at once emerges. So we have "a certain Peri- 
patetic," but Aristotle is as easily recognized as in Dante's incognito. 
The chief difficulty about the dramatis personae is the fusion of 
Socrates and Plato. We begin to sell off the one and end with the 
other. Many editors assume a lacuna and make a fresh start (§ 17) 
where the conversation turns from the historical Socrates to Socra- 
tes the mere mouthpiece of Plato. When Dion appears as pur- 
chaser there can be no thought of Socrates. It seems not unlikely 

1 Bolderman, Stud, Lucian. (p. 133-134 Tab. Ckron.), suggests a possible inter- 
val of nine years. 

^Bolderman (I.e. p. 80) declares that the former by itself is **ein reines 
Unding." One might assert this almost as confidently of the first part of 
Goethe^s Faust. In each case the sequel completes: "Am farbigen Abglanz 
haben wir das Leben." Other pairs in Lucian are, e.g., Qiiomodo Historia Con- 
scribenda Sit and Vera Historia ; De Morte Peregrini and FugitivL 

' Cf. Sheridan's School for Scandal, iv, 1, and, for the auctioneer, The 
Critic, i, 2. 

* See Helm, Lux:ian und die Philosophenschulen, Neue Jahrbticher vol. 9 (1902), 
pp. 188 ff. 


that Lucian intended ^ the composite picture. It was simpler than 
to make a fresh start with Plato. Socrates was perpetuated by no 
single school. The earlier philosophic systems focused in him as 
in a burning-glass. From him the rays diverge again, and the 
founder of each school — Cynic, Cyrenaic, Megarian, the Academy 
even — transmitted only a partial or distorted ray of the Socratic 
system of ethics. But it was inconvenient to disentangle the pro- 
portion of responsibility for various views, and all the extra touches, 
like Community of Marriage ^ and the Theory of Idfeas, seem neces- 
sary to justify the high price asked and paid. As it is, the two 
talents, so disproportionate to the prices fetched by all the rest put 
together, may justify the* inference that Lucian, in the midst of his 
hilarious raillery, must needs sotto voce indicate his real estimate 
of Socrates — too secure in his noble fame to be harmed by ribald 
innuendo — and of Plato, "whose little finger," for Lucian * as well 
as for Lowell, " is thicker than the loins of Aristotle." 

Lucian's line of samples is not complete. It is not a compen- 
dium of Greek philosophy. Still he effects a sale of representatives 
of the four established * schools — Socrates and Plato together rep- 
resenting the Academics — and also of the two dissenting schools, 
the Cynics and the Sceptics. The varying prices* may perhaps 
be taken as indicating some rough assessment of their current 
value or their popularity. Of the two pre-Socratic philosophers 
offered, Pythagoras, as an antique curio, sells for nearly as much as 
the popular Chrysippus. Heracleitus, the only representative of the 
so-called Ionic school (Thales and the others not being mentioned), 

1 So Aristophanes in the Clouds makes a composite photograph that super- 
imposes upon the ethical Socrates his two pet aversions, the Sophists and the 
Natural Philosophers. 

2 In the Ecdesiazusae Aristophanes does not anticipate the essential limita- 
tions mskde by Plato in the Republic, His own application suited his purpose. 

'Even where Chrysippus sums up Plato^s strong points (Pise. 22) Lucian 
cannot refrain from a mischievous fling, but the note of praise is clear. Com- 
pare, inter alia, (Pise. 20 end) the really beautiful ai\d subtly Platonic allusion 
to the haven of true philosophy; cf. too Helm, I.e., pp. 204-207. 

^ See Introd. pp. xiii and xix, note 1. 

5 See below, note to § 6. 


proves entirely unsaleable even with a more modern bit of bric-^brac 
in the person of Democritus thrown in, and it is perhaps significant 
of Lucian's underlying meaning that Aristippus also fails to com- 
mand a purchaser. The modern market — too critical to be content 
with a mere Cyrenaic — called for a new and improved brand, in 
the person of Epicurus,^ made up of the rejected Aristippus and 
Democritus. Anaxagoras is ignored ; the Eleatics are not even put 
up together as the "One in Many"; Empedocles in Aetna is still 
warming up to the attack, and does not appear till the opening 
scene of the Fiscator, 

Lucian's attitude towards philosophy has been the subject of 
much debate. It has cost many a dissertation to enumerate his 
apparent inconsistencies — his apotheosis, at one time, of the Cynic 
Menippus, and at another his sneering, ill-tempered treatment 
of contemporary Cynics ; his praise and his condemnation of the 
Epicureans, now honored as the foes of the false prophet or as pro- 
tagonists against a bewildered, antiquated Zeus, and now branded 
as utter sensualists ; his relentless vituperation of the Stoics, yet 
his frequent praise of teachings that were pre-eminently Stoical ; ' 
finally his own open Scepticism contrasted with the genuine delight 
which he takes, here and elsewhere, in mocking at Pyrrho. It is 
usual to attempt a somewhat definite chronology in Lucian's writ- 
ings, guided by his successive changes in this regard. Certain 
phases are evident enough, but the explanation of Lucian's chronic 
attitude towards philosophy is perhaps very simple. His aims 
were ethical, not scientific ; that is, not strictly philosophic at all. 
The superficiality of his acquaintance with the schools of philoso- 
phy may have been either real or assumed. Probably it was real. 
But the confusing of Sceptics and Academics," the jumbling to- 
gether of pet doctrines, the contemptuously unfair treatment of 
Stoic logic, may have been an ostentation of indifference to techni- 
calities which he understood better than he allowed, yet despised as 
obscuring the ethical and practical. At the worst his superficiality 

1 Cf. § 10, note. 

^ In this very piece Chrysippius sells for five times as mach as Epicurus. 

> I.e. the New Academy, see note to Piscator 43. 


was hardly more inexcusable than Socrates's contempt for the 
scientific aims of Anaxagoras. 

Our two dialogues are typical of Lucian's mental processes. In 
both his instinct as literary artist has the right of way. When 
comic effect is sought he had to be concrete ; hence it was essential 
to bring on the stage not a Pythagorean but Pythagoras himself. 
In the Piscator he leads up to his mission in life — a war upon 
shams. Some ass in the lion's skin or some wolf in sheep's cloth- 
ing was forever in need of undressing. He had scant leisure for 
admiring, much less for evolving, the bewitching creations of philo- 
sophic millinery. His intellect was not constructive. 

For a full enjoyment of the Auctlo it is essential for the reader to 
have in mind the details of the lives offered for sale. In addition to 
the articles in the Dictionary of Biography may be mentioned, for 
Pythagoras, Burnet's Early Greek Philosophy , pp. 89-109 and 300- 
321; for Heracleitus, the same, pp. 129-179. This contains a valu- 
able translation and commentary on Bywater's Heraclitl Ephesii 
Reliquiae, Also G. W. T. Patrick, The Fragments of Hera^UUis. 
For Heracleitus, Pythagoras, and Empedocles see Fairbanks, First 
Philosophers of Greece, and, for Lucian's own time, Pater's MaH^ts 
the Epicurean. For a popular account of the traditional Pytha- 
goras cf. F. Marion Crawford's Rulers of the South, vol. I, pp. 44-68. 

The Greek comic poets often exploited Pythagoras or his follow- 
ers, e.g. the'A\K/A6ctfv of Mnesimachus, the UvOayopton^ of Aristophon, 
the Mv^fmra of Antiphanes, and the Tapavrlvoi both of Alexis and of 
Cratinus the younger. See also Bolderman, Studia Lucianea, p. 78. 
Lucian's Gallus is a vivid bit of travesty on the Pythagorean for- 
mulae, especially the transmigration of souls. But to distinguish 
between the real Pythagoras and the bizarreries of his followers is 
as difficult as ta make out the true form of the sea-god Glaucus 
under the incrusted barnacles. From it all, however, Pythagoras 
emerges as an imposing personage, one of the master minds of' 

It has been conjectured (cf. Fritzsche ad Vit, Auct. 8 ; Croiset 
p. 70) that Lucian drew the suggestion for the Vitarum Audio from 
one or more pieces entitled Aury^vov^ Upacn^, cited by Diog. Laert. 


6; 2, 29.^ If so, it was only a suggestion. Lucian's dialogue, 
however, was in turn freely imitated by Theodoras Prodromus* 
(about the eleventh or. twelfth century), whose Bifovvpaa-K woirp-ucStv 
Kol iro\tTuc(ay (included in the Notices et Extraits des manuscrUs de 
la BibHotheque impejiale, 1810, Art. 37) is most easily accessible in 
Bolderman's monograph (Stud. Lueianeaj p. 87). In this Homer, 
Hippocrates, Aristophanes, Euripides, and Demosthenes are put up 
for sale.' 

Amongst other commentators^ Croiset's treatment deserves espe- 
cial attention for both dialogues. He gives good grounds for 
believing that in the Piseator Lucian makes felicitous use of a lost 
play of Eupolis. 

1 Cf. alflo Hirzel, Ver Dialog^ and Schmid in BuntaiCs Jahretbericht, 1901, 
p. 246. 

* His satirical poetry, it is worth noting, stands at the very threshold of Mod- 
em Greek literature. 

* Bolderman concludes, alas ! that the VUarum Auctio^ as we have it, is a 
hasty second edition ; and he takes, accordingly, the usual liberties with his 

^ See also Helm, I.e. 

Bmi^ nPA2;i2; 

1 ZETS. Sv fiey Start^ct ra fiddpa kol napacKeva^e rov 
TOTTOv rot? a<f)LKvovfi€voifs, (Tif Se arrjcov €^9 irapayaydv 
rov9 fiiov^y aXXa Kocfiija'a^ irporepov^ oj? eynpoa'cowoL <^a- 
j'oCi^at ical ort ttXcwttov? ind^ovTat' aif Se, q> 'lEtpfirj^ 

6 KijpxrrTe kol ^vyKokei ayad^ '^XV ^^^^ (ovrjTa<s 17817 Trapeivai 
7rpo9 TO TTcakriTrjpiov, anoKrjpv^ofici/ 8c fiiov^ <f>L\oa'6<f>ovs 
iravTO^ €t!8ov9 ical npoatpeo'eoDi/ TroiKik(t)v. ct 8c' rt? ov*c ej(ct 
TO TrapairriKa rapyvpiov Kara^aXeadai, e? vicnTa iKTur^i 
Karaanja'a^s iyyvnqvqv. 
10 EPM. IIoXXol avviao'iv • cSorc ^/>^ /X17 hiarpifieiv firjh^ 
Kare^eiv avrov?. 

Title : BfwK ITpcurts. The Latin trans- 
lation auctio is inaccurate, for we have 
a sale, not an auction — not even a 
** Dutch auction." Tr. Sale of Soul- 
Samples. Cf. Gen. 46, 27, »'all the souls 
of the house of Jacob," vrith the use 
of pioi (almost = guilds) in Bis Ace. 13 
T^X*^" V Ploii rj iiruFT'/ifMii. The title 
is intentionally vague. Master and 
disciples may be confounded here and 
provision made for the distinction in- 
sisted on in the Piscaior. 

1. 2v |i<v . . . crv 8^: to two attend- 
ants. — rd pd6pa: the benches. Cf. 
Plato Prolog. 325 e ol didd^KoKoi . . . 
TrapariOiaaiy {toU iraiffl) ixl twv fiddpup 
dvayrfPuHTKeiv . . . iroii^fmTa, also Dem. 
de Cor. 258, where Demosthenes taunts 
Aeschines with helping his father as 
janitor of the school : rb fUXay (the ink) 

rplptav Kol t4 ^0pa <nroyyl^utv Kal rb 
TaidayufyeTov Kopu>p. — ms <|»avoOvrai : 
poetical syntax, G. 1306. — *Ep|tf), k^ 
pvTTf : Hermes, the knave of all trades. 
Cf. D. Deor. 24.— 4706^ r^xn- ^^ 
Heaven's blessing. A common for- 
mula in prayers, documents, and proc- 
lamations, like quod bene vortat. 
Cf . § 10. — pCovs ^iXo(rd4^v« : samples 
of philosophers. — iravros tCSovs koX 
irpoaip^<rca»v troiK(Xfl»v : of every pattern 
and of assorted sects. Cf. Demonax 6 
^tXotro^/as eTdos and 4 rds iv if>L\oeotf>l(f. 
Tpoaip4<r€is. In § 8 Tpoalpeins means 
purpose, in § 12, creed; and Pise. 23, 
doctrine. — cl oix ix*^' ^^r neg. see 
In trod. 38. — r6 irapavrCKa rdf>Y6piov 
KarapaX{<r0ai : to put down the cash 
forthwith. Usually the active voice; 
cf. §§ 18, 26, 27, andl). MoH. 4. 




ZETS. TlQ}\(Ofl€V ovv. 

2 EPM. Ttva 0€\eL<s IT p&rov irapaydy (I) fiev ; 

ZET2. Toi/ropL top KOfujrriVy top *Icoi/ticw, iirel /cat <rc- 

15 flVO^ T19 €?|/at (f>aLV€T(U. 

EPM. OvT09 6 JlvOayopiKo^ KaTdfirjdi kol Trapeze <rav- 
Toi/ apa0€(op€lv TOL<s crvj'ctXcy/xcVot?. 

ZET2. K77>UTTC 877. 

EPM. Tw dptoTov fiiov ttwXo), roj/ aeiivorarov^ tl^ (ivrj- 
20 o"CTat ,■ rt9 vTTcp dvOpwirov cTi/at fiovXercu ; tC<s ctSeVat ti7J' 
ToS TTtti^o? dpfioviav kol dvafiiSivai irdXiv; 

AFOPAXTHS. To {ikv cISo? ouk dyevvrj^, tl 8c /xaXtora 
oIScj' ; 

EPM. *ApL0iJLrjriKi]Vy darpovoiiiav^ TepareCav, yeoyfiCTpiav, 
25 fioiHTLKijvy yoTfreCav. iidvriv aKpov ^Xcttci?. 

AFO. E^coTti/ avroj' dvaKpiveiv; 

EPM. *Ai/dKpLV€ dyad'^ tv^tj. 

2. MVcif . . . iropaY^Y^H^^ • ^^^ /^^ 
Xci (poet. 64\eif) with subjv. in question ' 
of appeal see G. 1358 ; H. 866, 3, b ; 
B. 577. — Ko^ifrr\v : for the custom of. 
Gulick, p. 175, and Morgan^s Lysias, 
16, 18. — 'IwviKdir : Pythagoras was 
bom at Samos, hence the use of the 
Ionic dialect. — <rf|iv6s ns : one of your 
reverend (gentlemen). Cf. on 8omn, 1. 
— Ovros: you. Often used in direct 
address with or without <r6 or Z, Cf. 
Aristophanes and the tragedians pas- 
sim. — KaTdpr|6i: strictly of descending 
into the arena, then generalized; cf. 
Hdt. 5, 22 'AXe^dvSpov yiip dtffXcikiy 
ffreXKofjJpov xal jcara/SdvTOf iir* adrb 
ToCro. Pythagoras was once an ath- 
lete himself; hence, in Gall. 8, the 
Cock (i.e. Pythagoras) complains of 
the five beans tossed to him for his 

supper as *' not a very sumptuous ban- 
quet d\eKTpv6vi ddXtjTy woT€ ycpofiitKfi Kal 
*0\ijfjiTia o^K dipayCji dyupiaafJLip<fi.^^ — 
rCs vircp . . . dvapiMvoi : Hermes reels 
off the conventional list of Pythago- 
ras's peculiarities — his rather arrogant 
assumption of superior knowledge ; the 
music of the spheres; rebirth, etc. 
Note the auctioneer's crisp asyndeton 
and anaphora.— ArOPA2TH2: cm3- 
tomer, see App. — *Api6|tt)TiKi^v ktX. : 
as the dpx"^ of Thales was water, of 
Anaximander rb dxetpov, of Heraclel- 
tus fire, so that of Pythagoras was 
number, and his philosophical attitude 
has been described as **■ Mathemati- 
cal Imagination." Note that Lucian*8 
list consists of two sets of three, each 
ending with an anticlimax. — &Kpov : 



3 AFO. noSairo? cl cru,- 

UTS. XafiLo^. 
80 ArO. nov 8c inoiSevdrj^ ; 

nT0. *Ei/ AlyvTrro) irapa rot? cicct (ro<f>ourL. 

AFO. 4>€p€ 8ijy rjv irpicoficu crc, tl ftc 8tS<££€t9 ; 

IITB. Aihd^oficu fiev ovSevy avafiinj(r(o Sc 

AFO. nci)9 ai^a/xin^(r€t9 ; 
36 nT0. Kadaprfv irporepop ttjv ^X*^^ ipyaxrdfievo^ Kai 
Tov iir* avrg pvnop cicicXvcra?. 

AFO. Kal 817 vofiLCOP rjSri K^KaJddpdai ftc, rU o rpono^ 
rfj^ apafJLjnjcrecD^ ; 

nT0. To fi€p npSyrov tjodx^V f^cucpi^ icat a<f)a)vi7) icat 
40 7rivT€ okoiv iri(t)v XaXceti/ /jLJjSeif, 

3. 'EvAlT^hrr^: see Fairbanks, 7^ 
Fir«< Philosophers of Greece^ p. 154. 
— o-o^to%: Lacian avails himself of 
the Ionic forms both here and below to 
give local color. See Intxod. 40. — Ai- 
8d(o|iai: see App. to 8omn. 2. — dvo- 
l&v^«» : for Plato*s development of the 
doctrine of dvdfipjiffu see Meno, 81 ff., 
where the slave is reminded, not taught, 
that *Hhe square on the hypotenuse*' 
etc. Cf. Phaedo 18. The English 
poets, with the instinct of the idealist, 
have seized upon the doctrine of remi- 
niscence. So Henry Vaughn in 27ie 
Retreatj or in Friends Departed : 

O Father of eternal life, and all 

Created glories under Thee t 
Besume Thy spirit from this world of thrall 

Into true liberty. 

Wordsworth elaborates the thought in 
his Ode on Immortality, and so on to 
the oft-recurring touches in Matthew 
Arnold, e.g. Revolutions, and in Moral- 
ity where Nature herself is personified : 

I knew not yet the gauge of time 

Nor wore the manacles of spaoe ; 

I felt it in some other olime, 

I saw it in some other place. 

'Twas when the heavenly house I trod, 
And lay upon the breast of God. 

— ^vx)|v . . . IkkXWos : the Pythago- 
reans were said to be less particular 
about bodily cleanliness. Cf. Aristo- 
phon Fragm, Pyihagoristes, 4, 6 : 

. . . fi^pourt yiip 
To&roun rbp UXo&rufwa <rv<r<nreTp l^iy 

9l TOit fnOwov fjuecTouriP ^3erat ^vviip» 

— KCKoOdpOoi : note force of tense. Cf . 
In trod. 34 (a). — i|o^Ci| : often referred 
to. Cf. Fairbanks I.e. So the Cock 
{Gall. 4) is accused of breaking the 
Pythagorean commandment which was 
second only to the first and great- 
est {TavTeXQs irapdwofioy) about eating 
beans : XdXos e7 ical KpaicTuc6s, di (i.e. 
Pythagoras) ffuawap is rirrt S\a frti. 



AFO. "flpa <rot, co fieXnoTey top KpoCaov iralha irav 
h€V€iv' iya> yap Xdko^j ovk avSpia^ eu/cu ^ovXo/iat. ri Sc 
/xcra TTji/ (ridmrfv o/xa>9 *cat ryfv Tt^.vraeriav ; 

nT0. MovaovpyC'Q kol y€Q)fi€Tpi'g iyacKijcreaL. 
46 AFO. l^dpiev Xeyct?, €t irpcoroi/ fi€ KL0ap(^op ycvofievoi/ 

Kara €u/at ao^ov XPV- 
4 nT0. Elr' €7rl Tovrioiciv apiO/jLeetv, 
AFO. OlSa Kai wj' apidiieiv^ 
FIT©. nai9 d/)t^/icct5 ; 
60 AFO. "Ej', 8vo, rpwt, rerrapa. 

nT0. *Op^9 ; a <ru 8oK€€t5 reicro-c/oa, ravra Seica cort ical 
rpiyoivov ivrekk^ Kal ruLerepov opKiov* 

AFO. Ov /xa Tw p^eyiarov roLvvv opKov ra Terrapa, ov- 
TTorc deiorepov^ \6yovs rJKOv(ra ov8c /xaXXoi/ tepov?- 
55 nT0. Mcra 8c, c5 ^cti/c, c?crc<u ^175 t€ irepi kol rfipo^ koX 

oJfuHy rapid if€i. — KpoCirov vatSa : cf . 
Hdt. 1, 85, where the son of CroesoB, 
hitherto a mute, cries out, as a soldier 
is about to kill his father: fi^ icrtire 
mpoiffov. — dvSpidf: the conventional 
mute was the fish. In GaU. 1 the Cock, 
as if in his character as Pythagoras, 
promises to be d4>ur6T€pos rtap IxO^p- 
Cf. cudt. Indoct. 16 ; Pise. 51 ; and Hor. 
Carm. 4, 3, 10 mutis piscibus. The 
more modem dySpidyros d^fUfy&refMs also 
occurs. — ircvnurCav : cf . Sirria, rpccr/a, 
iKarorraerta. Also forms in -eri^p/f, e.g. 
iKttTorraeTiipU. — Xdpuv: adv. from x«- 
pl€P. Cf . A\if0€f ; and i,\ff04s. 

4. dpi8|utir : as the purchaser has 
just taken fwvaovpylri in its most limited 
sense, so Lucian's mischief gives a still 
more inadequate account of the Pytha- 
gorean science of numbers. — ^^v : neu- 
ter used in counting; so in German, 
eins. Cf. Lat. undecim (for unum 

decem). — 'Op$s: tfiere now I Cf. 
Peregr. 46. — S^ka . . . rpiy^vov : i.e. 
4 + 3 + 2 + 1 .*.'. four rows and'each 

• ■ • • 

side of triangle consisting of four dots. 
See Fairbanks, op. cit. , pp. 144 and 152. 
— 4|fUTipov^pKiov: cf. Catapl. 11, where 
the tyrant says of his parasites Kal 5Xwt, 
6pKos airdis Ijp /7(6, also de CcUum. 17 
Kal 6 fUytaros SpKOS l^v Siraaiv *f{4paurTitap. 
— oi |id . . . Tlrrapa: now by your 
greatest oaih-pledge, Number Four. — 
7^ . . . mip^s: if Lucian means to 
attribute to Pythagoras as a technical 
term the *^ four elements ^* of Empedo- 
cles (ca. 444 b.c), he betrays here also 
his superficial acquaintance with the 
history of philosophy. Heracleitus, 
however (cf. Fragm. 25), recognized 
tliese four as fundamental. — t| ^op^ : 
rotation. Cf. infra § 13 drSfjuoy ipop-^. 
Always used in this passive sense by 
Plato except in Rep. 546 b. Cf. also 


v8aT09 Kol Tjvpo^ tJtl^ avrioKTiv rj <f)oprf Koi OKola iopra 

AFO. Mop<f>riv yap ej(ct to irvp rj arjp rj vScap ; 
nT0. Kal fjidka c/K^ai'ca- ov yap old re afiop<f>Lji Kal 
60 do'X'^P'Ocruvji KivieaOai. im, Tovreotcrt 8c yvcxreax rov 0€ov 
dpidfjiop lovra koX voov koL dpfMOvCrfv. 
AFO. SaviMaaa Xeyct?. 
5 IITO. npo^ Se Tor<r8c<rt roZariv elprj/jLevoiO'L Kal aecovrov 

€i/a SoKeovra Kal aWop opeofievov Kal dWov iovra cccrcat. 
66 AFO. Tt <f>y^ ; dXXo5 elpX Kal ov^ ovto^ oairep vvv npo^; 
ck StaXeyo/iat; 

IIT©. NCj/ fiev ovTo^y TTctXat 8c iv aXXo) (rdfian Kal Iv 
aXXo> ovvofxaTL i<f>avTd^€o • ^povta 8c avrt? C9 aXXoi^ /xcra- 
70 AFO. Tovro <^]7?, dOduarov icrecrdaC fi€ d\\aTT6fi€vov C5 

Schmid, I, 139 and 297. — Axota . . . the term KStrfiosy he may also have 
6k«s : for double interr. cf . Somn. 12, touched upon the Cosmos-compelling 
note. — d|u>p4(|| Kal d<rxt)|u>o-vv]) : La- poOs. His contemporary Anazimenes, 
clan quarries his technical terms where indeed, takes pains to state that the 
he can. This pair seems to be a remi- ** World (or God), though sentient all 
niscence of Arist. Phys. 1,7,8. The over, doe.s not breath. '* This breath- 
mere pairing of words often gives a cer- ing soul of the universe was a con- 
taip flavor (cf. *' humble and lowly," ception of the Hindus, even before the 
Book of Common Prayer), and d4os close of Vedic times. Cf. Rigveda 10, 
and 06/3os (Plato Protag. 358 d), rhe- 129 (Kaegi, p. JK)) : 
torically, do not need the probe of Prod- Alone that One breathed calmly, 8olf-Bui>. 
icus. — rhv 0f6v dpiOfAdv: Athena was ported, 

represented by the equilateral triangle ^"»«'' *^*" " ^" "^"*' °°^ »^^* *»^^« **• 

(see note on §4, above), and Four, as 5. 6pc^|uvov: =4Muv6fi£Pov. SeeApp. 

well as being the ** great oath," was the and Helm Neue Jahrbiicher 9, 1902, p. 

sign of Divinity in general. Apollo was 192. — ^avrdtco . . . |urap^cnai : cf. 

represented by one, Discord by twOy Gall. 16, where the Cock (=Pythago- 

Justice by three. — v6ov : this seems to ras) gives the shoemaker the autobiog- 

anticipate Plato, or Anazagoras and his raphy of his transformations. — dOdva- 

roDf arranging Chaos into Cosmos. But rov : for the popular attitude, in the 

if Pythagoras was the first (see Burnet, second century of our era, towards 

Early Greek Philosophy , p. 107) to use a belief in immortality, cf, Luciaifs 



6 iiop<f)a<; nXeCova^ ; dXXa ravra ficv iKavo)^. ra S* afi<f>l 
SiaLTav TTOto? el; 

IIT©. ^Fifiylwxv^ov fi€P ovSc iv (rvreofioMy ra 8* aXXa TrXrjv 

76 AFO. Tlpo^ elveKa; 17 fiva'drT-g roif^ Kvdfiov^; 

nT0. OvK, aXXa ipoi ctcrt kol dcovfj^oLOTri avT€<ou 17 (f>va'i,<s • 
TtpSnov fiev yap to irav yoirq ctcrt, koX rjv dirohvajj^ KvafJLov 
en ^Xeopoj' iovra^ okffeai roZaiv avSprfioiai, iiopvoiciv ifi(f>€p€a 
Tr)v <f)VTJp ' e/nj^cVra Se 'qv d<f>y^ €9 rriv crcXtji/aoji/ w^l /ic/ie- 
80 Tpyjfievjficnvy ac/ia Troidet^. to 8c /xei^oi^^ *A^7ji/atot<rt i/d/io? 
Kvdfioicri ra? dpy(a^ aipeeo'daL. 

AFO. KaXci)9 irdvTa etfyq^ #cal ieponp€7r(o<S' aXXa ciTra- 

8v^t, Kal yvfivov ydp ae t8cti/ /SovXo/iat. eS *HpafcXct9, 

;(/)vo'oS9 avrol 6 firfpo^ core. ^co9, ov fiporo^ rt? eli/at 

86 (f>aLi/€T(U' axrre (ov7J(rofiaL irdmrn^ avrov. nocrov tovtov 

dnoKrjpvTT€L^ ; 

EPM. AcKa fjLvSiv. 

patroDizing reference to the Christians, 
Peregr. 13. In general cf . Friedlander, 
SiUengeschichU Roms, III, c. C; A. 6. 
Harkness, Roman Scepticism and Fa- 
talismy Trans. Amer. Phil. Assoc. 1899, 
pp. 50 ff. 

6. 'E|t^|nix^Mv oi8i Iv : not a thing 
thai hath the breach of life. A corollary 
of the doctrine of transmigration (see 
Fairbanks op. cit., pp. 154-155). Cf. 
£. Arnold, Light of Asia, Book VIII : 

Kill not — for pity's fake — and lest ye slay 
The meanest thing upon Its upward way. 

also end of Book VI. — icvd)u»v : this 
sumptuary law of Pythagoras is cited 
ad nauseam. Lucian hints that he 
broke his own commandments both 
when incarnate as a cock (cf. Oall. 4, 

where the shoemaker says to the cock : 
oO 7d/> fx^^ ^ '''' ^^^ Tapa/SdXot^c, Kvdfjuovt 

Xe^f ainitOi) and in the underworld, cf. 
D. Mori. 20, where he begs Menippus 
to give him of his beans : *^Other laws,'* 
he says, ** in other worlds " — dXXo iropA 
ptKpdis bhyiiora • tfuiOop ydpy (Js oM^p tcor 
K^fjLoi Kol K€<pa\al TOK^tnf ipOdSc. — I&IH 
cAttq : cf. V. II. B 24 fiv<raTT6fuyoi riju 
Kuafio4>aylap. — Oi»K : it '« not that. — vv{l 
|U(UTpT||Uiq[|0'iv: certo numero uoc- 
tium, Reitz. For these statements cf. 
Fairbanks, op. cit., p. 154. — alf&a 
troUcit: cf. Fritzsche ad loc. — v6)iot 
. . . alp4«r9ai: see L. & S. s.v. ^^0ot 
4, d. — l+T|«: Introd. 14(6). — 6 |it)p6s: 
in the underworld his whole right side 
is auriiied. Cf. V.H. B 21.— A^iea |&v6v: 


AFO. *E;(o> rocrovTov \afi(op. 

ZET2. Tpd(f>e rov dprfcraficpov rovvofia Kal odep iarCv. 

90 EPM. 'IraXicJrrj?, <3 Zcv, SoKCt Tt5 €u/at rcii/ d/x<^t Kpo- 

reoj'a icat Tdpavra Kal Trjv Tavrjj 'EXXaSa- Kairoi ov)( ct?, 

dXXd TpiaKocLOi iT)(€Bw idhrrfvrax Kara kolpov ovtop. 

ZET2. * A.TTayeroiO'av' iWov napaydycjixev. 

7 EPM. BovXet rov avxiiiovTa eKelpovy top UopTiKOP; 

05 ZET2. Udpv p.€p ovp, 

EPM. OuT09 6 rf/p mjpap i^pT7)p.€po^y 6 i^ayfJiia^, i\0€ 

Kal TrepuOi ip kvkXo) to avpcSpiop. fiiop aphpLKOP ttcoXo), 

fiiop apioTOp Kal yeppLKOPy fiiop iXevOepop- tU (opTja-ercu ; 

AFO. *0 KTJpv^ ttS)^ €<I)7i<s; ircoXct? top iXevdepop; 

100 EPM. "Eycjye. 

AFO. Elra ov ScSta? p^rj crot SticdoTjTat aphpanoSia'pov rj 

Kal TrpocricaXco'TjTai <r€ 6? "Kpeiop Yldyop; 

EPM. Ovhkp avT^ peXet rrj^ Trpcwrcco?' oicrcu yap elpcu 

iraPTdirao'ip iXevdepo^. 

106 AFO. Ti S* dp rt9 airr^ xpiycratro pxm^PTi Kal ovto)^ 

note the varying prices paid. Socra- hence afiFected by the Cynics. The 
tes (see above, p. 90) commands a Cynic^s portrait here touched off — the 
price that might have saved him from wallet, the bare arm, the club, the 
the hemlock — two talents being four gloomy look, the unkempt, unwashed 
times the amount proposed at the trial. exterior, the afiFectation of manliness 
— 1Bx« roo-oirrov \a!fiAv: he^s mine and freedom — recurs again and again. 
at that price. Cf. here and passim The old cloak (rpL^ap) and the long 
Sheridan, School for Scandal, iv, 1. — beard are usually included. — dvSpavo- 
<avT)crc4Uvov : for form see Introd. 19. Sto-fAoO: kidnapping. An action might 
— 'IroXkArtfii jctX. : for life of Pythago- be brought for kidnapping freemen or 
ras see p. 92. — rpiaKdo-ioi : i.e. the other people ^s slaves. The court of 
Pythagorean brotherhood. the Areopagus had jurisdiction — pen- 
7. IIovTiKdv : Diogenes the Cynic alty, death. Cf. the amusing scene in 
was bom at Sinope on the Pontus Lys. 23, 9. — OiScv . . . ^Huk: when 
Euzinus about 412 b.c. — i^iiCot : the put up at auction (see Diog. Laert. 
i^tafUt (Gulick, p. 161), leaving the right 6, 2, 4), Diogenes said to the auction- 
shoulder bare, was the usual dress for eer : KT^pv<r<r€, et ns idiXet d€<rT&rriv a6r{i 
the poorer classes and for slaves, and vpLoffBai - KdiKvBeU Kadl^eadai, Oif^h^ 


» » 


v8po(f>6poi^ avTov diroSctfCTCoi/. 

EPM. Ov fiopovy dXXd Kal rjv dvpaypov avTov iirurnja^Sy 
TToXv inaTOT€p<fi XP^^V ™^ kvv(ov. d/xeXet kvcui/ avra> icat 
110 Tovvofia. 

AFO. no8a7ro9 8c ioTi koX riva rrjv acK-qciv inayyek- 

EPM. AvTov ipov' KoXXiov yap ovto) irotcti/. 
AFO. AcSia TO aicvdpwnw airrov Kal KaTTf^i^j /Mtj ii€ 
116 vkaKTrjcfi Trpoackdovra rj Kal vf) Aia SaK-g ye. ovx opa^ co? 
hiJJpToi, TO ^\ov KoX (rvv4o"iraKe Ta^ 6(f>pv^ Kal aTreiXriTiKov 
TL Kal ;(oXa>8€9 vno/SXeireL ; 

EPM. M17 8c8t^f Tidaxro^ yap ion. 
8 AFO. To irpSnovj cS fieXTiaTe, iroSairo^ el; 
120 AIOFENH2. navToSarro^. 
AFO. IIqI? Xeyct9; 
AIOF. ToC Koafiov iroXiniv opa^. 

Ay KioiwTo viirp&vKwBai. — «Xi|v cl: see 
iDtrod. 24 (a). — iSfw^^poir : cf. " hew- 
ers of wood and drawers of water.'* 
With the Ifdpotpopia one is apt to asso- 
ciate women. At the Panathenaea this 
task was performed by the wives of the 
luhoiKot for the wives of the Athenians. 
For the degradation of the daughter of 
King FSammetichus, cf. Hdt. 3, 14. 
See note to D. Mar. 6, 1. — htpmp6y: 
see Plato Protag. 314 c for the officious 
door-tender. In Roman times the 
janitor was chained to his post; cf. 
Ovid Am. 1, 6, I: Janitor, indig- 
num, dura religate catena — 
which fills out the detail of Liician*s 
cave canem joke. The pun KvnxSt, 
K^y, is a conventional one. Cf. de 

Luctu 4; D. Mart. 20, 1, and 21, 1, 
where Menippus the Cynic fraternizes 
with Cerberus as kin of the same ken- 
nel : 'O Kdpfiepe — oioryeH^f ydp €lfd ffot 
k6vw Kol aOrbt iv. — &<nci|<riv : cf . Tox- 
aris 27 r^r Aaxfffftw t^v Ki/rur^y dUrico^ 
/ieivf, trained a» a professional Cynic. 
Cf. Pise. 45. — &i)pi«i: mid. voice. 
^vKow is ace. case. Cf . Plut. Lysander 
15 r^y fioKTiiplaw 9uipdfUPOt. 

8. woSaw^ . . . IlarroScMr^t : Theo- 
dorus Prodromns (see p. U3) in selling 
ofif Homer does not miss this sugges- 
tion : OTodawdt T^w dtdXurrow cT ; Homer 
answers: warro^airSr. — AIOFENHS: 
Diogenes was known as 6 fuup6/unt 
XvKpdrift. — tc60^^am woXivipr: for the 
Stoic*8 ^*univeraal common wealth of 
mind/* as Pronto exptmnded it, cf. 



• • • " 

ArO.' ^17X019 S? riva; 
AlOr. Tw 'HpaicXca. 
126 AFO. Tt ovv ov)(L Kal Xeoprrjv aiiire^ri; to fiev yap ^\ov 
€OLKa^ avroj. 

AlOr. ToirrC {jlol Xeovrrjy ro rpifitoviov. crpaTevoficu 8c 
eocTTTC/) eKeipo^ iirl ra? rjhovoi^y ov KeXevo'To^s, aXX' cicovcrto?, 
iKKadapai top fiiov Trpocupovfi€vo^. 
130 AFO. ES yc T^9 Trpoaupeo'ea)^. dXXa rt /xaXtcrra etSo^at 
<r€ <f>(oiJL€v ; 7] TLva TTjv Ti)(yy)v €)(€is ; 

AIOF. 'EXcv^epcorij? elfju. tS)v avOpdmoiv koX iaTpo^ T(op 
nadwp' TO S* oXov aXtj^cta? Kal TrappTjaia^ '7rpo(f>i]Tri^ etvai 
-g^ AFO. *Ay€ Stj, c5 '7rpo<f>rJTay rju irputifLai aCy Tiva fi€ toj/ 
TpoTTOv StacTfCTjcrct? ; 

AIOF. TUpSiTov pkv irapoKafidv ce koI airoSvcra? Tr)v 
Tpv<f>'^i/ Kal anopCa (TvyKaTaKk^ia'a^ Tpifiioviov Trept/SaXw, 
/icra 8c TToveiv koX Kapiveiv KaTavayKoaoi ^a/xal KaOevhovra 
140 icat vScup TTivovTa kclL &v ervx^ mfiTrXdfievovy ra Sc ^pTJfiaTay 
rfv ^Xl^j ifiol TTCiOofJievo^ cs tt)j' dakarrav <f>€pa)v c/i^aXct?, 
ydfjLov 8c aiiekrjO'ei^ koX Tra&cov Kal Trar/otSo?, ical ndma col 

Pater, 3fanu5 fAe -Epicurean, p. 192 f. 

— ZtfXois . . .: whom do you pattern 
after f — *HpaicX4a: cf. Symp. 13 and 
14, where the uninvited Cynic refuses 
with contempt even to sit on the extra 
chair, but he will, if tired, throw down 
his cloak and prop himself on his elbow 
in the attitude conventional with the 
painters for Heracles, the patron saint 
of the Cynics. — KfXcv<rr6«: i.e. like 
Heracles at the bidding of Eurystheus. 

— iKKoOapcu: i.e. as Heracles cleaned 
the Augean stables. — irpoaip^o-ctts: gen. 
of cause. — trappT)(rCat trpo^i^rqs: in- 

terpreter of independence. Lucian ar- 
rogates to himself in Piac. 19 (et passim) 
precisely this quality of outspokenness, 
and names himself Tlappri<rid5rjs. 

9. riva . . . 8iao*K^(rcis: how will you 
train mef Cf. Peregr. 17 (L. & S. s.v. 
wrong). — rpv^virrX.: cf. Cyn» 1 ff. for 
the conventional preaching and prac- 
tice of the Cynics. — Is ri)v OdXarrav: 
80 the parasitic philosopher Thrasy- 
cles ( Tim, 60) advises Timon to throw 
all his new-found treasure into the sea: 
*'Only, my dear fellow, not into the 
deep water. Wade in only Arov is 



KaKoScufiovo)^ StaiccifieV^ ,* irXr/v el jirf irKairavid y€ icat 
vhpoif>6pov avTOP anoSeLKTeov. 

EPM. Ov fiovovy dXXa koX riv dvpcopoy avTov inLanjirii^y 
TToXv inaTOT€p(j} XPV^V ^^^ kvvS)v. d/xcXei icioiv avral icat 
110 Towofia. 

AFO. no8a7ro9 8c cWt Kai riva T7)v aa-K-qaiv inayyeX- 
Xcrat ; 

EPM. AvTov ipov' icdXXtoi/ yap ovro) TTotcti/. 
AFO. AeSta to aKv0p<o7rov airrov kol KaT7)(f>€^y fiij fie 
116 v\atchj<rji Trpoo'ekdopra rj kol vfj Ata BaKji ye. ovx op^^ oJ? 
hijjptrai TO ^vkov koX cvveo'TraKe ra? 6(f>pv^ icat aneiXriTLKov 
TL Kal ;(oXal8c9 virofiXenei; 

EPM. M17 8€8t^f Tidao'os yap ioTi. 
8 AFO. To Trpwrovy <3 ^cXrtorc, TroSaTro? el; 
120 AIOFENH2. UavTohairo^. 
AFO. Ho)? Xey€t9; 
AIOF. ToS Kocfiov iroKirqv 6p^9* 

Ay Kioirro iriTpdcKwdai. — irX^v f(: see 
In trod. 24 (a). — vSpo^pov : cf. *' hew- 
ers of wood and drawers of water/' 
With the Odpoipopla one is apt to asso- 
ciate women . At the Panathenaea this 
task was performed by the wives of the 
fifroiKoi for the wives of the Athenians. 
For the degradation of the daughter of 
King Psammetichus, cf. Hdt. 3, 14. 
See note to D. Mar. 6, 1. — 6vp«»p6v: 
see Plato ProtcLg. 314 c for the officious 
door-tender. In Roman times the 
janitor was chained to his post; cf. 
Ovid Am. 1, 6, 1: Janitor, indig- 
num, dura religate catena — 
which fills out the detail of Lucian*s 
cave canem joke. The pun kvvik6s, 
k6wp, IE a conventional one. Cf. de 

Luctu 4; D. Mart. 20, 1, and 21, 1, 
where Menippus the Cynic fraternizes 
with Cerberus as kin of the same ken- 
nel : *0 K4pp€p€ — <rv77e>^f ydp €lfjU <rot 
K^tap Kal a&rds <ay. — &irKT|(riv : cf . Tox- 
aris 27 rii^ Aamjcip r^p Kvpucifp dirKod- 
/leras, iraijied as a professional Cynic, 
Cf . Pise. 46. — Sifjprai : mid. voice. 
^vXop is ace. case. Cf. Plut. Lysander 
15 riip paKTTjpiap di<ipdfUPOs. 

8. iroSair^s . . . IlavroSairds : Theo- 
doras Prodromus (see p. 93) in selling 
off Homer does not miss this sugges- 
tion : OToSawbs t^p didXexTOP e? ; Homer 
answers : iraprodar6s. — AIOFENHS : 
Diogenes was known as 6 fMipdfiepos 
'LiifKpdrrji. — k6o>ov «roX(TT|v : for the 
Stoic^s ** universal commonwealth of 
mind,^' as Fronto expounded it, cf. 



Trai^cXo)?. Si(OK€ he ra irokvavd pwfirorara rSiv \(opL(aVj Kai 
iv avrot? tovtol^ fiouo^ kol aKOLVfovTiro^ elvau deXe firj <f>i' 
Xoi/, fiTf ^4vov irpoaUiievo^' icaraXvcrt? yap ra roiaxrra ri\<; 
dp^Tj?. iv oi/f€t 8c irdirrcDVy d fiyiS* iSia irovrjo'eiev av ri?, 
165 dappcov iroUiy Kal r<ov ai\>pohia'uov aipov ra yekoiorepa^ Kal 
reXo^y rjp <rot 8o#c^, TroXvTroSa dfiop '^-(rqiriav (f>ay(i)v ano- 
0av€. ravrrfp <rot rrjv evSaifioviav trpo^evov/jLeu. 

11 AFO. Airaye- fxtapa yap Kal ovk dvdpdinva Xeyct?. 
AlOr. 'AXXa paard ye, w ovro?, icat iracnv €u)(€prj fie- 

170 reXdeiv ' ov yap cot Soycrct naiSeCa^ kol Xoytov kol XrjpoiVj 
dXX* imrofio^ avrrj (rot irpo^ 86^av rj 6809 • /cat IStdrT)^ yap 
av r/^y TfTOL <ricvro8e|n79 rj rapi)(OTr<aXri^ 17 reKTfop rj rpairel^i' 
TTj^y ovScp ce KdiXvaei davfJLaxrrop etvai,, tjv fiovop di/at8€ta 
icat TO dpaxro^ irap'g Kal XoiSopeladaL icaXcu? iKp.dO-g^, 

176 AFO. npo9 ravra /icv ov 86o/xat aov. vavrr)^ 8* av uro)^ 
rj KrjTTOvpo^ iv /catp^ yci/oto, kol ravra, rjv ideX-g crc anoSo- 
(rdai ovroal ro ficyioTov 8v* o^oXcov. 

EPM. *E^c Xafidv • Kal yap acrficvoi anaXXa^opeda ivor 
\XQvvro^ axnov koL fioZvro^ icat diravra^ dira^airXio^ v/SpC- 

180 ^ovro^ Kal ayopevovro^ KaK(o^, 

12 ZETS. ^AXXoj' KoXei rov KvpjjvaLOVy rop ip ry 7ro/)<^v/)t8t, 
rop i(rr€<f>ap(i)p€POP. 

Cbabert^s list (p. 139) of words used 
figuratively. — SU»Ki : haurd. — xardXv- 
9\% . . . rf\ii &PX^ • ^ reminiscence of 
Xen. Cyr. 8, 1, 47. The play on words 
here consists in the use of dpx"^ as a 
philosophical technical term. — iroX^- 
iroSa r\ o"iprCair : the exact manner of his 
death is not known. Diog. Laert. 6, 2, 
11-12 gives several divergent accounts. 
— irpo(<vofi|uv : we are agents for. 

11. lirCro|iOS : short cut. — I8(.^n|s : 
layman. Cf. note to Char. 4. — rapt- 

Xoir^Xi|« : means (1) fish-pedlar; (2) 
embcUmer; cf. raptxei^w. Cf. Men. 17 
where kings and satraps are rapixoxciH 
Xovvras vr dxop/as ij rd trpwra SiddffKOP- 
Toj ypdfifjMra. — rpairitCnis : money- 
changer. Cf. similar derivation of Epg. 
banker^ from Ital. banco, — Sv 6poX6v : 
this is bid by the purchaser, elsewhere 
the auctioneer names the price. — Ivo- 
xXoi^vTOs : making himself a nuisance. 
— dira(airX»s: for aVXws as in Peregr.S, 
12. r6v KvpTjvatov : Aristippus of 

BinN nPASis 


EPM. *Ayc 8ij, 7rpo<rc;(C ttS?- ttoXvtcXc? to yj^fia koX 
nXovauov Seoficvov. fiCo^ ovro^ ijSv?, fiio^ T/otcr/xaKaptcrro^. 
186 Tt9 imdv/JLei rpv<f)ri^ ; Tt9 aJi/ctrat toi' dfiporaTOv ; 

AFO. 'EX^c (TV Kal Xeyc aTrcp €tSa>9 ruyxdvei,^ • (omjaofiai, 
yap crc, 171/ (u<^€Xt/xo9 ^9- 

EPM. M17 €i/d^Xct avTOVy (o /Sc'XTtcrrc, /jit/Sc avaKpiv^' 
fieOvei ydp. cucttc ovic ai' airoKpivavro col Trfp yXSyrrav^ a>9 
190 opa^y hiokio'daivciiv. 

AFO. Kat Tt9 a I' cv <f)povo)v irpLoLTo hiet^dapfiivov ovtcj 
Kal aKoXaoTov avSpdiroSov ; oaov 8c Kat airoirvel fivpcov, 0J9 
Se Kat a^ak^pov )3a8t^€t Kat napd^opov. aWd Kav av ye, 
(u 'Ftpfifjy Xeyc OTTOcra npoaeo'TLP avTw kol d fiena>v rvyxdvei. 
195 EPM. To /xci/ 0X01/ (rufifiLOivai, Sc^to? Kat aufiTneiv tKai^os 
Kat Kco/jiourat /xcra avXT/rptSo? c7rtT7^Sct09 ip(ovTi Kat dcroir^ 
heanoTjj' ra aXXa 8c Trep. fidrcov iTTianJiKov Kat oi/ro7roto9 
c/xTTCt/ooraro?, Kat oXa>9 a'o<f)iaT7f^ rjSvTradeia^. iiraiSevdr) 
fikv oZv ^AdTjirrfdVy iSovXevae 8c Kat ^rcpt StKcXtai^ rot? 
200 Tvpdvvoi^ Kat CKfyoSpa cv8oKt/jtct 7ra/o* avrot?. to 8c K€<f>d' 
Xatoi^ r^9 TT/ooatpcVco)?, dndprcjv Karaf^poveivj diraai XPV' 
aOaiy dTraPTa\60ev ipavi^eadaL rrfv 'qSomjv. 

AFO. ^ilpa (Toi dXXov irepLfiXeTreiv tS>u irXovaUov tovtcjp koI 
TroXv')(priiidr(ov' iym yap ovk iinnjSeio^; iXapov (ovelo'dai fiiov. 

Cyrene, flor. ca. 870 b. c. He represents 
among the pupils of Socrates the other 
extreme from Diogenes the Cynic, and 
through him Epicurus traces back his 
philosophic pedigree. — irpdircxc ira«: 
cf . Ar. Thesmoph, 372 A/covc Ta<ra, Paz 
612 Ave rat, 666 xat x*^P^^* — &iroirvci 
|i«p«»v: so the Cynic contemptuously 
contrasts the perfumed beaux with 
himself, Cyn. 17. Haov is cognate ace. 
— vo^io^s ^iSmraOitos : Professor of 
Luxury. — ISo^Xcvcrt : Aristippus served 

his time, as Lucian implies, at the 
court of Dionysius the tyrant of Syra- 
cuse. — irpoaip4o't«0S : cf. § 8. — dtrav- 
ToxiSOcv . . . 4|8oWjv : a pleasure pic- 
niCj here, there, and everywhere. Cf. 

XJnd, inein Herz, was dir ge^Ilt, 
AlleB, alles darfst du lieben. 

— iroXvxfyniidrwv : millionaires. — IXa- 
p6v: gay^ in contrast to rh VKvOpiairbv 
used § 7 of Diogenes. Cf. Xen. Mem. 
2, 7, 12 IKapal &vtI aKvSpunrQy. 



nairreXS)^. SuoKe 8c ra noXvavOpwirorara riov \o)puoPy Kat 
iv avTol^ TovTOL^ fiovo^ Kol aKOLvdvrjTO^ elvax deke fir/ <f)C- 
XoVy fiTj ^€i/ov wpocLCfievo^' KaraXva'L^ yap ra rotavra Trj<; 
^PXV^' ^^ ^^^ ^^ navTOiVy d /xijS* tSia iroirjo'^iev av Tt9, 
166 dappiov TToUty KOL T(ov a<f)poSLa'uov aipov ra ycXotorc/oa, kol 
reXo^y 7]v COL 8o/c^, iroXviroSa dfiov '^(rrjirCap <f)ayci)v diro- 
0av€. TavTTjv (Toi rrjv evScufiovCav itpo^evovfiev. 

11 AFO. "Anaye- fiLapa yap kol ovk avOpdiTLva Xeyet^. 
AlOr. *AXXa paard yc, <o ovro^y kol irdaiv evxeprj fi€' 

170 reXdetp • ov yap col Sciycrct ncuBeCa^ Kal Xoycjv Koi XijpojVy 
aXX* inCroiio^ avrq col npo<; ho^av 17 6809 • Kal ISidrr)^ yap 
av y^y yjroL cicvToholrq^: rj Tapv)(07r(jt>Kr)^ rj tcktodv rj TpaiT€,tJr 
TTj^y ovScv crc KOiXvcrct davfiaxrrop elvaLy rjp fiovov avaCBeia 
Kal TO dpaxTo^ "^^PV '^^^ Xoihopeicrdai icaXoi? iKfiddu^. 

176 AFO. npo9 ravra fi€i/ ov SeofiaC cov. vavrq^ 8* av tcro)? 
ij Krfwovpo^ iv Kaipt^ yevoiOy koX raSra, rjv ideXrj crc airoSo- 
adai ovToal to iieyiOTov 8v* ofioXtov. 

EPM. *E^c \afi(ov • Kal yap aafievoi, anaWa^oiieda ivo- 
^Xovi/T09 ainov Kal fiooivTO^ Kal dirama^ a7ra£airXa>9 v)8/ot- 

180 ^oi/T09 Kttt dyopevovTO^ koxS)^, 

12 ZETS. ^AXXoj' KaXct tov Kvpy)vaiovy tov iv Ty Trop<f>vpChLy 
TOV icTTCKf^apcjficvov. 

Chabert^s list (p. 139) of words used 
figuratively. — 8C«»kc: fiaunt. — KardXv- 
(Tifi . . . T^ &PX^ • ^ reminiscence of 
Xen. Cyr. 8, 1, 47. The play on words 
here consists in the use of dpx^ as ^ 
philosophical technical term. — iroXv- 
iroSa YJ orrprCav : the exact manner of his 
death is not known. Diog. Laert. 6, 2, 
11-12 gives several divergent accounts. 
— irpo|tvoO|uv : toe are agents for. 

11. lv(TO|ios : short cut. — iSi^n^s : 
layman. Cf. note to Char. 4. — rapt- 

XoirdiXT|s : means (1) fish-pedlar; (2) 
embalmer; cf. rapix^^' Cf. Men. 17 
where kings and satraps are rapcxoxfaH 
XoCrras i^' dvoplai ij t& TrpQra 5iSdffK0»- 
Toj ypdfifxara. — Tpairft(Tt|s : money- 
changer. Cf. similar derivation of Eng. 
banker, from Ital. banco. — 8v opoXdv : 
this is bid by the purchaser^ elsewhere 
the auctioneer names the price. — Ivo- 
xXoOvTOf : making himself ^ nuisance, 
— dira{airX»s : for ar X«« as in Peregr.S. 
12. riv KvfM|vatov : Aristippus of 

BinN nPAsis 


EPM. *Ayc 8if, Trp6a'€)(€ va^' woXvreXk^ to xprj/ia Koi 
nXovauov heoiievov. fiCo^ outo? tJSv?, )8to9 rptaiiaKaipiaTo^. 
186 Ti9 eTTt^v/xct rpv<f)7J<:; T19 a>i/6tTat rot' dfiporarov ; 

AFO. 'EX^€ <rv Kai Xeyc aircp eiSoi? n^y^^ai'ct? • (omjcoiiai 
yap cr€, ij*/ <u<^€Xt/t09 ^9. 

EPM. Ml) ci'o^Xct avToVy (o /ScXrtoTe, /xtjSc avoKpiv^' 
fiedvei yap' OKrre ovk av airoKpivaiTo crot rifv yktorravy ol? 
190 op^^y BioXKrOaCvcjv. 

AFO. Kat T19 ai/ cS (fypovciv npCaLTo Bie<f)0apfji€vov ovto) 
Kal aKoXaoTov dvSpdnohov ; ocov 8e koI dnoirvel fivpcov, a>9 
§€ Kal (KJ^akepop fiaSi^ei Kal 7rapd(f>opov. aWd Kav av ye^ 
cS ^KpiiTJy Xey€ oiroo'a npoceaTiv avro) icat a fieria)v Tvy^avei. 
196 EPM. To /tej/ 0X01/ (rvfifiiiovcu 8cfto9 Kal avfiTnelu ucavo^ 
Kal KCDfidaai fierd auXijTptSo? CTrtTT^Scto? ip<ovri koX aacaro} 
Beanorg' rd aXXa 8c ne/JLfidrcjv iinaTijfKov kol oiffoiroio^ 
c/x-TTCt/ooraTO?, Kal oXcu^ (Toc^toTTj? iJSvTra^cui?. iiraLhevdrf 
fikv oZv *A.drjv7)(TiVy cSouXcvo'C Sc Kal Trcpl StKeXiai/ Tot9 
200 Tvpdvvoi^ Kal c^oSpa eu8oKt/xct Tra/)' avrot?. to 8c KeKf^d- 
Xcuov rfj^ vpoaxp€a'eo}^y dirdpTojp Kara^poueiv^ diraxn XPV' 
aOaiy dnaPraxodev ipavLtfiO'dai ry)v 'qhovrjv. 

AFO. *fl/oa crot aXXov TrepifiXeireiv Tmu irXovauov tovtcov koI 
Tro\v\p7iiidr(ov' cyci yap ovk CTrtnjScto? iXapoi^ (ovelo'd ai fiiov. 

Cyrene, flor. ca. 370 b. c. lie represents 
among the pupils of Socrates the other 
extreme from Diogenes the Cynic, and 
through him Epicurus traces back his 
philosophic pedigree. — vp6a%x* ^^^ 
cf . Ar. Thesmoph. 372 Akovc ira<ra, Pax 
612 dve xat, 666 xas x^P'*^- — &voirvft 
|iip«»v: so the Cynic contemptuously 
contrasts the perfumed beaux with 
himself, Cyn, 17. 6<rov is cognate ace. 
— aro^Mn4)s 4|Svira^Cat: Professor of 
Luxury, — ISoiXcvin : Aristippus served 

his time, as Lucian implies, at the 
court of Dionysius the tyrant of Syra- 
cuse. — irpoatplorcMt : cf . § 8. — dirav- 
rax^Ocv . . . 4|8oWjv : a pleasure pic- 
nic^ kerey there, and everywhere. Cf. 
Heine *s 

XJnd, mein Herz, waa dir geflillt, 
Allefl, alien darfst du lieben. 

— iroXvxfyn^TMv : millionaires. — lXa> 
p6v: gay^ in contrast to rb aKvdptairbv 
used § 7 of Diogenes. Cf. Xen. Mem. 
2, 7, 12 l\apai drri VKvOpiairCiv. 


206 EPM. Airparo^ ioiKev^ (o Zci), ovto^ rifiiv fieveiv, 

13 ZETS. McraoTTjcroi/ • akkov wapdyaye' iiaXKov 8k tq) 
8vo TovTCi)y rov yeKSivra rov ^Afihrjpodev kol tov Kkdoma rov 
i^ *E<f>€a'ov' aifia yap avrci n€Trpaa'daL /3ovXo/xai. 

EPM. Kardfirirov €? to fieaov. rci apwrrcu fiuo ttcuX^^ 
210 TO) (TOifxtyrdTa) irdvrwv anoK7)pvTTOfi€v. 

AFO. fl Zev rfj^ ivavTLorqTO^. o fiev ov ScaXeiTret yeXcaPy 
o Be Tiva ioLKC vevdtov • BaKpveL yap ro napdnav. ri raCra, 
(o ovTO^ ; TL ycXa? ; 

AHMOKPITOS. 'Epoira?; on jjlol yekoia vdvra Sokcci 
215 rd irpijyfiaTa vfiecjv Kal avrol vfiee^. 

AFO. IIo)? Xcyct9,' KarayeXa^ ruiiov dirdvTOiv koX Trap ov- 
Bev TL0€a'(U Ta '^/jLerepa npdyfiaTa ; 

AHM. *fl8c €)(€!,' (nrovBalov yap iv airrioiaiv ovBiv, K€V€d 
Sc Ta irdvTa koX dTOficjv <f>oprf Kal dnetpLr). 
220 AFO. Ov fi€v ovvy aWd <rif Kepo<; (o^ d\7)d<t>^ Kal dtreipo^. 

14 CO TT)^ v^pe(o^j ov Travail J^^^^ > ^^ 8e, rt KXaet?? co ^ScX- 
Tiare ; ttoXv yap olfiat koKXiov crot npoaXakeiv. 

HPAKAEITOS. *Hy€o/xat ydp^ (o £cti/€, tol dvOpdniva 


13. Tc^ Ste TO^TW : Democritufl (ca. fiipai /u>u Karax^otrret. — &rd|M»v ^opT| : 

460-d61),andHeracleitus(ca.600B.c.), in anticipation of tlie atomic theory, 

see Burnet, Early Greek Philosophy, For his atoms, homogeneous in quality 

pp. 1 and 129. They are conventionally but heterogeneous in form, see his life. 

paired. Cf. Peregr. 7 iirtl ri\o% tQp — &inip(i|: with a double meaning: 

\6iytap rii 'HpakXtlTov ddjcpva iiroii^aTo, Aireipoi (1), from irctpa, ignorance; (2), 

fycb Karii. rb ivavrlop dirb tou AiffiOKplrov from iripas, infinitude. To anticipate 

yiXioTot Ap^ofuu. — t^ lvarri4n)T0« : the pun, tr. unknown quantity. — kcv^ 

what a contrast. — Soic^i: for Ionic . . . &«fipp« : you are in good sooth a 

forms, used here and elsewhere, see wicuous, unknowing person. 
Introd. 40. — mvid kt\.: cf. Democri- 14. o^ 81: to Heracleitus. — irpoo-- 

tu6*8 own use of rb xev^bv vacuum. XaXftv: to chai. For the irpoo\aKiai 

Cf . Icar. 6, where Menippus complains (ir/>o\a\iaO see Introd. p. zvii. — Seucpv^ 

of his baptism of (un)Natural Philoso- 8ca : in transferred meaning, tearful, 

phy : dpx<if Tivat koX riXii xal drbpMVi Kal For other transfers cf . TepteKTucdv § 24, 

Ktyd Kal vXat koI lS4as xal rd rotaDra 6<rri- iwibiKdaifiat Somn. 9, and see the list, 

BinN nPAsis 


npijyfiaTa 6i[,vpa kol haKpvciSea Kal ovBev ainioiv 6 ri firf 
225 iiTLKTJpLOv r(o St) oiKTLpo) T€ a'<f)€a^ KoX oSvpofiaLy Kal TO, 
fiev irapeoirra oi Bok€cd iieydKay tol 8c voTepo) XP^^V ^^^ 
fi€va ndiiirav avirfpa^ Xcya> 819 ra? i.KiTvp<o(ri,a^ koI Trfv rov 
oXov (TUfi^opijv' ravra ohvpo/jLoi Kal otl ifiireSov ov8€Vy 
aWd KC09 €9 KVKeiova irdvra auveiXeovTai Kai iari rdvTo 
230 TC/)t/it9 drepy^irj^ yi/ctxri^ aypcjciTjy fieya fiiKpoVy dv(o Karo}, 
nepixopevovra Kal afieifiofieva iv r^ tov aiiovo^ iratSt^. 
AFO. Tt yap 6 ai<ov coTt ; 
HPAK. nac9 iraC^cjVy Tretrtrevcovy <rvvhLa(f>€p6fievo^. 

Cbabert, p. 136. — 5 ri fi^ : see Introd. 
39 (d). — {Kwp«&«ria«: the doctrine ol a 
final conflagration — precursor, of the 

Dies irae, dies ilia 

Solvet saeclum in favilla — 

was a Stoical theory. Burnet, op. cit. , 
p. 160£f., contravenes the usual state- 
ments and explains that Heracleitus 
meant simply an ** oscillation in the 
measures like that which produces day 
and night/' and emphasizes Plutarch's 
words {de Dffecta Oraculorum 12, 
J. G. Hutten, vol. IX, p. 316) : ** I see 
the Stoic conflagration trespaaaing . . . 
on the writings of Heracleitus." — 
rafka : this might be cognate ace. with 
686pofMiy but is better taken ( a= did ravra) 
as on a par with 8ti and answering rl 
K\d€is ; above. — icvKtAva : potpourri. 
So Menippus, in Icar. 17, describing 
his aerial view of the world, exclaims : 
**Just think 6iro{<6s i\t 6 kvk€^p ovrot 
iipalpero.^^ Cf. Heracl. Fragm. 84 Kal 
6 KVKtCip StUrTaTai fiij Kive6fJLevof. — WfM|rit 
. . . KdTM : for the contraries that pass 
into each other see Fragm. 69 6i6t &tw 
Kdrta fjda uvn/j (this justifies the com- 
ma here after Kdrw), Fragm. 70 ^vyby 

dpX^ ical Hpas, and Fragm. 78 ravr eJpai 
^(av KoX TtBvjiK&iy KoX rb iypijyopds Kal r6 
KaOtOdop, Kal piov koX yiipat6v rdSe ydp 
fteraTMffbrra iKeipd iffri KdKtTra irdXiy fjbe- 
raTwhrra ravra. — in pixopciovra : see 
App. — {v T^ To{) aCAvot muSi^: in the 
Game of the Ages. — -vats ira(lMv, irto-- 
oif^Mv, o^vSio^'P^K'*'^ • d child at play y 
playing checkers^ and moved about him^ 
$e{f in the game; or, if dui4>€p6fiepos is re- 
tained as mid. , tr. moving then about. 
The Heracleitus fragment is No. 79: 
alti)y vacs iari Tal^^uy irevoediay * -raiddt ^ 
fiaaikiilii. For the last clause Lucian 
substitutes the word ffvpbm^pbtMwm (see 
App.), possibly as if the rait were him- 
self one of the checkers in the game 
of life. Certainly reference is made to 
the Heracleitean doctrine of flux and 
flow, just above identified (ir§pvxop€6- 
ovra Kal dpxt^pxva iw ry rov alQpos irat- 
Siy) with the *'Game of the Aeon." 
Sbdt. emends to 0'V¥eK4>€p6fi€Pot and 
understands it of burial. This seems to 
have no natural place in the Heracleitus 
citation, and ^pw, 4>opdf etc., are tech- 
nical terms in draught-playing. Possi- 
bly with Helm (op. cit. p. 195) we should 
read Sia<p€p6fi€ifQs ffvfi^pdfuwos (in Streit 


AFO. Tt 8c oi dpdpcjTTOL; 
235 HPAK. ©col dirqroL 

AFO. TtScot^cot; 

HPAK. "KvdpciiTroi addvaroi. 

AFO. AivCyfiara Xeyct?, co oCto9, 17 ypufyov^ avvrCdT)^; 
are^i/o)? yap oxmep 6 Aof ta9 ovSci/ d7rocra<^ct9. 
240 HPAK. OvSci/ yap /xot /teXct v/jiecDv, 

AFO. Totya/oovj/ ou8c (omjo'erai crc rt? c5 <f>povo}v. 

HPAK. 'Eya> 8c KeXoficu irdaiv 17/817801/ oi/xcu^cci^^ roto'ti' 
(oveo/jLevoLaL Koi rotcrti/ ovic (ip^ofievoi^ai. 

AFO. Tovrot to KaKOv ov iroppfo /tcXay^oXui? iaTiw 
245 ovherepou 8c cyayye airrtov (omjaofiaL. 

EPM. AnparoL Kai ovroi fievovo'Lv. 

ZETS. *AXXoi/ aTTomjpvTTe. 
16 EPM. Bot^Xct Toj/ 'Adrfualou IkcZvovj tov arcjfivXov; 

mU aich und dock in Eintr(icht), compar- Aivly^ra : Heracleitus was known as 

ing Plato Symp. 187 a rh ettydp ipri<rt Sia- 6 aKoreip^ by reason of his enigmatical 

4>€p6ft£yov airb ai/r^ ^v/nf>4peir6ai. The formulae. — ^f/ffi6v: from tfie youth up, 

other words, TtuSbs -h ^ffiXrilri, are i.e. young and old. The translation, 

enigmatical. If the emphasis is on sometimes given, from your youth on, 

** kingdom," Fra^m. 97 may illustrate: can hardly be right. Cf. Hdt. 1, 172 

** Man is called a baby by God, even as ATavres Ka6vioi ifpriSdy . . . cfirovro aU 

a child by man " ; but if the anaphora the Caunians, young and old, marched 

emphasizes irai56s, cf . Wordsworth^s in a body. Lucian had In mind Heracl. 

Thou whose exterior semblance doth belle Fragm. 1 14 A^iov * E0e<r(o(s ^/SiyWy 4ird7^o- 

Thy soul's immensity. ffSai ircUn (* all who have reached man's 

Philo {Vita Mosia, p. 607, §6), tiJxi?» estate') xai toU dyi/jfioit (minora) t^v 

(Lvia Kal /cdrcrf rd dpSpdnreta xcrrevoi^- ir6\iy KaraXtirttK He puts this phrase 

ffrfi, recalls both Fragm. 69 and 79. — in Timon's mouth Tim, 37 : ifiol di 

Ocol 6vtrro(: these and Heracleitus's ToOrolKavdvriv^irdirratdvBptinrouiifprjddp 

next words are from Fragm. 67 $€ol oltJui^eiviroirj<rai.*—*'Av^roi: perhaps a 

ByrfTol, dvdpunroi dSdyarot, ^wvres r6v measure of their popularity in Lucian's 

iK^lway BdpaTov, rbw 8k iKtlwav plop rc^iny- day. 

K&rts. Lucian twists the thought. 15. rov ' A9t)vatov : for the confusion 

Heracleitus was trying to show that between Socrates and Plato in what 

it all depends on the point of view, i.e. follows, see p. 89 f . — orrwiivXov : cfial- 

$dv9,TQ^ = pios^ a9 Qoncs^ve ^ QoaveX' — terl^x. In Men* IS Socrates seeks out a 



ZETS. Udw fikv oZv. 
250 EPM. AcC/o' iXde aii. fitov ayadov koX avverop aiTOKYf- 
pvTTOfiep. Tt9 (Oi/eZrcu top Updrarov ; 

AFO. Etir€ /tot, tC /maXtora ctSco^ Tvyj(ai/ct9 ; 
SflKPATHS. IlatSc/oaoTT;? €t/tt Kal. o-cx^o? ra ipajriKoi. 
AFO. no>9 ovv iycj irpCoifiaC ae; Traihayoyyov yap cSco- 
256 fjLriv r^ TTotSl KaXo! o^rt /tot. 

SftK. Tt9 8' ai/ itnrqh^ioT^po^ i/iov yivoiro crvv^vai 

KoX^ ; KoX yap ov T(ov a'(ofidT(ov ipaoTTJ^ €t/xt, rrfv ^vxr/v 8c 

TfyovfioA, Koknjv, afiekei kSLv vtto Tairrov Ifiinov /mot Kara- 

KecovTOLy aKovaei airrmv Xeyovrojv firfScp xnr ifiov Beivou 

260 nadelv. 

AFO. "^ATTtora Xeyct?, ro iraihepaarriv ovra fjLTj vepa rfj^ 
^fn/xrj^ Tt noXimpayiioveiPf Kal ravra in i^ovaiaSy inro r^ 
avT^ IfiaTup KaraKeifievop. 
16 2ft K. Kat fiTjv ofivvo} ye o'ot rov Kvva koX rr^v Trkaravovy 
265 ovT(o Tavra €\€iv. 

talkative corpse (XdXof ¥eKf>6s). — ircuSa- 
Y<ryo{) : there is no exact English equiv- 
alent for this male chaperon. Hence 
we lose the force of the Greek in Gala- 
tiansS, 24 6 p6/u>t vaiiayuy^ (A.V. 
9choolnuuterj or R.V. tutor) , . . els 
XpuT6¥. Christ is the terminus ad 
quern, and so, too, for the comparison 
would he the schoolmaster or tutor. 
— l|fcdriov : an allusion to Flato Symp. 
219 B-D, where Flato emphatically vin- 
dicates the purity of Socrates^s life. 
Lucian is no more serious here in his 
mocking than when he affirms (2). 
Mart. 21, 1) that Socrates was afraid 
of Cerberus. — XcydvrMv |ii|84v : for 
neg. see Introd. 39 (a). 

16. o|ivi«t = 5|iw|ii : Chabert, p. 1 1 1 , 

calls this an Atticism ia the mouth 

of Socrates. See Introd. 14 (a). — riv 
Kvva . . . irXdT«vov : cf . Icar. 9 roU fUw 
ApiOfi&s rii 6 0€bs Ijy^ ot di KaT& Kvvdv koX 
X^vCav KoX xXardvctfK iiriifiyvyro. For 
Socrates^s queer oaths cf. Flato Ap, 
21 E, where Socrates swears by the dog 
with great solemnity. See Dyer's note 
ad loc. and Kock's note on Ar. Aves 
521. So Flato Gorg, 482 b m^ rbp ic&va 
rbp klymrTiav Othv is in Lucian's mind 
in the context. The suggestion that 
Socrates, with a scruple against pro- 
fanity, said rhv x^^ to sound like rhp 
Zijva {by Gooae I — by Zeus /), might be 
paralleled by the vulgar **by golly," 
See also the fragment of Cratinus Xe£- 
/xtfMY 11 (Meineke ed. minor p. 51): oft 
't)» fjJyurroi 6pKot \ dravri X^y xtWyj 


AFO. 'H/oaicXei? ttJs aroTTUL^ tcji/ dewp. 

XnK. Tt aif Xeyei^ ; ou 8ofC€t aoi 6 kvcou elvai 0e6<: ; oxf)( 
opa^ Tov Avovfitv iv Aiyirnrw ocro? ; Kal toi/ iv ovpav^ 
XeCptov Kal TOP irapa rot? Kara) Kcpfiepov ; 
27Q AFO. Eu Xeyct?, iyo) 8c hi,if)p.dpTavov, ak\a riva fiiols 


SriK. OIko} fi€v ifiavT^ Tiva iroKiv avairXda'a^y \pS}fiaL 
8c voXiTeia ^iviQ koX vofiov^ po/jLL^a} Toif^ ifiov^. 
AFO. *Ei/ ifiov\6fir)v aKovcai rwv hoyiidroyv, 
275 2nK. *Akov€ 817 TO fieyLOToi/y o ircpl Ttav yvvaLKtav fioi 
SoKel' iirjSefiCav airrSiv firjSevo^ cTi^at fiopovy vavrl 8c iierel- 
i/at T(o fiov\oii€P(o Tov ydfiov. 

AFO. ToSro <f>rj^; avripTjO'dai, tov<; n€pl fioi^i^iav vofiov^; 
SnK. N17 Ata, Kal aTrXcS? yc irao'av ttjv irepl to, roiavra 
280 fiLKpoXoyiav. 

AFO. Tt 8c nepl rSiv iv wpa col naCSajv SoKei; 
X^K. Kal ovTOL iaoprai rots apioTOL^ adKov ^ikfjaaL 
\afJLTTp6v Tt KoX vcaviKov cpya<ra/tcVot9. 
18 AFO. Ba)8at r^9 (ftiKoScopia^, rrj^ 8c cro<^ta9 rt crot to 

285 K€<f)d\aLOV; 

— *HpdicXci€ . . . Of wv : Heracles ! what Xc^iirpdv r\ Kal vfaviKdv: this pair of 

outlandish gods ! — TC vv X^^cis : with words is a reminiscence of Dem. contra 

tliese words Toxaris begins his defence Mid. 131, with miscliievous misappli- 

{Tox. 38) of tlie Scythian gods, Wind cation. 

(6" Avtfios) and Glaive (6* AKivdKris). 18. BaPaC: reduplicated syllables 

17. E{ X^Ycts icrX.: rigid you are, are common as exclamations; e.g. 

and I was off the track. — iroXircC^ . . . varaT, alai, otot, (Jtoto*. These may 

v6iiov9 : the Republic and Xau;s of often be onomatopoetic in character. 

Plato. The transition from Socrates ir^irot is apparently (like English w/ta^.' 

to Plato here becomes natural, as Soc- what !) a reduplication of the interr. 

rates, in dialogues of Plato's maturity, stem (hence recessive accent ?) seen in 

serves as a convenient mouthpiece for iroO; voT\ For accent see App. — ri 

ideas of which Socrates himself was Kc^dXatov: sum and substance. For 

innocent in his lifetime (see p. 90). — varying shades of meaning see L. & S. 

vo|ji(lc0 Toiis ifjiovs: in V.Il. B 17. — s.v. and cf. note to Pise. 14; and cf. 



SriK. At tScat Kal ra rlav ovrmv TrapaSciy/xara • oiroo'a 
yap Srf opa^y rrfu yyjvy ra iirl yrj^y top ovpavov^ rfip da- 
XarraVj aTravnav tovtcop elKove^ a<f>avel^ iaraaw efa> tcjv 

290 AFO. Hov he iaracLP ; 

SnK. OvSa/tov* €t yap nov eUp^ ovk ap cici/. 

AFO. Ov\ opS) Tav0* anep Xeyct? ra TrapaSety/tara. 

SnK. EtKora>9' ru<l)\o^ yap el Tfj<; ^jwxyj^ top 6(f>6akfi6p. 
iyto Se ndpTOJp op!o eiKOPa^ koX ere d<f>apr} Kafie aWoPy Kal 
295 oXa>9 SiTrXa ndpra. 

AFO. Toiyapovp (opTfjio^ el a'o<f)o<; Kal o^vhepKTj^ rt? «3i/. 
<p€p€ o LOO) TL icat irpagei^ fie virep avrov <rv; 

EPM. Ao9 8vo rdkapra. 

AFO. ^ilpTjadfirip ocrov <^i79. rdpyvpiop fieproi, c? avdc9 
300 Kara/3aXa>. 
19 EPM. TiaoLTOVPOfia; 

AFO. AcQii/ Sv/oaicova'co9* 

Icar. 1 where it (apparently) means 
*^8um total.*' — At IS^cu: this doctrine 
Plato developed independently of the 
historical Socrates, but utilized him as 
a dramatis persona, just as Lucian 
chooses here to confuse the two. See 
e.g. Plato's Republic 595-697.— IJ« 
T«*v Sk»v : in the Pho/edj. 247 c, the 
chariots drive outside the vault of 
heaven and behold the pure ideas. — 
OiSa|M>0 : so in Gall. 17 the soul of Py- 
thagoras stands waiting about, un- 
housed, for its next incarnation — 
irepUiuvov doticos ianin. — O^x ^pA: so 
Strepsiades (Ar. Nub. 326) has diffi- 
culty in seeing the new-fangled deities. 
— &XXov . . . SiirXd: a burlesque of 
Plato's tA Bma and rd if>aiv6fjL€va. Lu- 
cian should have made him see triple; 

cf. Rep. 597 b rpirral rirej xXtimi . . . 
yiywrrai^ i.e. the Deity's, the carpen- 
ter's, the painter's. — t( irp^is |u: 
what will you charge mef — Svo tA- 
Xavra: to judge by the price Lucian 
must have rolled Socrates and Plato 
into one (8ee above, on §G). Plato's ac- 
tual market value when sold as a slave 
in Sicily was (if we are to trust Diod. 
Sic. 15, 7, 1) only 20 minae, and Socra- 
tes's counter proposition against the 
death penalty (Apol. 38 b), was only 
30 minae.— 'ftvT|o-djiT|v: for form see 
In trod. 19. 

19. ACmv : Plato, as the story went, 
having been shipwrecked and sold as a 
slave, was purchased and liberated by 
Dion of Syracuse. Lucian here lets 
fall altogether the Socratic mask. — 



EPM. "Aye kafiojv dyady TU)(jg. top *1SanKovp€LOP ak 
TJSrj KoKo). Ti9 (ip€lraL tovtop; ccrrt fteu tov ycXfirro? 
305 iKeivov fiadryrfi^ koI tov fieOvovro^j ov9 fiiKpS npoo'dep 
aTr€Kr)pvTToii€v. iv 8c nXelop otSei/ air&Vy nap* ocop Svcrcre 
fiearepo^ rvy^avu • ra 8 * aXXa 178^9 koL \i^p€u^ <f>C\o^. 
AFO. Tt9 17 Tt/tij; 
EPM. Avo /tj^ai. 
310 AFO. Adfifiape- to Belpa 8k ono)^ ciSioy tCcl \aCp€L tZp 
iSecfiaTc^p ; 

EPM. Ta y\vK€a (riTelTcu Koi tol /jLeXLTCj^r) kol fiaKiard 
y€ Ta9 to^a8a9. 

AFO. \a\enop ovBep' (ipria'6fi€0a yap aur^ vakdda^ 
315 T(op KapiKcip, 

20 ZET2. *AXXoj/ KoKeiy top ip XP^ ^ovpiap eKelpoPy top 
(TKvdpajTTOPy TOP diro rfjs oroa?. 

"EiTiKoipciov : Epicurufl (342-270 B.C.) 
developed the doctrines of Democritus 
in regard to the atoms {e(dia\a) and 
ennobled into a really lofty concep- 
tion Aristippus^s sensualistic doctrine 
of pleasure as the suinmum bonum. 
Hence he is here called tou yeX&yros iKtl- 
pov ftoBrfT^s Kcd tou fi€&6ovTos. Although 
the term ^* Epicurean ^^ has become sy- 
nonymous with pleasure-seeking, Epi- 
curus himself sought his summum 
bonum in a certain Arapaila and dirovla 
conditioned upon 4>p6ntcis. Plato^s 
Phaedrua itself is scarcely further re- 
moved from sensualism than was the 
real Epicurus. See Pater, Maritis the 
Epicurean^ chapter iz. Some frag- 
ments of Epicurus's lost work T€pL ^ 
<rewj, in thirty-seven books, were recov- 
ered from the cinders of Ilerculaneum. 
— Svyytpfe-T i pot : in his bitter satire 
JuppiUr Tragoedusj 1 ft., Luciftn oelects 

the Epicurean Darais as the arch- 
atheist and protagonist against the Es- 
tablished Church. — t6 8c(va kt\. : but^ 
the mischi^! {pefore I forget ii, tell me) 
that I may know, what does he like to eaif 
On Urufi etc. Fritzsche compares D. 
Mort. 1, 25irci>t 8^ tl^ta tuiXurra, 6iroi6tTis 
iffTir^v6^iy. — KoptKwv: figs abounded 
in Caria (Reitz.). But a certain con- 
tempt lurks in the expression. He- 
sychius says that Kapixds = t^e\i^s 
worthless; Kapl^ia and Kapiarl were used 
as synonymous with barbarous. Ka- 
piufp was a slave-name in comedy. 

20. riv Iv xpf KOvpCav: with his 
hair cropped dose. In the description 
of the runaway {Fiigit. 27) the short 
hair of the head is expressly distin- 
guished from the long beard, iv xpi 
Kovplav, ip y€Pel(p pa$€t. CaiCt he he, Is 
the answer, for my slave Kal iKbpa 8i kaI 
rb y4v^^/ov ^t(XX«tp, — riv Airi Tf\$ gTO«i$; 

BinN nPASis 


EPM. Ev Xeyct?- ioLKaa yovv nokv tl nXrjdo^ avroi/ 
TTcptficpeLv tS)v €7rl T7IV ayopoLV aLTrrjVTJjKOTCJV. avrrfv Trfv 
320 apen}v TrcoXai, TOiv fiUov rov rcXctoraToi'. Tt9 ndvra fiovo^ 
etSeVox deXei; 

AFO. Iloi? rovTo <f)ij<; ; 

EPM. *OTt fiovo^ ovro<: ao^o^y fiovo^ koKo^j fiovo^; StKato9 
avSpeio^ fiatnXevs pyjrcjp TrXovcrto? i/ofioderrj^s Kai ra aXXa 
825 oTTocra icTLV. 

AFO. OvKovvy ojyadej koX fidyetpo^ fiouo^ Koi in) Aui ye 
crfcvroSe/nj? Kat t€kt(i}v koI tcl rotaSra ; 
EPM. ^'Eoticci/. 
21 AFO. 'EX^e, cryade^ koI Xeye npo^ rov (iprjrfjv i/jLe nolo^ 
330 Tt9 cl, Kal irpSnov €t ovic ax^l? ''r^'^P<^<^'^ofi€vo^ koI SovXo? ofi^. 
XPTSinnOS. Ou8a/uio)9- ov yap €^* ly/xtj/ ravrd iariv. 
oca Se ovK 6^' ^fLci^? d8id<f>opa eli^ac (rvfifiefiriKev. 

Chrysippus (280-207 b.c), the succes- 
sor of Zeno and Cleanthes, whose pop- 
ularity was so lasting that we read 
in Juvenal Sat. 2, 4 quamquam 
plena omnia gypso | Chrysippi 
invenias: nam perfectissimus 
horum est. The Stoic school re- 
ceived its name from ij voikLXti ^rod 
(adorned with the paintings of Polyg- 
notus, see Paus. 1, 15, 1 with Frazer^s 
notes), the favorite rendezvous. In 
the sequel {Pise. 13 and 16) Lucian 
designates the Porch simply by iy 
ri UoikCXxi. — In Lucian^s lifetime (162 
A.D.) the people of Soli, Chrysippus's 
native place, struck a coin, probably re- 
producing faithfully an earlier portrait 
of Chrysippus. See Head, Hist. Num. 
612, and Harrison & Verrall, Mythol 
and Monum. ofAnc. AthenSj-p. 146. Lu- 
cian exhibits especial malice towards 
the Stoics* In the Symposium thre§ 

representatives of the Stoic school bear 
their full share in the disgraceful scenes 
there related. In Bis A cc. 22 (read also 
10-23), Pleasure, represented by Epicu- 
rus as counsel for the defense, gains a 
unanimous verdict against Stoa. On 
the Hemioiimus see Introd. p. xvii. — 
aM|v rT|v &ptrtf|v : virtue unadulterated. 
In Uermot. 3 the Stoic master is repre- 
sented as on top of the hill of Virtue 
and trying to draw his pupil up irp6s 
airrhv re koX r^v dperi^p. — (idvot o^of : 
the long dialogue of the Hermotimus is 
largely devoted to breaking down these 
extravagant pretensions. 

21. cC o^K : indir. question. G. 1609; 
H. 1022, a; B. 670, 3. — &Si4^pa : in 
the Stoic philosophy rd ddid<f>opa are 
things neither good nor bad — res me- 
diae or indifferentes. So, at the 
end of Lucian*s Symposium, Hermon 
the Epicureao ts^uots Zeqothemis the 



AFO. Ov fiap6dv(o o tl Xeyct?. 

XPTS. Tt <f)rj^; ov fiauddvet^ on t(oi/ tolovt<ov ra fiej/ 
335 ccrri npoTfyfieuay ra 8' ifnraKiv airoirporjyfieva; 
AFO. Ou8c pvv fiavOdvo). 

XPTS. EticoTO)?' ov yap el avjnjdr)^ rot? r)fieT€poL<; 6v6- 

[jLaaiv ovSk Trjv KarakyjUTLKriv ^avrao'iav ^€t9, 6 8c ctttov- 

Satos? o ryfv XoyiKr^v decjpiav iKfiadeou, ov fiovov ravra oT^eVy 

340 dXXa Kal cvfifiafia Kal Trapaavfifiafia onola Koi ottoctov 

aXk'qXwv 8ca<^€p€t. 

AFO. II/oo? T7i<; a'0<f)La^y firj (fydomja-rj^ Kal tovto eiireLVy 
ri TO aijfifiafia Kal tl to napaavfifiafia • Kal yap ovk oI8 * 
oira>9 iirXTJyrjp vtto tov pvOfiov t!ov ouofiaTOJV, 
345 XPTS. *AXX* ov8cl9 <f>06vo^' rju yap tl<: ^cwXo? cSj/ aur^ 
iK€LP(o TO) ^a>Xo> iroSl irpoo'TTTaiXTa^ \Cd(o rpavfJLa i^ d<f)avov^ 
^^dfirjy 6 Totouro? cl^c fi€v htjirov (rvfi^ap^a ry)v \itiKeLavy to 
rpavfia Sc napacrvfifiafia irpoaeXafiep, 
22 AFO. *I1 TiJ? ay^ti/ota?. Tt 8c aXXo /xaXtcrra <^tj9 ciScWt ; 

Stoic, who is bawling with pain as he 
holds on with his two hands to the sites 
respectively of his bitten-ofi nose and 
his gouged-out eye: "Now please re- 
member, Zenothemis, that you consider 
pain as ovk ddid<popov.'*^ — ttvcu trv^fl- 
pT|iccv : are necessarily, — Oi |iav6dvM : 
in the suit between Pleasure (Epicurus) 
and Stoa, Bis Ace. 22, the latter is sum- 
marily choked off because the dicasts 
say they do not understand her ques- 
tions. — rd . . . irpoTiYii^va : Cicero (de 
Fin. 4, 26) instances valere, locu- 
pletem esse, as not bona but Tpo- 
ttyiUva^ and egestas, morbus, as 
not mala but reiectanea (diro?rpo- 
ir/M^ya)- Cf. Bis Ace. 22. — ovd}i8M*iv: 
technical terms. — t^v KaTaXT|irTiicT|v 
^vroo-tav : the apprehending imagina- 

tion. Cf. Symp. 23 and Pearson, Frag- 
ments of Zeno and Cleanthes, p. 62. — 
Tt|v Xo'YiKVjv : if XoyiKi^ (sc. t^x*^)? 
as technical term meaning logic^ oc- 
curs first in Cicero (e.g. de Fin, 1, 7; 
Tusc. 4, 14). — o^}iPa|ia Kal irapacrv|i- 
Pa}ia : Stoic technical terms. A propo- 
sition complete in itself, like "ZfaKpdrrjs 
vepiTare?, they called ffiUfi^afxa, ''^avfifii- 
PijKc ydp rb xeptTareip ZwKpdret,*^ but a 
sentence like T^ofKpdrrjs tf>ikei they called 
irapacr^fjiPafiaj i.e. one not complete in 
itself {o6k a^ToreXiJs), '^^wetJi) Xcfirei rb 
rlya.''^ Lucian, of course, mocks at 
these stock phrases by a literal inter- 
pretation, e.g. *' a man is blessed with 
(avvi^ri) a corn/^ this is a <r6fipafia, 
"some one treads on it,'* this is a 



360 XPT2. Ta? Tiov \6y(ov 7r\€KTdva<;y at? ctv/xttoSiJo) tov<; 
TrpoaofjiLkovPTa^ koI d7ro<f)pdTT(o Kal domdv ttolo), <f>ifjLOv are- 
XV(o^ avTot? ir^piTideU' ovofia Sc t^ Svi^a/xet ravrrj 6 dotSt- 
/to9 crvXXoytcT/xo?. 

AFO. *Hpa*cXct9, afia^ov riva Kal fiiaiou Xcyct?. 

365 XPTS. Xkottcl yovv • ccm <rot TraiStoi/ ; 
ArO. TiiJLTJv; 

XPTS. ToGto lyi^ -TTO)? icpoicoSctXo? apirdarjj Trhqalov tov 
worafiov w\at,6fi€vov evpdv, Kara cot aTroBcjcreLv virtcrj^i^rat 
avTOy rjv ctTTi^ rdXrjde^ o rt ScSoicrat avro) ^rcpt t^9 inoBo- 
360 cr€ft>9 Tou fip€<f>ov^y TL <f)7]a'€L^ avTou iyvcjKevcu ; 

AFO. AvaanoKpLTOv cpoira?. anopo) yap otrorepov dv 
elirwu diroXdfioLfii. dWd crv'Trpo? Ato9 dTroKpLvdfievo^ dvd- 
(Tonrai fiot, to TraiSioVy firj Kal <f)0da"g axrro KaraTTioiv. 

XPTS. €^dpp€L' Kal dXXa ydp ae ScSa^o/xat davfia- 

366 crtairepa. 

AFO. Ta TToia ; 

22. ^ifi^v: for this metaphor cf. 
S. Mark 1, 25 i^ifuSte-nri kqX f^XSt 4^ a^ 
TOV, be muzzled and come out of him, 
Cf. Peregr, 16. — 6 &oCSi|ios cniXXo^t- 
«r|i6« : the Rt. lieverend Si/llogism. One 
of this fraternity is that known as the 
** Homed," i.e. cf n o6k dr^/9a\es, rovr 
^X^<Sf icdpara S' o^k dir^/SaXes, xipara dpa 
fX^ii. For this and other syllogisms 
see Diog. Laert. Chrysippus c. 11. — 
KpoK48ciXof: this fallacy was also 
known as the upoKoieCKlrtit. Cf. Reitz. 
ad 2). Mort. 1, 2, and Tooke's note. 
A crocodile has seized a child, but 
offers to spare it if the mother can 
answer the conundrum, "Am I going 
to give back your boy or not ? " If the 
mother says ** You will not," he gives 
up the child, but as her words are false 

the child is lost ; but if she says ** You 
will," the crocodile cries "False!" 
and devours the child. No solution for 
the sophism ! The humane grammari- 
ans, however, advise the mother to give 
the first answer, get temporary posses- 
sion of the child, and make off with 
it. There were other such in the com- 
mon stock. The "Klectra" and "The 
Veiled Figure" are given below. For 
"The Reaper" (6 tfcpifwy) etc. cf. Reitz. 
ad loc. Also see Symp, 23 xeparlvay 
^ ffupelrrfv rj dtpl^ovra. \hyov. In D. 
Mori, 1, 2, Diogenes sends up word 
from Hades to the philosophers, bid- 
ding them stop their nonsense, Kal ir€pX 
tQv 6\uy ifM.^o\xn koX xipara ifyOovciv 
iWffKoii Kal KpoKo6el\ovs xoiokkri Kal rd 
roiavra Avopa ipiarav SiddffKovffi rbv povv. 


XPT2. Tou depC^oifTa koL tov Kvpievovra koX i7n nacL 
rrfv ^HXeicrpau Kal tov iyK€KakvfifJL€POv- 

AFO. Ttj'a TovTov tov iyKeKokvfifievov ij Twa ttjp 'HXcic- 
870 Tpav \eY€i<; ; 

XPTS. ^HkeKTpap fiev iKeiirqv ttju irdwj Tr^v *Ayafi€fivo- 
V09, tJ ra avTOL olSe t€ d/xa Kal ovk oISc • TrapearioTo^ yap 
airry tov 'Opccrrou en ayvioTo^ oISc fieu ^OpiaTqv otl dScX- 
<^o9 avTTJ^y oTi Be 0VT09 'Opcony? ayvoei. tov 8* av iyK€Ka- 
376 Xvfifievov Kal irdw davfiaoTov olkovo'jj \6yov • diroKpivai yap 
/mot, Toi/ naTcpa oXcrda tov (reavrov ; 
AFO. Nat. 

XPTS. Tt ovv; rjv crot wapaorrja'a^ Tivd cyiccicaXv/x- 
fievov epcjfiai el tovtov olcr^a, >t <^7;o"ct9 ,* 
380 AFO. AijXaSi^ dyi/0€ti'. 

23 XPTS. *AXXa firjv avro? ovto9 '^i/ 6 iraTTjp 6 crds • cucrrc 
ct ToCroi/ dyi'oct?, 8^X09 cT tov iraTepa tov (Tov ayvociv. 

AFO. Ov fi€v ovv dXX* d7roicaXvi/fa9 avTov elaofia^ ttjv 
aXTjdeiav, o/xoi? 8' ovv tC col tt]<% cro<^ux9 to TeXo^, 17 tl 
386 Trpd^ct? 7r/oo9 to aKpoTarov rfj^ aperrj<; d<f)LK6fievo^ ; 

XPT2. Ilcpt TO, nptoTa Kara (fyvcLv t6t€ yevijaofiaiy Xeycu 
8€ ttXovtoi^, vyUiav, Kal tol Toiavra. nporepov hk dvdyKrj 
iroXXd npoirovTJa'ai, XcTrroypctc^ot? )8t)8Xtot9 irapadrjyovTa 
TTjv o\l/iv Kal (T^oXta avvayeipovTa Kai (roXoiKLO'fiiov ifnTi' 
390 w\dfji€vov Kal aTOTTCJV pr)fidT(ov' Kal to Ke<f)d\,aLOVy ov d4fJLi^ 
yev€(T6ai ao^ov^ rjv fir) rpl^ i<f>€^rj^ tov cXXc)8opov TrCjj^. 

— Tt|v irdw: cf. Xen. Mem. 3, 5, 1 rod apex. Cf. V,H. B 18. — oH>XoiKio^v : 

irdw U€piK\iovsj and Lucian Ilermot. 11 Lucian perhaps accepted the derivation 

irap E^KpdTti ry irdvv. as if from Soli in Cilicia, Chrysippus's 

23. ri riXos : cf . Arist. Nic. Eth. birthplace, but Plutarch (ed. Reitz. II, 

1, 1 Toura rix^ 'coi vSuira ftidoSos, ofiolui p. 1047, de Stoicorum RepugnarUiis) 

8i irpa^li re Kal vpoalp€<rii dya&oO rivos quotes Chrysippus as ready in the case 

i4>U<rdai doK€t . . . Siafpopdi S4 ris (palver at of roin peXrlowos ix^f^^^^ ^ pardon 

Tiav reXuv. — irp^ ri &Kp<STarov: to the xal iWelyf/eis Kal H) Ala ffoXoiKLfffioi^, i4> 

BION nPA2I2 117 

AFO. Tei/vald trov ravra kol Seti/oi^ av8 piKci. to be 
rv(<f>cDva eli/at kol TOKoyXv^ov — Kal yap raSc 6pa> col 
wpocovra — tC <f>iOfi€Vj avhpo^ 7j8r) neircjKoro^ rov iWefiopop 

396 Kal rekeCov trpo^ apenjv ; 

XPT2. Nat • fi6v(f yovv to bavei^etv irpiiroi av T<p cro<^^ • 
€ir€t yap iJoiov avrov to (rvKKoyU^ecuaiy to oaveiQeiv 0€ Kat 
XoyLt^ecdaL rou? tokov^ nXyjciov €u/ax BoKei tov ouWoyC- 
^etrdaiy fiovov av evq tov crrovbaCov Kaddnep iKeivo koX 

400 tovtOj Kol oh fiovov ye dirXov^y axrnep oi dXXot^ tov^ tokov^, 
aXXa Kal tovtcop erepov^ tokov^ Xafifidpeiv ij yap dypoet^ 
OTL tS>v tokcdv ot fiev elcL irpSrroi Tti/€9, ot 8c hevrepoi Kadd- 
Trep ovtZp eKeivtav drroyovoi; opa^ 8c 8'ijTa Kal tov (ToWo- 
yixTfiov OTToZd <f>ria'iv • el tov irpSrrov tokov Xiji/^crat, kijif/eTaL 

406 Kal TOV Bevrepov dXXa iirjv tov npSrrov Xiji/^crat, Xijif/eTax 
dpa Kal TOV Bevrepov. 

24 AFO. OvKOvv Kal fiKrOwv irepi tol avrd (fyco/jLeVy ov? av 
Xafifidvei^ enl rQ a'o<f>ui, napa tS>v vemVy koX By]Kov ori fiovo^ 
6 cnrovSato? fiiadov eirl rg dperg Xijif/eTaL ; 

410 XPT2. MavOdveL^' ov yap e/iavTov eveKa Xaiifidvco, 
TOV Be BlBovto^ avTov \dpiv' cttcI ydp eariv o fiev tls 
eK)(yTri^y o Be TrepieKTiKo^j ejiavrov fiev dcKw elvai irepieKTir 
Kovy TOV Be fiadyjfniv eK^yrqv. 

dtt dXXoi Av alffx^^^^^^ ^^*^ 6\tyoi, — 24. to{) 8c Si86vTO« . . . X^^* f^ 

iXXcP6pov : see V. H. B 18. — FvC^va : the sake of the giver. Cbrysippus mag- 

a Shylock. A standing name for usu- nanimously accepts the less blessed lot 

rers. Cf. Tim. 68 ; Gall, 30 ; Catapl. of the receiver. In HemwL 9 we read 

17. — o^XXoY(l<o^flu . . . XoYilco^Oi: how the irascible old Stoic hales his pu- 

rejlecting . . . collecting. — t6k»v ... pil before the archon, choking him and 

dvdYovoi : cf. Plato Rep. 666 b where shouting with rage, and all but bites 

the capitalists are blamed because they off his nose (a liberty not unknown, 

make their injurious loans and get back cf . Symp. 44), because he was dilatoi-y 

from rod irarphs (i.e. the principal, reg- in paying his fees {iirel rbv fwrSby fi^ 

ularly expressed by rA trc^dXatoir) ixy^ dTtdlSou jcard Kaip6v). Later we learn 

pwn riKovs To\\aT\a<rtovt. that he was eminently successful as a 


AFO. Kai ixrjp rovvavrvov ixP^^^ '^^^ v€ov fiev etvax 
^IbTT^pLeKTLKOVy cc Sc TOV flOPOV irXovcLov eK^vTr^v. 

XPTS. 2^c57rr€t9, <S o5to9. aXX' opa firj a^ icararofcvcrai 
T^ avairoheiKTio avWoyKriii^. 

AFO. Kal Tt Scti/oi/ diro rov jScXov? ; 

XPTS. 'ATTo/ota icat crtoiTn) icat hiaaTpa^rivax Trjp Slot 
^^^OLav. o 8c /xeytoToi/, 171/ idcXcoy ra^^tora <r€ airoSei^a} 

AFO. na)9 \idov; ov yap Ueptreif^ <ruy <3 ^ScXriorc, cli/at 
/xoi Soicci?. 

XPTS. *n8c TToi? • 6 Xi^o9 aoifid icrri ; 
426 AFO. Nat. 

XFTS. Tt 8c ,• TO C^^^ ^^ craifia ; 

AFO. Nat. 

XPT2. tvSeC^oi^; 

AFO. ^Eot^a yovv. 
430 XFTS. Al0o<; apa el (r<ofia wp. 

AFO. M')78a/xai9- dXX* apaXvaop fie npo^ At09 #cat cf 
V7rap)(yj^ iroiiqa'op apdpmirop. 

XFTS. Ov yakeTTOP • aXX* ifnrakLP Icrdi apdpcjiro^- elne 
yap fiOLy Trap cwfia £a>o^,* 
435 AFO. Ov. 

XPT2. Tt8€; Xido^i^op; 

AFO. Ov. 

XPT2. 2v Sc croi/ia cT; 

AFO. Nat. 

money-lender, his debtors respecting In Bis Ace. 22 Stoa reluctantly yields 

his drastic methods as a collector : diro- the floor, exclaiming : Kal ii^» ^Kpdrrtffa 

did6a<ri yiip avrtp irard Ktuplbv roin rbKOVi. Af, €l trvmjptirrfira 4y Tif rphfp r(av 6.¥a~ 

— KaTaro(tv<ra* : reminiscence of Ar. ToStUTuv cx^imti, — Siaarpa^^^vai ti|v 

Nuh. \Hi ^rifULTloifftv KatvoU . . . xararo- Sidvotav : a sprained intellect 
^€v<ru). — &vairo8cCKTy : five forms of this 25. *ftS^ ir»9-: Lucian^s sarcasm does 

indemonstraJde syllogism are recorded. not prove that such logical fallacies 

BinN nPASis 119 

440 XPTS. Sa>/xa Sc aiv ^(ooi^ el; 

ArO. Nat. 

XPT2. OvK dpa XCdo^ el [,^6p ye olr. 

AFO. ES ye CTroiiycra?, cJ? 17817 /jlov tcl (TKeXri KaOdnep 
rrj^ Nto)8T79 a7rci/nJ;(€TO /cat irayta -^i/. aXXa (oinjcofiaC ye 
445 o"€. TToaov vnep avrov KaTafiakcj; 

EPM. Mi/a9 ScoSc/ca. 

AFO. AdfxPave. 

EPM. M6po<; S* airw edirqaai; 

AFO. Ma At*, dX\' oi/rot iravre^y ovq opa^. 
450 EPM. IloXXot ye /cat tou9 c5/xov9 Kaprepoi koX tov depi- 

26 ZETS. M17 hidrpifie' dWov /caXct tov TlepLirarrjTLKov. 

EPM. 26 ^17/xt, TOP KaXoVy TOV irXovcTLOv. dye Siij, (avrj- 
aaade tov ovveTwraToVy tov anavTa 0X019 eTnoTd/jLevov. 
455 AFO. Iloto? 8c Tt9 eaTi; 

EPM. Merpto^j CTrtct/cTj?, dpfjLoSio^ toJ ^ta>, to 8e /leyt- 
OTOVj 8t7rXoC9- 
• AFO. Hoi? Xcyct?; 

EPM. *AXXo9 /!€!/ 6 eKToaOev ^ati/o/x-ei/o?, dXXo9 8€ o 
460 evTOKrOev elvai 8o/cct- oxrre 171/ ^rptT^ auroj', fiefivrjao tov fiev 
eaajrepLKovy tov 8c e^wrepiKov KaXeiv. 
AFO. Tt 86 yiyvdxTKei /idXtcrra ; 
EPM. Tpta etj'at TayaOd, iv ^XV^ ^^ (TWfiaTLy iv tol^ 


were actually taught by the great Stoic — t6v o-uvfTt&Tarov . . . lirurrd|uvov : 

teachers. — IIoXXoC: for Stoicism as the so by Dante he is recognized, unnamed, 

court religion see Pater, Marius the as the "Master of them that know." 

Epicurean^ chapter xv. — tov OcpCj^ov- Even Lucian must add three epithets 

To« : see above on § 22. of genuine ad nn' ration: /i^rptoy, ^iricticTjj, 

26. r6v IIcpiiraTT)riK6v : Aristotle. dpfiSdioi. — SiirXovs: Lucian, it is to be 

— riv irXov<riov: Alexander is said to feared, would have frequented only 

have given him eight hundred talents. the exoteric matinee. — ^vx'Q : this 



466 AFO. ^AvOpaymva (f>pov€l. iroo'ov hi ioTip ; 

EPM. Ei/cocri fivojp. 

AFO. IloXXoi) Xeyct?. 

EPM. OvKy (o fiaKoipte- Kal yap airo? c^^t^ Tt apyvpiov 

hoKei. cSoTC ovK av <f>0dvo(,^ iivy)a'dp,€vo<;. en he eicrrj 

470 avTLKa fid\a Trap* avrov ttoctop jikv 6 Kcjvanjf /3toi top XP^ 

poPy i<f>* OTToaop Se /3ddo^ rj ddkarra vwo tov rjXiov KaraKdpr 

TTCTcu, icat oTTOia rt9 icmp rj ^XV '^^^ oarpeicjp. 

AFO. *Hpa/cX€t9 r!j^ aKpifiokoyia^. 

EPM. Tt §6, €t dfcovcreia? dXXa ttoXX^ tovt(op o^vhepK€- 

475 arepay yoprj^ t€ mpi Kal yci/ecreo? koI r!}<; ip rat? /xTjrpcu? 

Toip ifi/3pv(op irXacTTtfc^?, ^at cJ? dpOpoiiro^ jikp yeXaariKOPy 

opo^ 8c ov yekaoTLKOP ovhk reKraiPOfiepop ov8c 7r\(oL^6fi€POP ; 

AFO. ndpaefipa (f>y^ Kal 6pr)crL(f}6pa rd fxadfjixaTa oiorc 
(DPovfjiaL avTop rS)p eLKoaip. 

EPM. EUp. 

ZETS. Tts Xot7ro9 rifxip ^araXctTrerat ,- 

EPM. 'O XKeTTTLKO^ ovTo^. (TV o TlvppLa^ Trpocndt Kal 
diroKrjpvTTOv Kara rdxo^. rjSrj fxep viroppiovaip oi ttoXXoi 



elusive word varies with the context 
and author. Aristotl^, de Anima 1, 5, 
defines ^vx^ ^ 4vTc\4x€ia fftifMTos, 
the vital principle^ ' that by which the 
body actually i«.^ To guard against 
the materializing degradation of the 
^uxij Christian theology felt con- 
strained to express the ego by a trinity 
that exalts rh wyeOfM as supreme. Cf. 
1 Thess. 6, 23 ; Heb. 4, 12. — »vi|<rd|if. 
vos: for form see Introd. 19. — 6 icA- 
va*i|/: Aristotle investigated biological 
and other laws of nature, while Socra- 
tes repudiated (Plato Apol. 20 e) all 
such investigations as foreign to his 
purely ethical inquiries. Aristophanes, 

nevertheless, found it convenient to in- 
clude this also in his burlesque of Soc- 
rates in Nub. 145, where the pupil tells 
how Socrates measures the marvellous 
standing jump of a flea. — 5vos . . . ovi|- 
o-i^pa : ass . . . assisting. — t6v cCko- 
o-iv : for use of article cf. D. Mori. 4, 1. 
27. T(s Xoiir^ ^i&tv KaroXcCirfTai : 
wfiom have we left overf — 6 Simittv- 
k6s : Pyrrho the Sceptic, a contempo- 
rary of Aristotle. While Chrysippus 
the Stoic drew away from the scepti- 
cism of the Academics, Pyrrho devel- 
oped this scepticism into a scheme of 
philosophy. He asserted that knowl- 
edge of reality is unattainable ; hence, 



icai ip oXtyot? ij irpacn^ earai. ofuo^ he rts icat tovtov 
486 cJi/eirai; 

AFO. *Eya>y€. dXX' ovi/ irpSyrov elm /jiot, cru rt iTrC- 
oracrat ; 

4>IA. OvScV. 

AFO. Hois TOVT €<f)ricr0a ; 
490 4>IA. ^Ori ovSei/ oXcd^ eh/ai fioi Soicet. 
AFO. OuSc rffiei^ apa icfiei/ rti/cs ; 
OvSc Tovro olSa. 
Ov8* art av rt? c5i/ rvyxai/€t5 ; 
rioXv fiaXXov en rovr ayvoS>. 
496 AFO. *n 7^5 awopCa^, ri Sc crot ra arad/iia raxrri 
fiovXercu ; 

<I>IA. Zi/yoorarci ip avrot? rov? Xoyov? *cat wpo^ to utop 
airevdvpo), Koi ineiSap aKpi/3S>^ ofjLoiov^ re /cat iaofiapw 
rSo), TOT€ 8^ TOTC aypoS) TOP aXrfOeoTepop. 
600 AFO. TcSv dXXcoi/ Sc rt dv irpavroi^ ififieXci^ ; 
4>IA. Td TrdpTa irXrjp Spa-Trenjv /jieraStci^Cii/. 
AFO. Tt Sal Tovrd crot dSwaroi^; 




assent to any proposition mast be sus- 
pended, and as a result of this suspen- 
sion of judgment the philosopher will 
attain tranquillity of mind. This dra- 
pa^la, it may be noted, was the com- 
mon goal of the post- Aristotelian phi- 
losophies generally. Lucian is apt to 
confuse Sceptics and Academics, e.g. 
V.ff, B 18 rods di * AxadrifAaXKoi^i fKtyoy 

ffK4TT€a$at, Cf. also Icar. 25, where 
Zeus, who has a chance to make an 
equally good thing out of two opposed 
prayers, t6 ' AKadrffAaiK6v ixeTifO ^eir6r- 
$ct Kal oif84p Ti dwotfy^pairOai duvar^s 
11 Vf dXX' iaCTtp b Ui^pputp ^ireixev In Kal 

dieffKiTTtTo. — IlvppCav: Carrots I Lu- 
cian avails himself of this as a common 
slave name to anticipate the selling 
of Pyrrho as a slave. For the name 
compare Tim. 22, where the ex-slave, 
inheriting a fortune, is changed from 
a** Sambo ''into a** Mr. Grandcourt:" 
drrl rod r^ias llvpplov ^ Ap6fjuap0s rj 
T(/3/ov MtyaxXiji f Meydfiv^s { IIpi^ 
rapx^* fi^tropOfuwBtlt. — ^lA. (0iX6<ro- 
009) : editt. usually change to IITPPON. 
— rrcM^Aa: cf. rdXairroy (usually pi.) 
and iV76i'. Also called i^ rpurdni. Cf. 
Hist, Conscr. 49 f^otf-Tore/Tw wvirtp iv 
rpvrdrfu rk yiy ubfjueva, — )UTa8i<ftKCiv : 
catch, apprehend; a pun prepared to 


^I'lA. Ort, ojyaO^j ov KaraKafifidpa). 

AFO. EticorcD? • /3pa8v^ yap koI 1/0)^779 rts eTi/ai Soicet?. 
506 dXXa Tt o"ot TO TcXo? T^S i'in(rrda€a}S ; 

4>IA. *H dixadCa koI to firjre aKoveiv firjre opdv, 

AFO. Ou^ovi/ ical to tv<^Xo5 a/xa ^al icox^o? eli/at Xeyct? ; 

<I>IA. Kat aKpiTo^ T€ vpocren kol apaurOrjTo^ /cat oXa>9 
rov cticcuXt^/co? ovSei^l hia^ipoiv. 
510 AFO. *fii^*jT€09 €1 8ta raura. irdcrov rouroi^ ai^iov xprf 
(f>dvaL ; 

EPM. Mi/a9 ^Attlktj^;. 

AFO. KdjjL^av^. tl ^>7?, (o ovto^ ; eirpidii'qv crc ,• 

4>IA. ''ASt7Xoi/. 
515 AFO. MT^Sa/xo)? * i(ov7)fiaL yap Kal Tapyvpiov KaTcfiakoi/, 

<I>IA. 'E7r€;(cu ircpt tovtov Kal StaonccVro/iai. 

AFO. Kat firfp aKoXovdei /xol, Kaddirep ^pi^ i/xoi/ olKerqp. 

<I>IA. Tts oZSci^ €t aXT75'^ ravra <^g9 ,* 

AFO. *0 Krjpv^ Kal rf fiva Kal oi irapovTe^. 
520 <I>IA. Ildp€Lcn yap ifpXv rti/c? ; 

AFO. *AXX* €y<aye ce rj8r) ip,fia\o}v c? tov fivkSiva Treiacj 
etpaL SccTTTonj? icara top X^Cpoj Xoyov. 

4>IA. *E7r€;(€ nepl tovtov. 

AFO. Ma At*, aXX* tjStj ye d7r€(f>yipdiJLyiv. 
525 EPM. Xif fi€i/ TraCcrat avTiTelvtav Kat aKokovdei T(f Trpta- 
fxevo), vfia^ 8e e? avpiov TrapaKaXovfJLev - d7TOKi)pv^€iv yap 
Toi)^ tStcora? Kat fiavavcrov^; Kal dyopaiov<s fiCovs jxiXKofiev, 

anticipate oi5 icaraXa/x/Sdi^ci;, i do not Nigr. 24, and Fugit. 4, where Zeus 

co^A on. — t6 rOiot: see note to §23. a-sks Philosophy: irp6$ Wwiim ovf i^d/<cir- 

— Tovs I8k^ras : often contrasted with aai, c/ fiifyrc TOi>s ^dii^ras-fii^re roi>t0tXoa6- 

if>i\6ao<poi as t/ie; toity. Cf . Pise. 34, ^vt flUriJ ; 


1 XnK. BaXXc /3oiWe top Kardparop a<f>$6poi<: Tot9 Xi5ot9, 
iirCPaWe tcop /3(o^<t)Py irpoaeirifiaW^ koX T(op ooTpdKojp, 7rat€ 
rot? ^vXot9 TOP aXiTijpLOPf opa fXTj SLa(l>vyj)' koI crv /SaXXc, 
c5 nXaroii/- Kal aijy (o Xpijimnref koI av hi. irdpTe^ d/ia 

6 ^vpaaniaiofiep iir airroPj 

(o^ iTTJpyj 7njprj(f>LP dp'^jyUy fidicrpa he fidtcrpot^. 

KOLPO^ yap TToXeftto?, Kal ovk icrnp rfficop opTtpa ov^ vfipiKe. 
(TV hi, (o Atoyepes, ct irore icat dXXorc, -^pS) t(o fvXo)- /iiySc 

Title: •AX(«>t rj 'Aw^wOvtcj: T^ 
Fisher, or the ResurgenJLs. Tlie first 
title is drawn from §§ 47-52, and, since 
the piece is a close sequel to the Bliav 
WpSffit, the second title has the effect 
of ^^ Enter various resurrected philoso- 

1. BdXXf . . . irate : a reminiscence 
of the enraged chorus in Ar. Ach. 
280-283 : 

ovTos airrbi iffriy, ovros. 

pd\\€, ^dXXc, ^dXXe, /SdXXe, ' 

rate irat r6r fuap6if. 

od /SaXett, oiJ /SaXeiv ; 

— ii^ywt rots X(0oiff: cf. D. Mort. 10, 
12 /SdXXcrat di^6vott roit Xieois. For 
pred. use of adj. see In trod. 23 (a). — 
ToCs (6Xoiff : conventional accessory of 
the philosopher's dress — especially the 
Cynic's. Cf. Peregr. 16 ixdna di ^^ly 
. . . K9l . . . r6 (l^Xor iv r^ X^^P^ V^- — 

Xp^iinrf : see Vit. Auct passim for 
the travesty of this popular Stoic 
teacher and for the other philosophers. 
— Kal ail M: apparently this is ad- 
dressed to Pythagoras. All the others 
who had been put up at the auction 
(except the unsaleable pair, Democri- 
tus and Heracleitus) are mentioned 
expressly. Pythagoras has too impor- 
tant a r61e in both pieces (cf. infra 
passim, where he is usually mentioned 
first or alone) to have been omitted 
here. — «s *4p^ *'"X. : 

So that the wallet may succor the wallet, the 
Bticks help each other, 

parody on II 2, 363 : 

(Jv <pf>i/jrpri <f>p'^Tprf<fny ipi^fj^ tpvXa 8i <f>&- 

Tiffpriy pdxrpa, etc., are as technical as 
»*town and gown," or "the cloth." — 




10 icarc, c5 ^^LKovpe /cat *ApiaTi7nr€; koI iitjp ovk ixPV^- 

2 'AptoTorcXc?, inLO"irov8aa'ov en OSlttov. cv €)(€l - idkcoKe to 

07jpLov ei\7J(f}aii€v crc, o) /xiape. ^^^Xl y^^^ avriKa ovart- 

' va^ oi/ra9 ij/xa? iKaKrjyopeL^. t^ rpoirif he Tt9 axrrov koX 

16 /lereXdrj; voiklXop yap riva iTTLPoHfiev OdvaTov Kar* avrov 

TTacLP 7JIUV i^apKeaoLi hvpdfiepop- Kad* acaarov yovv kiTrar 

KL^ Sticatd? ioTtp ifpXv aTToXcoXei/at. 

4>IA0204>02 A. *E/xoi fikv aveaKoXoiriaOaL So/cet avrov. 

4>IA. B. N17 Aui, fia<my(o0€VTa ye irporepop. 

20 4>IA. r. Tov5 6(f}0a\fioif^^eKKeK6<f>d(o, 

4>IA. A. T-^i/ yXalrTai' avn^i/ ert iroXv nporepov airore- 


XftK. Xol Se TL, 'EfiircSd^Xet^? Soicei; 

EMIT. *E9 Toif^ KpaTTJpa^ efxirecreLP avroPy (o^ H'^^V H'V 

26 XotSopcurdat T0t9 Kpevrroa't. 

nAAT. Kal /X171/ apicTTOP ^v KaOdwep tlpol Tlep0ea rj 


XaKLorop ev nerpaLCLP evpeadai fxopopy 

Iva KCLi TO fiepo^ avrov Scaoro? €)(a}p dirqWaTTeTo. 

&Wpft So^rt kt\. : 

Prore yoaraelres men, ye'sarants, and go in 
for Impetnoiu anger, 

parody on II. 6, 112 : 

dWpcs Itf-re, 0£Xoi, fir^eurOt Bi ffodpidoi 

2. 'Apio^TfXfs : the situation be- 
coming acute, c3 is omitted. Gilder- 
sleeve, S. C. G. 20. — ciS Ixfi : good 
enough ! — koO' f koo-tov 'yoOv lirrdKit : 
cf. Lys. 12, 37 ot oCS' vwip Ms ixd^rov 

rQy xeirpayfUpfap 8ls diro^ay6vr6S ilxriw 
Sovpai SUfyaitrr iv. — Tovs m^oXfiOVf 4k- 
KCKd^Oo*: cf. Dem. de Cor. 67. King 
Philip was rbf dipOaXfJuSf ^KKeKOfi/Upos. — 
'£s Tovt Kpart^pof : Empedocles (who 
does not appear in the VUarum Auctio) 
knows by experience something more 
effective than the conventional Persian 
or Roman methods. — Xcuoo^v kt\.: 
probably from some unidentified Euri- 
pidean (?) tragedy. — Iva: cf. G. 1371; 
U. 884; Gl. 642, c; B. 690, note 4. 


3Q AOTK. Mrfha/iws ' dXXa wpo^ ^iKeciov <f>€Laaa'0€ /jlov. 
XnK. ''Apapep - ovk av a(f}€d€Lr)^ ert. opq,^ Sc 819 koX top 
Ofirfpop a (fyqaiPy 

oi? OVK €<m XcovcL Kol aphpaxTLP opKia Tnard ; 

AOTK. Kal firip Kad* Ofirfpopvfia^ KalavTo^iK€T€vo)' at- 
36 Sccrcor^c yap tcrcu? ra errrf Kal ov Trapoi/fccr^c pwi^Kahrjaaprd fie • 

tfirfpeiT ov KaKOP apSpa Kal d^ia Se^^de dwoipay 
^aXicdi/ T€ yfivaop t€, ra 817 i^iKiovai coif^oi irep. 

IIAAT. *AXX* ovSc rjfiei^ aTropfjaoiiep irpo^ crc ^O/iripLKrj^ 
di^tXoytas. d/covc yovi/ • 

40 /X17 St; /xot (f}v^ip y€, KaK'qyope.j fidWeo 0vfi^ 

Xpvcrop nep Xc'^a?, cirel tic€o ^(ctpa? €9 dfid<s. 

AOTK. Ot/xoi rail/ KaKcjp. 6 fiep O/xripo^ rfixip dirpaKTo^, 
Tj fieyL<rrq cXtti?. ctti top ^vpLiri^p Sij fiot KaTa(f}€VKT€op • 
rd^a ydp di/ ciccii^o? aoxreii fie. 

45 /X17 Kreti/€ • TOP iKenjp yap ov Oe/iL^ KTapelp. 

3. Mv|Sa|iAf jrrX.: again a reminiB- — |iv| S^ iuh kt\,: 
cence of Ar. Ac?i. 295-206 : d© not, I charge thee, blasphemer, be pon- 

' '^ * Making this mention of gold, now that onoe 

<re x^ofiey roU XlBois. ^^^^ h^Bt ^j^^ ^^ ^,^^ clutches, 

1 M I.* f \ , altering II. 10, 447 and 448: 

fiil S^ putt <f>i^ip 7c, A6X(i)v, ^/bi/3dXXco 9v/i{», 

0/ suppliants. — "Apcipcv • o*ic &v d^- duds. 

6f(v|s: i^'s settled! you can^t get qff. 
Cf . Catapl. 8 Sipapcw • o^k Ak t<>xw«- — 

— M r6v Eipi«CSi|v : 60 Hera (Jupp. 

•4k I^ ktV: cf. n. 22, 262.-1- ^^^^T; '1''^*". '''^*': " "^1 

^pcCr o* ittX. : patchwork from II. 10, 
378,379; 1,23; 11, 131-133. 

r6ir E^ptir/dijy Skov KaraTreirUtKafixv. — |i,v| 
KTiCvt ktX.: not identified in extant lines 

Bare me alive, for I 'm not a bad fellow ; ^^ Euripides. Lucian probably prefers 

here's plenty of ransom, / * ,. i. « 

Here is some copper and gold, to sarants » parody for his own answer here. See 

these are welcome — you know it. two lines below, "Svp ody rrX., while 




n A AT. Tt Se ,• ovxL KaKelva EuptTTt Sov iarivj 

Nvp ovv cicart prjfiaTcjv KTei/elre fie ; 

N-^ Ata • (f>r)(rl yovv iK€Lvo<s avTOSy 

60 d;(aXiVc(i^ CTOjJLdrojv 

ai/ofMov T d(j>po(ruvas 
TO rdXo^ SvcTv^ia. 

4 AOTK. OvKovp inel SeSoicrat iravro}^ dnoKrivvvvai kcu 
ovhe/JLLa /i'T7X^^ "^^ 8ta<^vy€ti^ /i,€, <f>€p€j tovto yovv elnare 

55 /Aoi, oirtrc? OI/T69 17 TL TTCTTOi^^orcs djnjKeo'TOv irpo^ rffiiov 
d/i.€i Xi/cra opyi^eaOe kol inl davdrw fM€ ^vv€Lkrj<f>aT€ ; 

IIAAT. ^Artj'a jxep eLpycuraL rffxd^ rd Seipd, aeavrov 
ipdrra, (o ^d^icTTC, /cat Toif^ icaXovs iKeCvov^ aov koyov^y iv 
019 <f>L\oa'0(f>Lav T€ avTj)v KaK(o<s 'qy6p€v€<; kol i^ rifid^ vfipi- 

60 ^C9 (Sanep i^ dyopd^ diroK-qpinTiDV <to<\>ov^ dvSpas, Koi 
TO fieyLCTTov, iXevOepov^;' i(f>* ot? dyavaKT'qaavT^^ di/cXiy- 
Xvdafiev inl^ <re irapaiTT^o'diJLevoi irpo^ oXiyov top Kihiqvj 
Xpvcmnro^ ovrocrl Koi *E7rt/cou/309 /cat 6 TlXdTojp iyo) /cat 
* ApKTTOTeXrjs c/C€ti/oo"t /cat 6 cnconajp oi/ros Ilv^ayopa? /cat 

66 6 Atoyci/Tj? /cat dtravTe^ oaov*; 8t€crv/0€9 cV rot? Xdyot?. 

5 AOTK. ^Xveirvevaa- ov yap diroKTeveiTe /x€, 171/ jjiddriTe 
OTTOtos cyoi Trept v/id? iyei/ojxrjv • wore dnoppixIfaTe tov<; 
XCdov^y fidXXov 8e (f}vXdTTeT€, ^priaeaOe. yap avTol<; /cara 

Plato borrows direct, oj; 5eii'd kt\. from 
Orest. 41.3, and dxaX/i'u;M OToyLdnav ktX. 
from Bacchae .385-^387. 

4. oi8c|&(a|fci|XAv)|r68icu|»vYCiv: o()5e- 
/ttfo /it7x<=i^f7 regularly has 5irws (oi>) with 
fut. indie, or fi^ 01; with inf. orr6 ^f^and 
inf. Lucian uses firjxo.y^i without a 

negative (but with interr. tU, imply- 
ing neg.), with an inf. in Imag. 1: rls 
tirraL firfxay^ diro<rT7Jvai aiJr^s; — tovs 
. . . Xd^ovs: i.e. Vit And. — 4Xfv6^- 
povs: c.<;. Dioi^enes, cf. Vit. Auct. 7. 

5 . ' Av^irvtvcra : / breatfie again I I^m 
saved ! For * ' dramatic aorist ' ' as Eng. 



70 IIAAT. Arjpets' cr6 Sc TTJiiepov ^prj a7roXa>\ci/{u, Kal 
17877 ye 

Xati/oi/ eaao ')(iT<ova KaKwp €P€)^ ocrcra eopya^. 

AOTK. Kal /xtji/, w dpioTOLy op ixPV^ fiovov i^ airdvroiv 
inaipelp oiKeiop re vfuv ovra /cat evi/ovi/ kol ofjLoypdfiopa Kaiy 

76 €t /n7 (f}opTLKw ctircii/, KTfhefjiova tojp CTrtTTjScv/xaTow/, cS wrrc 
d7roicT€i^o£!i^€9, iji/ €/i,€ aTroKTeLV7)T€ Tocravra Trcpl v/x.c5i/ ttctto- 
vrjKOTa. opoLTe oZp fxr/ to tS}v vvv <^i\o(rd^a)i/ avro Trotctrc, 
d^apioTot /cat opyiXoi koX aypdfjLOi/es i^aLv6p.€voi irpo^ avhpa 

80 IIAAT. *fl TTJ^ avaLCxvpTLa^;. Kal X^P^^ ^^^ ^''7^ KaKTf- 
yopias 7rpoa'0(f}€L\oiJiep ; ovtcos ct>9 dvSpanohoL^ dXrjdcjs oict 
SiaXeyccr^at Kal evepyeciav KaTokoyirj irpo^ ij/x-d? inl Ty 
Tocravry vfipet Kal irapoivia rS)v \6y(s}v; 

6 AOTK. IIov yap iyo) Vfids rj wore v/3piKa, 09 act <^tX(>- 

85 a'o<f>iai/ T€ davfid^cjp StarcrcXc/ca Kal vfids avrovs VTrepenai- 
vS>v /cat rot9 Xoyots ov? icaraXeXotTrare ofiikwy; avrd yovv 
d (fyqfjLL raCra, iroOep dWodei/ ij Tra/o* vfjLOiv Xa^So)^ /cat /cara 
7171^ fi4\iTTav dTravOLadfiei/o^ eTTiheiKvvfiai roZ^ dvdpomoi^; 
ot §€ iiraivovai /cat yvcopi^ovo'LV eKao'Tov to dp0o<s o9ev /cat 

90 Trap* orov icat ottcd? dveXe^dfiyjPj /cat Xdyoi /xei/ c/ic ^rjXovo'L 
rrj^ dvdo\oyLa<;^ to 8* d\i)6k^ Vfid^ Kal tov Xetficji/a top 
vfierepov^ ot rotavra i^TjvdrJKaTt Trot/ctXa /cat TroXvetS-^ ras 
fiai^dsj €t Tt9 dvaXi^acrdai T€ aura cVtoratTO /cat di/aTrXe^at 

present, see Gildereleeve, S. C G. 202, 
GMT. 60. Cf. § 39 rpotreK^vrjira. — Xdi- 
vov fa«ro . . . : J/. 3, 57 (in /^ iffffo is 
plpf . with »f^F in V. 6(J, here it is imv. pf . ) : 

FrockM you shall be in a tunic of stone for 
your wicked behaylor. 

6. Kard r?|v lUXtrrav &irav0urd)Mvos 
. . . Xfk|u*va : for the figure of the bee 

and the meadow cf . Eur, Hippol. 73-81 : 

otrr 1j\0^ Tta <rL5rjpos^ dXX* dxi^parov 
yj\ur<ra \eifiQv iapivbv Siipx^rai. 

This whole passage is Lucian*s elabo- 
rate self-justification for bis Atticizing 
art. Cf. Introd. p. xv. — ot roiaOra 
l(T|v6yjKarc : the verb is construed here 


/cat dp/jLocrcUf (is /X17 airaheiv Oir^pov daripov. ^cd* ooris 
96 ow ravra c5 ir€.irov6(as irap* ificip KaKOJs av eiireiv iiri^^iprf- 
crctci/ evepyeras avhpaSy oi<f>* cSi/ 1^817 tls eh/cu cSo^ci/ ; iKTos 
ct /X17 Kara rov ^apvpiv rj top ^vpvrov elrj ttji/ <^vGrti/, cu9 
rat9 Movcrot? ai^aScti/, irap* c5i/ ei\TJ(f>€L rrjp (iSrjvy rj r^ 
^AnoWcjPL ipihaiveiv ivavrCa To^evcjv, Kal ravra SoTTJpL ovtl 


7 IIAAT. Tovro /xci/, (3 y€i/i/at€, /cara tovs prJTopas elpi}' 
rat crot • ivavridrraTov 8* oSi' corrt coi r^ irpdyfiaTL Kal ^a- 
X^irayrepap cov i.Tnh€LKvv(Ti rrfv roX/iai/, ct yc r^ d8tici^ /cat 
a)(api<rria TrpoaeoTLVy 09 Trap' rffiiop ra ro^cu/xara, cJ? <^JJ5, 

105 Xafidkf Kad* rjixiov iro^evesy o/a tovtop vnoddfiepos top ckot 
iroPj dirapras '^fids dyopev€ip KaK(o<s • Toiavra napa aov 
aTr€t\ij<f>ap.ep olpO* &p crot top \€LfiS>pa Ik^Zpop apairerdxrap- 
T€s ovK iKcoXvcaiiep hpeir^crdai, koL to irpoKoXinop ifinXricrd- 
fiepop dn^Xdeip • cScrrc 8ta ye tovto St/cat09 €t diTodapeip. 

210 AOTK. 'Opare; irpos opyffp aicovcrc /cat ovSep t(op hiKauop 
TrpocrUcrde. /catrot ovk dp (oijdrjp TTorc ds opyr) UXdTCjpos rj 
UpvaLnnov rj *AptoTorcXov9 rj T(op dXkcjp vfiiop KadiKoiTo 
dpy dXXa fioL iSoKeire /jlopoi S17 iroppoi et^at tov tolovtov, 
TrXrjp dWd firj aKpirop y€j <o dav/Ltdcrtot, firfSe wpo hiKrjs 

116 dnoKTeCprjTe /xc vfierepop yovp /cat tovto ^Py fir) fiia firj^c 
KaTOL to i<r)(yp6T€pop TroXtrevcor^at, hiKy he tol hidi^opa 8ta- 
Xvccr^at 8t8oi^a9 Xoyoi^ /cat he^ofiipovs ep tw jxipei. cSorc 
hiKa<TTr)P iXofiepoi KaTrfyopfjaaTe fiep vfieis 17 dfia ndpres rj 
oPTipa ap \eipoTOprj(rqTe imkp dirdpTOiPy iyo) 8c aTToXoyiycro- 

120 /xat npos TO, iyKkrjiiaTay /cat r)p /xep dhiKiop <^ati/a>/iat /cat 

with the cognate ace, but see note to Xwv, dXXd roii airrQp rrepoTt dXurKf^uaday 

F. ff. B, 30. and Aesop Fab. 4 Ka2 rovrh fun irdpa XiJriy, 

7. irap'^|fc6vrdro{c^|iara:cf. Aesch. rb toU Idiots wTepoU ivawoSvjjffKciir. The 

JFVa{^m. 139 (Sidgwick) where the same thought in Bis Ace. 29 dypuftow 

wounded eagle says: rdS' o^x ^' ^^- t^P ^' ^f^ t^" ^m^»' fidxo.ipay dKovav. 



TOVTO irepl ifiov yv£ to hiKaarijpiov, v(f>€^o} hrjXaBri rf/v 
a^iavj vfiel^ 8c fiiaiov ovSev ToXfJiyjcrere' rjv 8c ra? evdvva^ 
vnoo^cjv Kadapo^ vfuv /cat av€7rC\rj7n'o<: evpuTKco/JiaUj a<^rj' 
crovcC fie oi 8iKaaraiy v/xct? 8c cs Toif^ i^airanjiTavTas v/xas 

126 Koi irapo^vvavra^ Kad* rfficav ttiv 6pyr)v rp&fiaTe. 

9 IIAAT. TovT ciccc^o, c? neBiop top lirwoi/y oJ? napaKpov- 

adfjievo^ tovs 8i^otaTas aneXdji^; • {f^acrl yovv prJTopd ere /cat 

8ticai/ticoi/ Tti'a co^at icat iravovpyov iv rots Xoyot9- Tti/a 8c 

/cat 8tica<rn7i' c^cXcts yeu^adaij ovriva p.!) (Tv Sfopohoicfja'a^j 

130 ola iroXXa Trotctrc, a8t/ca TrcwTCt? VTrcp crov \lrq<f)La'aa'0aL ; 

AOTK. Oappctrc rovrov yc a/cica- ov8c^a rotoOroi/ 8tat- 
TTjTriv VTTOTTTOv 7) ap,(f>L^o\op d^toxrat/x' ai/ yevicrdai koX oarts 
d7ro8c5{rcTat /xot 7171' }jnj<f)oi/. opart yovv^ rifv 4>tXo(ro<^tai/ 
aur>7i/ /xc^' i;/xa>i/ hiKdarpiav irotov/xat eyarye. 

136 IIAAT. Kat Tt9 di' KaTTjyopyjcreieVj ct yc i7/i.ct9 8t/cd- ; 

AOTK. Ot avrot Karrfyopelre koi 8t/cdJcTC' ov8ci/ ov8c 
TOVTO 8c8ta. ToaovTOP inr€p(f}€p(t} Tot9 8tKatot9 icat c/c Trcpt- 
ovcrtas dirokoyrjaeo'dai VTroXapfidpcj. 

*^ IIAAT. Tt voLCjpePy (o Hvdayopa /cat Xcu/cparc^; cot/cc 
ydp ovic dXoya 6 din^p Trpo/caXctcrdat, 8t/cd£€(rdat d^iSn/. 

iSftK. Tt*8* dXXo 17 fiahitfiipev cttI to SiKacrnjpLoi/ /cat 
rrji/ <I>tXoa'o<^tai/ irapakafiovT^^ aKovcrojpev o ti /cat dTroXo- 
yTJcrerou; to irpo Blktj^ yap ovx '^p>€Tepovj dWd 8cti^a)9 

146 t8t(ort/coi/9 opytKcjv tlv&v dvOp(!m(ov /cat ro 8t/catoi/ ci/ rr) 

9. TovT* ImCvo : ^^ere 's tAa< olddodge 
again! — H irc8(ov t6v tinrov: BC. Tpo- 
icaXeiiff'^cu. And 80 of the horseman in 
Plato Theaet. 183 d linrias els ireSlop 
TpoKoXei XiaKpdrri els \6yous TpOKaKo^fAe- 
rat. For the thought cf. Uncle Re- 
mos's Br^er Babbit: *'Bred and bawn 

in a brier patch ! '' — roo-oOrov ... 4k 
irf^iovo-Cof : from such a surplua. 

10. T& irp6 8(in)s ^dp : for this pr^ 
judicating way is not our style ; or bc. 
diroKTelyeiv, and cf . § 15 irpb SlKrjs . . . dro' 
Kreveire; — Sciv&s t8u»TiK6v : aufully un- 
profeaaionalj i.e. out of character for 



^€ipt Ti^€/xcVa«/. irape^ofiep ovp a^opixa<; rot? KaKifyop^iv 
idiXovai KaTaKev(Tavr^s avhpa fnjSk anokoyrjO'dfi^.vov vnkp 
iavTOVy Koi ravra SLKatoavirg ^aipeiv aiyroi Xeyoi/re?. ij ri 
av €t7rot/i,€i/ ^Kvvrov nepL /cat McXtjtov, tcSi/ ifiov Karrjyoprf- 

150 aavToiVy rj tojp t6t€ Si/caoTali/, ct ovro? redinj^erai firjSk to 
irapdirav vSaro? /icraXa/SoJi/ ; 

IIAAT. ^Aptora Trapaiveisy <o 2c5/cpar€9* cSare dirUaii^v 
irrX TTfi/ ^L\o(ro<f}Lav. tj 8c 8t/caa*ar<o, /cat rffiels dyaThjo'O' 
fiev ots ai/ €/c€ir»j Stayj'^. 

.*J AOTK. E5 y€, cS crcx^aJrarot, a/jLeipo) raura /cat i/o/xt/i.o>- 

TCpa. TOU9 fJLCVTOL Xt^OV9 (f>v\dTT€T€, CU? €(f>7)l/ ' ScTJCTCt yap 

avrSiv fjLLKpov varepov iv T(o SiKaarrjpia). ttov Sc r^i/ 4>tXo- 
cro^tai/ cvpot rt? ai' ; ov yap olSa ci/^a ot/c€t • Kairoi irokvv 
iirXavrjdiqv \p6vov dval^y)TSiv rrjv ot/cta^, cJ? ^vyyepoCfjirjv 

160 air^. ctra ivTvy\dv€ov dv Ttcrt rpifimvia iTepifiefi\i)ii4voLq 
/cat Trarycjpa^ fiadels /ca^ct/icVot? Trap* avr^9 iK^ivrjs rj/ccti/ 
<^<xcr/cov(rti/, oto/x€i/09 ctScVat avrov? dvqpanfov ot 8c iroXv 
/xaXXoi/ c/i,o5 dyi/oovi/T€9 17 ov8* 0X019 direKptPovro /jlol, ds firj 
iXey^oLvro ovk €t8oT€9, 17 aXXiyi/ dvpav dvr dXXi79 d7r€8€t- 

165 Kvvov, ovSeTTO} yovv /cat T^/icpoi/ i^evpeii/ SehvmffiaL Trjv 

12 OLKLav. 7roXXd/ct9 8€ 17 aiT09 ct/cdcra9 17 ^^vayrjaavTO^ rivoq 
TjKov dv iiri riva^ dvpa^ fiefiaicj^ IkTrUra^ rore yovv evpriKe- 
rat, T^Kp.aLp6p.^vo^ TO) vkyjOeL tojp iaovrcjv re /cat i^iovrcoPy 
airdinoiv aKvdpmirtav /cat rd cyrip.ara evoTaKojp /cat <f>pov' 

no TLfrTLKOJv TTjv TTpoco^Lp ' fierd TovTcju ovp ^vp^napafivcrOel^ 
/cat avro9 ccn^X^oi/. ctra idpwv yvvaiov ri ov^ dnXotKOVj €t 

philosophers. — ^rfilk . . . (iSaros firraXa- 4vt &XXi|s : door after door. Cf . S. John 

pAv: i.e. without a hearing. Cf. the 1, 1(J x^^P*" ^»^^ x<ipt^o» and (perhaps) 

references to the KXexJ/OSpa e.g. Lys. 23, Theognis 344 (249) dtrr dptdif dvlas, 

11-15 irCXafie rh vSup. gri^f upoji grief. This meaning is also 

11. &v . . . &vT|pwro»v: G. 1206; H. found with wpd, e.g. Ar. ilcA. 325 yij^ 

835 ; Gl. 461, a ; B. 568. — &XXi|v Ovpav Tp6 yiji, land after land. 



Kai oTt /xaXtcrra €9 to d<^€\c9 Kat aLK6<TiJL7)Tov kavrifv ippv- 
dfjLL^evy dXXa KaT€(l>dv7) /xot avTLKa ovSc to averov hoKovv 7^9 
KOfjLT)^ dKaWdirLOTOv iaxra ovSe. tov ifjiaTiov Trjp avaPoXrju 

175 di/CTrtrryScvrai? TreptoTeWovcra - TrpdSijXos 8c -^i/ Koafiovfi^mf 
aurot? /cat tt/oo? evTrpeiretai^ rol adepaTrevTOi 8okovptl irpoa- 
)(p<i}li€vyi. v'n'€(f>aLP€TO Se tl koI y^ifivdiov koX (f>vKO^ kol 
TOL ptj/JLaTa TrdvTa eTaupiKd' koI inaLPov/jieirq inro tcjp ipa- 
arSiv €9 icdXXo? e^^aipc, koX ct Sotiy rt?, irpo^eipia^ cSej^cro, 

180 Kal TOV9 7rXov(n(OT€pov9 di/ irapaKaOiiTafievr) TrXTjCLOP tovs 
mvTjTa^ T(op ipacTCjp ovSc TrpoaefiXeirep. iroXXd/cts 8c /cal 
yvfiPCjOeurr)^ avrfjs Kara ro dicovcrio^ idpcjp irepihepaia 
Xpvad TCJP k\olq)p ira^vrepa. cVl 7rd8a ovp €vdv^ dpiaTpe- 
(f>op OLKTipa^ STjXaS-^ Toif^ KaKoSaifiopa^ eKeCpov^ ov t^9 

186 pipo^y dWd TOV TTciycDPO^ cX/co/xcVov? Trpo^ avr^<; Kal /card 
TOP ^l^Copa €t8cuXai di/rl Trj<; Hpa^ ^vpoPTa^. 

13 TIAAT. ToGro /xci/ 6pd<o<; cXe^a?. ov8€ yd/j tt/joStjXo? 
ov8€ irdo'L ypcipLfio^ r/ dvpa. irXrip dXX' ovSep SeTjaeL )8a8t- 
^cti' CTTi 7171^ OLKLap ' ipTavda ydp ip KepafieiK<o vnofiepovfiep 

190 avrrjp. rj 8c tjSt; ttov d^t^crat iirapiova'a c^ 'A/caSrj/ita?, 
cJ? Tr^piiraTrjaeie koI ip Trj lioLKtXrf' tovto ydp ocrjixepaL 
TTOieip ci9o9 avTy- fidWop 8c '1787; irpoaepxeTcu. 6 pas tt/p 

12. r6 &vcrov Sokovv: to^^t seemed 
Aer simplicity. Cf. 1. 176. — IrouptKd: 
coquettish. — t6v ^pcM^&v (1. 181) : for 
case see In trod. 31 . — Kard t6 &Kov<riov : 
as though accidentally, xard = a la ; 
cf. below, WOT A tAj^'I^/ow, ZiAfC Ixion. 

13. 4v KcpofUiK^ : the ^^ potteiV 
quarter" was divided by the wall of 
Themistocles into the outer and the 
inner Cerameicua. See map of Ath- 
ens. Here the inner Cerameicus is 
meant. Philosophy, coming from the 
Academy by the most northerly of the 

three roads which converge at the Dipy- 
lon, would pass in by the gate and so 
on (by the site of the present Piraeus 
railroad station) through the Ceramei- 
cus to the Poecile Stoa. Cf. Jupp. 
Trag. 15, 16 where Zeus came up from 
Piraeus (and so reached the gate by the 
most southei'ly of the three roads) to 
take his evening constitutional (to^^e- 
pnrari^iraifu t6 SelXiyop iv KepafMiKt^) in 
the Cerameicus, and, deep in thought, 
came opposite the Poecile (KoriL rijv 
IlotKl\riv). — c»s iTiptiTttT^irfM : for opt. 





KoajjLiov TTfv airo rov o^T^/xaros, rffp irpo(rqvfj ro ^SXe/x/xa, 
ry]v CTTt (Tvvvoia<; iqpefia fiahiJ^ovKrav ; 
195 AOTK. noXXa9 o/jloUl^ 6po> to t€ <r)(^fia Kal ro )8a8ur/xa 
Kol rriv dvafioXijp. Kairoi jxia Trdpro)^ rj yc a\rj07j^ ^tXo- 
a'0(f}La icTtp iu aurat?. 

IIAAT. ES Xeyct?. dXXa Si^Xcocrct 17x19 carl (f}0€y^aii€irrj 


<I>IA. XlaTTal' TtlJXdTioi/ KalKpvo'iinro^ at/(o Kal*ApiaTO' 
tcXtj? /cal 01 aXXoi wdure^f aura 817 ra K€(f}dXcud fiov tS)v 
fiaOrffjidTcjv ; ri av^t9 e9 toi/ jStoi' ; apa rt v/xa9 cXvttci tcSi/ 
Kdro); opytt^ofievoLs yovv ioiKare. Kal Tiva tovtov fvXXa- 
/36vre^ dy€T€; 'Jj irov TuiJi/3(opv)(o^ T19 17 dv8po(f}6vo^ rj iepo- 

205 crvXd? ioTL ; 

IIAAT. N17 At', c5 4>iXo<ro<^ta, irdvTo^v y€ UpoaiiXwp dae- 
jScoTaro?, 09 T^v icpayrdTrjp crk KaKCj^ dyopevtiv CTrc^ctpTjcrc 
KoX rffid^ diravra^j oiroaoi rt Trapd aov fiadovre^ rot9 /xc^' 
i}/i.a9 fcaraXeXocira/xei'. 

210 4>IA. Etra rjyapaKrrjo'aTe XoiBoprjcraiJiCPOv tlpo^j koI rau- 
ra €tSor€9 c/xe ota 7rpo9 T179 Kcu/i.a)Sia9 d/covovcra 61/ roc9 Ato- 
pvaCois o/xG>9 (f>C\rfp t€ avTyjv rjyTjfiaL Kal ovre iSi,Kaa'dfi7)i/ 
ovT€ rjriao'dfirju npoo'eXdova'ay i(f}L'rifii Sc wai^eLP ra et/cora 
/cat ra ^vinjdrj ry iopry; olSa yap 019 ouic ai' rt vtto CKiOfifiaTo^ 

after primary tense see In trod. 35. — 
t4|v &ir& ToO ox4|MiTos : t^ o/i« SO well 
gotten-up. Cf. perhaps Ar. Pax 241 and 
Introd. 30. See App. The phrase dirb 
rod tf'x'^/tiaroj recurs often, d.g. D. Mori. 
10, 8; JVigT. 24. For use of prep. cf. 
Theocr. 10, 49 dijXvy dird xpo^c^v, femi- 
nine, to Judge hy complexion. — ^Oryta- 
|Uvi| |&4vov : the first syllable she utters. 
14. a^drdxt^dXcua: the very lead- 
ers (of the profession). Cf. Philops. 6 
6p^s otovs ipSpas <rol <Pri/u, irav<r64>oui koX 

Tavapirovti 6 n irep r6 K€^\awv a0r6 ^ 
^KdffTrjs irpoaip4<reon ; d* ye See what sort 
of men I 'm telling you of regular ca> 
perts and perfect saints — in fact the very 
cream of the different schools? The 
same in Symp. 10, but see note to Vit 
Auct. 18. — ola . . . &icovovo*ci : what- 
all Comedy ca^ls me ! For dKoi$etr used 
with €v, <caiccas,.etc., or with cognate 
ace, as pass, of X^«f, see L. & S. &.▼., 
Ill, 1. Cf. "/rY^pewre kclkQs § 15. — o4k 
. . . W6irK^|ji)iaT09x<^>ov* so Socrates 


216 x^P^^ yevovro^ aWa Tovvavriov owep av y KokoVy (oaTrep to 

Xpvaiop awoo'fKofievov toI^ KOfifiaxri Xafiirporepov dTToartX- 

^€L Kal <f>avep(dT€pop yiverai. vfiei^ 8*ovk otS* otto)? opyir 

' Xoi Kal ayavaKTiKol yeyopare, tC 8* ovp avTOP ayx^r^l 

IIAAT. Mtai' rffiipav ravrrfv Trapavrqcafievoi rjKOfiev in 

220 avroi/y <W9 imoaxxi ^^9^ a^iav &v SeSpa/cc' (f>'!jfiaL yap TfpXv 

hirjyyeKKov ota eXeyev iiri^dn/ €9 ra ttXtJOti Kaff '^fi&v, 
15 4>IA. Elra irpo 8i/c7j9 ovSc dnokoyrfa'dfievoy aTroKTeveire ; 
hfjXo^ yovv iiTTLv elir^v tl dekcov. 

IIAAT. OvKy dXX' inl ae to ttolv ai/efiakofieda. Kal croi 

225 O TL av hoK^j TOVTO TTOLTJajj T€\o^ TTJ? 8lKlJ9. 

4>IA. Ti <^^9 ov ; 

AOTK. TouTo avTOy c5 hecTroiva 4>iXocro<^ia, i77rc/D Kal 
fiovj} toXtj^cs di/ evpelv hwato' fioyi^ yovv cvpop/qv TroXXd 
iKCTCvcra? to croi (f>v\axdrjvaL Trjv hCKrjv. 
230 IIAAT. Nvi', <w KaTapaTCy SeairoLvav avTrjv /caXecs ; 'rrp<fnr)v 
8c TO aTLfioraTov 4>tXocro<^tdi/ aTTci^aivc? ci/ rocrovr^ deaTpto 
airoKrjpvTTfov icard ftepT; 8i;* o^oXcov qcocttov Ci8os aur^$ rcUi/ 

<1>IA. *Opdrc ffj) ov ^iXoaoKfyiav ovto^ yc, dXXd yoTjra? 
236 dvhpas iirl raJ rffieT€p(o ovofiaTi TroXXd /cal yuapd irpaTToma^ 
Tfyopeva^ KaKCj^, 

IIAAT. ISiLCjj avTLKay 7)v idcXrj^ aKov€Lv dnoXoyovfievov 

<1>IA. *A7rL(0fi€v iir* "A.p^iov irdyov, [idWov 8c C9 rrjv d/cpo- 
240 TroXti/ avTTjVy (i<s av iK ttc/oicdtt^? dfia KaTa(f>airrj ndvTa etq to, 

seems to have felt no rancor towards 15. cvp^|&iiv: I procured for myself . 
Aristophanes on account of the — jv roo-ovrip Ocdrpip : in the presence 
Clouds. See Humphreys, Introd. to of such a crovod of spectators; so § 36 
Clouds^ § 10, note. — Si^yV^XXov : note fin. by the house. — Mt &v tU\ : see In- 
voice, ^fiaiy although pi., almost per- trod. 35 (6). — {k irtpurn^ : see note to 
sonified as in sing. Char. 2. 


16 iv Ty TToXct. v/i€c9 8c, CO (f>L\aLj iv ry TlIolklKji tcoj? TrcptTTa- 
TTJaare • rj^cj yap vfilv iKhiKao'aa'a rrfv Slk7)v. 

AOTK. Tlv€^ 8c clcLVy c3 ^ikoa'o<f>ia ; irdvv yap fioi Kor 


245 <E>IA. ^Aperrj fiei/ rj apSpdSrjs avrrjy X(o(f>pocrvurj 8c iKcivrj 
Kal AtKaLoavvT) if irap* avrrfv, rf 8c irporfyovfievrj nat8cui, rj 
afivopa 0€ avTTj Kai aa'acpi]^ to xpcjfia rf AArfueia ecmv. 
AOTK. Ov^ opio TjVTLva /cat Xeyct?. 

4>IA. Tr)v aKaWdmiarov iKeivrji/ ov^ op^9, Tfjv yvfivrjvy 
260 rr)v v7ro(f>€vyova'ai/ del Kal StoXLO'ddvova'av ; 

AOTK. *Opci) vvy fioyi^. dXXa ri ov)(l Kal ravra^ dyet^y 

(i<s irXrjpe^ yevoiro koL cWcXc? to ^vvehpiov; rffi/ ^Akrjdeiau 8c 

yc Kal ^vvrjyopov dvafii^do'aa'dcu irpo^ rrii/ Suaji/ fiovkofiai, 

<1>IA. Nij Aui, aKoXovdrjaaTe Kal uftci?- ou xaXeirov yap 

255 /Liiai/ 8tKacrat SlkyjVj Kal TavTa irepl T(av rffieTeptov i(rofi€i/rfv. 

17 AAH8. ^Airirc v/ieL^- iyw yap ovSei/ Seo/iat dKoveiv a 
irdXai otSa onold io'Tip* 

4>IA. *AXX* rjiJui/y & ^Akrjdeiaj iv heovTi ^i/8iic<£^ot9 dpy 
0)9 Kai KaTafirjyvoL^ c/cacrra. 
200 AAH0. OvKovv irrdycjfiaL Kal tcj deparraivihUii tovt(o 

(TVVOLKOTdTO) flOL 6vT€ ; 

<[>IA. Kal fidka onoaa^ av idek-jg^. 

A AH 8. EnecOov, o) 'EXcv^cpta Kal HapprjO'Cay /jlcO^ rjficJVy 
ct)9 TOP Setkaioi/ TovTopl dvOpiaTrixTKoVy ipaarrip rifierepov ovra^ 
205 KivhvvevovTa in ovSefiLa 7rpo(f>da'€L 8i/caia, — dv ye creJcrat 
hvvr]6<ofiep ' (TV 8c, c3 ^EXcy^c, airrov rrepifieve> 

AOTK. M7}8a/Lio>9, a> heinroiva^ rfKero} he /cat ovToSy el Kai 
rt9 dXXo5* ov yap rot? rv^ovo't dr)pioi^ irpoairoXefirja'aL 

16. {{ Si 7rpoT|70v|UvT| IlaiScCa: ^Ae 17. mi . • • 8iKa(^, — : cJs is final; 

one in front is Culture. — «s . . . y<- sc. <rwfftoijL€v or another aw^rai dvrftBQ- 
voiTo: see lutrod. 35 (a). /itci'. See App. — r6v ScCXoiov tovtovI 



Setjaei fie, dXX* aka^oaw avOpamoi^ koX SvaekeyKTOL^y dec 
270 TLva^ ano(f>vya<; evpidKOfievoi^j cUore dvayKaio<% o ^EXcy^o?. 

4>I A. 'Ai^ayicatoTaro^ fikv ow • a/ieipoi/ 8c, el koI ttjv * Atto- 
Set^ci/ irapoKd^oi^. , 

AAH8. "Eirca^c travr^^j iireCirep avayKotoTaTOi Soiccitc 

2Yg APIST. *Opa9 ; irpoo'ercupL^erat Kad* 7fp,(oVj & ^iKoa'o<\>ia^ 
'n)v ^AXvjOeLav. 

4>IA. Elra ScSirc, cS UXdrfov kol Xpvannre Kal 'A/dioto- 
TcXc5, fiij ri \lf€vcn)T<u virep avrov ' AXi/^cta ovcra ; 

HA AT. Ov TovTOy aWa SeivSfs iravovpyo^ icTi Kal KoXa- 
280 KiKo^' cSarc 7rapa7r€ur€i avnjv. 

<[>IA. Sappelre- ovhev firj yeirqrai ahiKov, At/caiocrvinj? 
19 ravTJ)^ ^fJLTrapovcrqq. ivioifici/ oZv. dXXd eine fiot, <rv, Tt crot 
Tovvofia ; 

AOTK. 'E/Liol IXa/D/DT/crtdSi}? *AXij^uoj/09 rov 'EXcy^^t/cXeov^. 
286 4>IA. Xlarpt? 8c; 

AOTK. Supos^ ^ ^L\oa'0(f>iay twv 'E7retM^paTi8uov. dXXd 
Ti TOVTO ; Kal yap tovtwv rivd^ oi8a rSiv avTihiKHiv ov\ tjttov 
ifiov fiapfidpov^ to yevos * 6 t/dotto? 8c zeal 17 naxSeia ov Kara 
SoXca? rj Kvwpiov^ rj ^afivXtoviov^ rj ^ray^ipira^. Kairoi 
290 Trpd? yc crc ou8c»' di' cXarroi/ yivoiro ov8* ei Trjv (fxoirrjv fidp- 
fiapo^ elrj ri^y elnep 17 yviap/q opdrf Kal hiKaCa (f>aLPOLTo ovcra. 

dv6p«»ir(«rK0v: this poor dear fellow. Cf. 
r(i> Bepaxamdiw for this diminutive of 
affection . — 6 "'EXuyxot : Confutation, — 
Ti|v 'Air68<i{iv : Demonstration. 

19. 'E|io( : note the emphatic repe- 
tition from <rot, cf . Ar. Thesm. 025. — 
Ilap^aidSifs kt\. : I am Freespeaker^ 
son of Truth the son of Confutation. 
— 2vpo«: see Introd. 3.— 06 xard 2o- 
X^of Kr\.: the Stoic Chrysippas came 

from Soli in Cilicia (see note on Vit. 
Auct. 20f and for the derivation of sole- 
cisfn see note on Vit. Auct. 23); Zeno 
the Stoic from Cyprus; Diogenes the 
Stoic (not the Cynic) from Seleucia on 
the Tigris, hence ** Baby Ionian ^^; and 
Aristotle from Stageira in Macedonia. 
Lucian hints that the stones thrown 
(§ 1) by the philosophers might endan- 
ger their own glass houses. 


20 ^lA. Ev Xey€t9 • aXXoi? yovv rovro 'qpo/irfp. rf T€)(yri 8c 
croi ri9 ,• d^ioi/ yap iniaraa'dai, tovto yc. 

AOTK. Miaaka^wv elfit koI fiiaoyonr)^ koX /ttcrcM/^cuS'^^ kgX 
295 fiLa6rv<f>o^ Kal fnaci trav to rotourcuSe? rSiv fiiapiav dvdptar 
TTOiv • iravu he iroWoi eio'iVj 019 olcr^a. 

<[>IA. *H/DaicXct9, 7roXv/Lticn7 rii'a ftcrci rriv reyirqv. 

AOTK. Ev Xeyci9' op^? yovj/ OTTOcrot? aire)(ddvoiJLai koI 

<U9 Kii/8ui/€V(it> 8t* ainrjv. ov firfi/ dXXa Kal rrjv ivavrLav avry 

300 irdw OLKpifiSi^ oi8a, \iy(a 8c T17J/ aTTO rov (^iXo! T171/ dp)(^v 

€)(ov(Tav ' (f>Lka\ij07j^ T€ yap Kal <^iXdicaXo9 Kal <^iXa7rXoiK09 

ical ocra t<3 <^tXctcrdai ^vyyevfj • 17X171/ aXX* oXiyoc ttcii/v rav- 

T7;9 d^'toi rfjq T€)(i/rf^. ol 8c vtto Ty ivavrCq. raTTOfievot Kal 

T^ fiUret oiKCtoTC/>oi TrevraKiafivpioi. Kivhvvev<i} roiyapovv 

305 ri)v fiev vn dpyCa^ dirofiadeli/ 1781J, rfjv 8c irdw; TJKpificaKevai. 

<[>IA. Kal /Lti7>' ouK ixPV^ ' ''"^^ T^P airoC Kal rd8c, (fxuriy 

Kal rd8c • wcrrc /ii7 8caipci rci T€)(i/a • ftta ydp iarw 8v* c&at 


AOTK. "Kfieivov crv ravra oUrda, (o <[>iXocro<^td. to fiep- 
310 TOi cfioi/ TOLOVTov ioTiP, olov TOV9 /ici/ itovqpov^ fiureivj 
iiraiveiv 8c rov? xprjaToif^ Kal <f>L\€iv. 

21 <[>IA. *Ayc 87], irdpecfiev yap ivOa e\prjv' ivravOd trov 
iv r(f npovdo} rfj^ 1X0X101809 SiKdacjiiep. r/ 'Icpcta 8cddc9 
Tffiii/ Ta ^ddpay T7/Ltct9 8c ip Toa'ovT(o npoo'KvvTJa'Oifiei/ rrji/ deov. 

20. &XX«»« : heedlessly. Cf . Ar. statue of Athena within the Parthenon 
Vesj>. 85 dWwf 0Xva^(re, ycfu We taUc- (see, however, note on hrlff kotos be- 
ing random nonsense. — ^tXA: cf. Ar. low), while the priestess is arranging 
Vesp. 77 ft. dXXd 0(Xo pJp ianv dpx^ the benches; and later, §39, offers his 
Tov Kaxov. See App. — irdw i|KptPMK^ thanksgiving to the winged Nike on 
voi : to be a perfect connoisseur in. Athena^ s outstretched hand. See Har> 

21. rf irpovdf ri^ IloXidSot: the rison & Verrall, Mythol. and Monu- 
pronaos of the east front of the Par- menis of Anc. At?iens, p. 464, for a 
thenon seems to be referred to. There discussion of this passage and certain 
Parrhesiades makes his prayer to the inferences drawn from it. — ^ 'KpMa : 
goddess, i.e. the great chi^selephantine here *Hhe nominative with the article 


316 AOTK. fl Hokid^y i\0€ fiot, Kara rS^v akaJ^6v(t>v avfifia' 
)(09 dvafiuTjo'deLa'a oiroo'a itnopKovvraiv ocrqfiepcu dicov6t9 
avTCJP' Koi a Trpdrrovo'i 8c fLovq opq,^ are 817 CTrwr/coTTO? 
oSaa. vvp icat/D09 dfivvaadax avrov^. i/ie Sc 171/ ttov Kpa- 
7ovfi€POv tSj;? icat 7rXcu)V9 wcrti' at fieXcuvaLy <rv wpoadela'a 

320 tt)i' craur^? ^^V^c /utc. 

22 4>IA. Elei' - '^fiei^ fikv vpXv koX S17 Kadi]ii€0a eroi/ioi olkov- 
eiv rSiv Xoyoji/, vfi^s Sc wpoekofiepoC riva i^ dirdvrcovy oori^ 
apurra Karqyopi](reLv Soicct, ^weipere rrjp Karqyopiav koX 
StcXey^crc- ndpra^ yap d/ia \€y€iv dfLrjyavov. <rv 8c, w 

326 HappniTid^y dnokoyija'ji to /Ltcra roCro. 

XPT2. Ti9 o5>' aj' C'7rtT7;8ctdraT09 €|^ lyftcii' yepoiro wpo^ 
Trjp Sucrjv; crv, w XlXarcDi/. 17 re yap fi€ya\6voLa davpLaxrvq 
KoX if KaWL(f>(i)via Seivw^ 'Arrtic^ Kal to Kexapiafiepoi/ Kal 
Trct^oC? fieoTov rj t€ ^vveaL^ Kal to d/c/Di^c? Kal to iirayayyov 

330 ip Kaip^ T(ov d7roS€i^ea)v, TrdvTa raOrd crot ddpoa trpoaeaTiv • 

cooTC TTfv irporqyopiav 8ej(ov koX imkp dirdvTiov cittc ra ctKora. 

in)v dvafivrjaOyiTi irdvTwv iKciyojp Kal ^fi(f>6p€t, C9 to airro^ el 

TL crot Trpo^ Topyiay rj UwXov rj ^Itnriav rj UpohiKov ^Ipifrax • 

is ... in apposition with an . . . unex- — ol |&^aiv«u (sc. ^^^ot) : instead of 
pressed vocative which is identical with the usual aX rerpvinifUpai. — vpoo^Soti 
the subject of the verb.** Gildersleeve, t^iv <ravH|s : a tie vote only was neces- 
8.C.G. 13. Cf. Ar. Ran, 621 6 xatf, sary for acquittal. The deciding bal- 
dKoXoAOei 8wpo, — lir(fficoiro« : this might lot cast by Athena at the trial of 
seem inconsistent with the assumption Orestes (Aesch. Eum, 734 £f.) became 
just made, and might seem to refer to proverbial. In Harmon. 3 Lucian calls 
the great bronze statue, the so-called it simply r^v r^$ 'ABrivas. As no ** re- 
Athena Promachos, standing in the peating *^ was allowed, Athena^s sphere 
open air northwest of the Parthenon, of usefulness was limited, 
and not visible from the pronaos on the 22. SuXfyx<Tf : make good your 
east ; but Solon had made this almost proof. — nXdri*v : this passage is not 
an official epithet of their patron saint without value as a summary of the 
in his'Tiro^icai e/t 'A(^Mi^ovf 3: characteristics of the Platonic dia- 
toIti ydp fieyddvfwf iirlff kotos dfipifjunrdrfni logues. Note that Protagoras is not 
IlaXXds 'A^ra/17 x«</Mi' i^c^*' ^X^t- mentioned with the other sophists. — 



J / 

Sctl/OTCp09 OVTO^ ioTLI/. CTTtTTaTTe OVV Kat TTJ9 €Lp(i}V€ia^ 

336 Koi TO, /co/i^a iKelpa Koi (rvv€)(7} iptira, Kav {roi Soic^, 
KaKelvo TTOv Trapd/SvaoPy (os 6 fieya^ iv ovpav^ Zcv? imr)- 
voi/ dpfia ikawcDi/ ayavatcrqaeiev av, €t fiy) ovros viroa^oi 
rrfv Sucqi/. 

23 IIAAT. Mrjhafici^y dk\d riva T(ov a'(f>o8poT€p(ov 7r/>o;(€t- 

340 piadfieday Aioyevrfv tovtoi/ 17 ^Amiadei/rfv 'q Kpdrqra 17 Kat 

<r€, w XpvaiTTTre • ov yap S^ icaXXov? 4v r^ Trapovri koX heir 

porrjTO^ (ruyypa<f>tK7J^ 6 KaipoSy dWd tlvo^ ikeyKTLKTJ^ /cat 

hiKavLKTf^ irapacKexrrjf; ' prjrtop 8c 6 Happy)a'id&q^ iarCi/. 

AlOr. *AXX' iycj avTov Karqyoprjo'a}' Kal yap ovhk irdvu 

346 fiaKpwi/ olofiaL t<op Xoycjv SeicOai. Kal dW(o^ he vwep dirav- 
Ta<s vfipLCiJLaL Sv 6)8oXaii/ irptirqv diroKeK'qpvyyLevo^- 

IIAAT. *0 AioyeuTj^j c3 4>iXocro<^ui, epel top \6yov inrep 
dndvTcjp. iMeiivqao he, cj yevpale, firf rd ceavrov fiovov irpe- 
afieveiv ev ry Karrjyopta, rd Koivd he opdv ei ydp ri kcu 

350 trpo^ ak\rj\ov^ hLa(f>€p6fieda ev rot? XoyoL^y <rv 8c tovto fiev 
firi egeraQe, firjo ooTis corti/ o aKyfuearepo^ wv Acyc, oAct)9 
8c xmep <l)i\oa'0(f>Ca^ avrfj^ dyavdKrei Trcptu^S/otcrftcinj? koX 
KaKCJS aKovovcrri^ ev rot^ llappyidahov XoyoL^y Kal rd^ 
irpoaipeaei^ d(f>el^ ev at? htaWaTTOfievy o kolvov diravre^ 

366 €)(OfieVy TOVTO uTTcp/Lta^ct. 6pa9 ,• crc fiovov Trpoecrrqadyieda 
KoX ev crol ra irdvTOiv rfficjv vvv KivhvveveTaiy rj cefivoTaTa 
8o^at rj ToiavTa iruTTevdfjvajL oXa ovro? dire^y^ve. 

K&v . . . vapdpuo*ov : and^ if you think 
best^ also fixiff in somewfiere thai fa- 
mous passage. — «t 6 i&^^at kt\. : this 
passage of Plato's occurs Phaedr. 246 e. 
Liician refers to it Rhet. Praec. 20, and 
in Bis Ace. 33 Dialogus shows just how 
to ** work it in." 

23. arv 8c roOro: this use of d^ is 
especially Humeric, but was occasion- 

ally used also by Herodotus and Attic 
writers, e.g. Xen. Cyr. 6, 6, 21 dXX* el 
fiTlSi TOVTO, f<pri, /3oi;X(i dvoKplvaaOai, tr^ 
di ToivT€v0€P \^€. Cf. KUhner-Blasa 
II, § 616, 6. — irpocup^o^ts : see note on 
VU. Auct. 1. — Tofrro vircpi&dxc^: the 
Mss. and scholiast agree in giving 
TOVTO. The gen. is the usual construc- 


24 AlOr. Sapp€LT€j ovSev iWev^ofiei/y virkp drrduroji/ ipo). 
Kav 7) ^iK(xro(f>La 8c Trpos rov^ koyov^ liriKkaarOuxra — (f>V(r€L 

360 yap rjficpo^ Kal irpao^ iariv — df^etvai Sta^SovXcuiyrai airrop, 
dXX* ov rdfid cVSciycrci • hei^to yap aural otl fiy) fiaTrjv ^vXor 

<[>IA. TovTO iJL€P fi7]Safia)Sy dXXa to> Xoyw fidWov — a/ici- 
vov yap — TjTTcp to> guAo). /xij jllcAac o ouj'. Tforq yap €kk€' 

366 )(VTat TO vStop Kal Trpo? (TC TO SiKaaTrjpLoi/ dTTO/SXcVct. 

AOTK. Oi XoiTTol Ka0L^€a'Oo}a'avy co ^L\oa'OKf>La, /cat \frrfKf)o- 
(f>op€LT(t}a'av fieO* vfiSiv^ Atoycprfq Se KarrfyopeCra) ijl6vo<s» 
4>IA. Ou SeSia? oui/ /litj crov /carai/njc^wrcurrai ; 
AOTK. OuSa/Ltoi?- TrXctocrt yovi/ KpaTrjaai fioyXofiat. 

370 4>IA. rci/i/ald (Tov ravra- KadiaaTe 8* oSi/. crv 8', <w 
Atoycj'C?, Xcyc. 

26 AlOr. Otoi ficp ij/LtcI? di/8p€9 iyevofieOa irapd tov fiiovj 
(3 4>cXo(ro<^ia, Trdi/u aKptfiioq ourOa Kal oxfSci/ Set \6ycop * ii^a 
ydp TO icar' €/i€ (rioiTnycrcu, dXXd Hvdayopav tovtov Kal 11 Xd- 

376 Tcji/a Kal ^ApuTTOTcXyji/ Kal Xpyannroi/ Kal Toif^ dWov^ tl^ 
ovK otScj/ oaa C9 roi/ ^toi/ KaXd io'eKOfiUravTo ; d hk tol- 
ovTov^ oma^ Tjfid^ 6 rpttrKardparo? ovto^ nappTjcridSijs 
vfipLK€i/j yjSri ipS) ' prJT(t>p ydp Ti5, W (f>y)0'LP, cSi/, aTrokiircjv 
TO, SiKaoTTJpLa Kal tcl^ iv eK^ivoi^ evhoKLfnjo'^L^iy onoaov rf 

24. ^Ti (i^ : In trod. 39 (6). — |&d- havdsome of you. Cf. D. ^ort. 10, 13 

Tf|v (vXo^poO|uv : the compound verb y€vv6.ha% e7, u M^Minre, v^^ ^''^ ^ame, 

is a mocking reminder of dopv(f>op&. Menippiis! 

Compounds ending in ^opu), however, 25. AIOF. : Biogenesis speech is 
became frequent. Cf. ^i70o0ope/r(o<ray, short, one third as long as the defend- 
five lines below, dairiSo<f>opCj^ etc. That ant^s. After the usual complaints, 
the English translation recalls Romans couched in conventional law-court 
13, 4, is purely accidental : the Greek phrases, he concludes with the abrupt- 
there (oi) ytp cUi rijv fiAxaipav 4>opei) ness of a speaker sure of his case. He 
neither uses pLaxatpotpopu (with Jose- is still more abrupt in Bis Ace. 24. — 
phus) nor anticipates ^uf>o4>opw (with diroXiirt^v rd SiKourr^pia : with the 
Herodian). — Ttwatdvovra^raithat^a autobiographic details in this passage 


380 \Scti/OT7jT09 T) aKfiT]^ iTTeTTopurTO ip ToZ^ Xoyot9, TovTo irav i(f>* 
Tjfia^ avo'Kevaa'dfiepo^ ov waveraL fiev dyopevwv Kafca>9 yor/ra? 
ical aTra^^i^a? awoKaXioPj tol TrkyjOr) Se apaireidcjv KarayeXdv 
7ifiS)i/ K(u^aTa<f>pop€LP 0)9 TO firfhcp opTiOP' iidWop hk koX fit," 
(reia'dcu wpo^ tcjp ttoWcjp rjSri irerroirfKep avrov^ re rffid^ Kal 

386 crc rrip ^iXo(ro<f>iaPy <f>\ripai(f>ov^ Kal Xijpov^ dnoKaXtop rd cd 
Kal rd CTrovSatoTaTa &p rffids €7rai8cvcra9 cttI ^Xevcwr/Ltol 8t- 
€^L(oPf cooT€ avTOP fiep KporeLcdat Kal iiraxpeladaL irpo^ rfap 
OeaTwp^ rffid^ 8c vfipiCfiO'daL • <^vcrci ydp toiovtop iarip 6 wo- 
Xv9 Xcoi^' xaipov(Ti roi^ dtroo'KQmrova'L koL XoiSopovfiepoi^y 

390 Kal fidkurff* OTap ra (refiPoraTa etpai hoKovpra hiaarvpyfrai^ 
wanep d/xeXet Kal irdkax €)(aLpop *ApiaTO(f>dp€i Kal Eu7rdXi8i 
^(OKpaTTjp TovTOpl CTTI ^XcvcwTtigL TTapdyovo'LP CTTi rffp (rKr/priP 
Kal KCJfKdSovcLP dWoKOTov^ TLpd^ nepl avTov K(ofiajSCa^. 
KaiTOL iK€LPOt, fi€p Kad* ipo^ dpSpo^ irokfKop roiavra koX ip 

395 Aioiruaovy i<f>€ifi€POP avTo Spdpy Kal to CKcififia fiepo^ e8o- 
K€t rfjs €o/>T7j$, Kal 6 Otos uroi$ xaip^L (^tXoycXcS? Tt9 cS»'. 

26 o 8c Toi)^ dpioTOv^ (rvyKoKcipy Ik ttoWov f^popTura^ koX 
TrapacKevaadfiepo^ Kal pkacf^iqfita^ Tipd^ cs ira)(y fii/SkCop 
iyypwi^fa^ fieydX-g ry {fxopy dyopevei KaKoi^ IIXarcDi/a, Ilu^a- 

400 yopaPy * Api^oToreXriPy Xpycnrirop iK€LPOPy ifie Kal 0X019 dnap' 
ras ovT€ ioprfj^ i(f>L€urris ovre Ihiq, ri Trpo? rffioip iradojip • cl;(c 
ydp dp Ti <rvyyp(0fi7jp airrw to Trpdyfia^ ei dfivpofiepo^ dXXa 
fir) dp)(a}p avTo^ c8pao'c. Kal to irdpTcjp heiporaTopy otl 
Tavra ttolwp Kal vno to (top opofia^ o> <[>tXoo'o<^ia, inroSve- 

406 Tcu Kal virekOwp top Aiakoyop rffierepop oIk^Iop oPTa, rovr^ 

cf. In trod., p. x f . — 8ctvdTT|T0$: ckv- Introd. 34 (a). — t& lii^S^: naught. Cf. 

erness. An especial characteristic of Soph. O.T, 1187 <as itfuis taa koI t6 nn- 

Demosthenes. Dionysiua of Halicar- Sir fc^at ipopiBfiQ. — Iv Atov^o^v: sc. 

nassos wrote a treatise ncp2r^s5c(v6Tir''Of Bedrptfi. — ^cifUvov: ace. abs. G. 1669; 

AfifMaS^povs, — dK|i4|s : vigor. — Ivnrd- H. 973 ; Gl. 691 ; B. 668. 

pi9To: had stored up, For tense see 26. i^i^rr^: licensing. ivwOffiis(the 

AAIEY5 141 

^vvayiovLcrry Koi VTroKpiry xprJTOL Kad* rniS>v^ ert Koi Mc- 
viirirov avaireCo'a^ eraipov rjiMiop dvSpa ^vyK(oii<^€Li/ avroi 
TO, TToXXa, 09 fiovo^ ov irdpeoTiv ovSe Kavqyopu, fi€0* rjiiiovy 

27 wpoSovs TO Koivov, apO* (ov airavrwv a^iov iarip vnoa')(€ip 
410 airrop rrii/ Sucrfv. rj tC yap av eiirelv €\oi rd aefivorara 

hiacrupa^ inl TOcrovTwv fiaprvpcov ; )(pija'Lfiop yovv koX irpos 
iK€u/ovs TO TOLOvTOi/y €t dedo'aLPTo airrov icoXacr^cnra, 019 
firjSe aXXo9 T19 eri KaTa(f>povoLri <^iXoa'o<^ia9' cttci to ye Trjv 
rf(rv\iai/ dyeu/ koI a)PplI<oil€vov dv€)(€a'6ai ov fierpiortfTO^^ 

415 dXX* avavhpla^ koX einjOeia^ elKOTCJ^ dp pofiC^oiTO. Ta yap 
TcXcvrata tCpl (f>oprfTd ; 09 KaOdirep Ta dpSpdnoha irapayayoip 
rjlidq eVi TO TTCjkTiTTJpiop Kai idjpvKa iiriarrjaa^ dirrifnrokrj' 
(T^Py dJ9 <f>aa'ty TOV9 fi€p irrl TrbXXoJ, ipiovs Se fipd^ *Am/c^9, 
ifie 8c 6 irafiTTovrjpoTaTos ovtos 8v* o^oXcjp • ot TrapoPTes 8c 

420 iyeXtop. dp6* (op ye avToC T€ dpekriXvOafiep dyapaichja'ames 
Kal (re d^LOVfiep Tifiwpija'eLp rffiip Ta ccr^ara v/SpiCfiepoi^. 

28 AN AB. Eu yc, c3 Atoycv€9, inrep dtrdpTcjp koKw^ kol OTrdcra 
iXPV^ diraPTa €Lp7}Ka^. 

4>IA. Tlavaaade inaiPOVPTe^; - cyj^ct t^ dirokoyovfievfo. 
426 <rif 8c, <i5 YlappTjatd^y Xeye yjSrf ip t<^ fiepei • col yap to pvp 
pel. /JLTj fiekXe ovp. 

29 IIAPP. Ov irdpra fiovy w 4>iXo(ro<^ia, KaTTjyoprjae Aioyc- 
1^79, dkkd Ta irXcuo Kal oca 'Jjp x^kenwrepa ovk 0I8* o rt 
tra6(op irapeXiTrep. eyo) 8c tocovtov Sew e^appo^ yepeaOai 

430 {09 OVK etrrop aura, 17 aTroXoyiai/ TLpd fiefiekeTTfKwq d(f>i)(OaLy 
dJoTC Kal el TLpa rj ovro^ direo'idiiTrqa'ep rj eycj fir) nporepop 
ef^dacra eipnr)Kw^y pvp rrpoo'Orja'eip fioi 8oic5- ovtcj yap dp 

common reading) would mean coming quence, i.e. xp'^l^^f'^^ . . . sc. av efi;. 

(m. See App.— AidXoyov: see Introd., See GMT. 180, II (6) and 176, B. 

p. zi. — MMirirov : see Z>. Mori. p. 189. 28. IXa^OfrBc liroivoOvrct : silence 

27. Mt . . . Kara4povoCii : optative by in the Court! — lyx*^ • ^^ Diet. Antiq. 

assimilation although in primary se- a. v. **Horologium,*^ 



lidOoi^; ovoTiva^ aireKrjpvTTOv koX KaKw^ Tjyopevov aXa^di^a^ 
icat ycn/ra? aTTOicaXaii/ • KaL fiOL fiopov tovto irapcu^vXarrcrc, 

435 ei akTjOrj Trcpl avriov ipci,' ei 8c tl fiXdaKfyq/iov 17 Tpa)(p <^at- 
voLTo €xa)v 6 Xoyo5, ov Tou 8icXey;(oi/Ta c/itc, aXX' eKeivovs w, 
olficuj SiKaiOTcpov airtcurawr^c roiavra iroLovvra^' iyto yap 
ineiSri Ta^iara ^vveihov OTrdcra rot^ p7jTop€vov(rL ra Svax^pv 
avayKalov wpoaeivcUy dndrqi/ kol ^€v8o$ koL dpaaiirrfTa Koi 

440 ^0171^ KoX (odKTfioif^ KaL fivpta aXXa, ravra fievj oxrwep eiico? 
rjvy d7r€<f}vyoVy inl 8c ra tra, (o 4>iXo<ro<^ia, icaXa op/iTJca^ 
Tj^tovv oirocrov crt ftoi Xoittoi/ tov ^tov Kaddircp ck ^ciXtj? Kat 
KXv8aii/o5 €5 €u8l6p TLva Xifieva circvcras vno col (TKeiroiiei/o^ 

30 KaTafiiiovaL. Kdir^ihrf fiovov nap€K\nffa is ra vfierepa^ ae fiipy 
445 cScTTTcp dvayKoLov '}jpf Kal TotJcr8c aTrai/Tas iOavfia^op dpir 

oTov fiiov pofioOeras orra^ Kal toI<s in avrov iwciyofiivoLS 
^ctpa opiyopTaSf rd /caXXtcrra KaL ^fi(f>opwaTa irapaLvovv 
Ta9, ct Tt9 1171 wapafiaCpoL avrd firjSe hLokLcOdpoLy dXX' drepes 
dTTofikeTTtop C9 TOu$ Kapopas ovs Trporc^cwcarc, ir/>o9 rovrous 
450 pvOfiL^OL Kal dnevOvpoL top cai/roi) I3lop^ ottc/d 1;^ Aui /cat ra)i/ 

31 ica^' i7/Aa$ avrov? oXtyot TTOtoOcrii/. opoii/ 8c ttoXXov? ovk 
epojTL <f>Lkoa'0(f>Las ixofi^povs, aXXa 80^179 fiopop rfjs dwo tov 
irpdyfiaTos i(f>L€fi€POVSy Kal ra fi€P iTp6\(eLpa Tavra kol hnry 
fLOCLa KoX onoaa iraPTl fiLficlo'daL pahLOP cv fidka coc/cdra? 

29. dm K^pvTTov : I offered at aiic- 
tioiu No Bale was effected in the case 
of three philosophers. Cf. Vit. Auct. 
12 and 14. — KoOdirtp 4k UXifi . . . otkc- 
irdfuvof KaraPiAvai: a Platonic remi- 
niscence. In Rep. 406 d the covert 
from the storm of wind, dust, and rain 
is a wall, otov iv x^'M^''^ Kovtaprov xal 
^(iX^$ inrb rvtdfULTOS <p€pofUpov vwb rctx'or 
dtroards, . . . KaSapds dSiKlas re xal dvo- 
(rltav i^pyufv rbv rt ivOdSe filov fin^erai, 

— orKcird|uvo$: frequent in late prose, 

e.g. D. Mori, 10, 8; Tim, 21. — xara^ 
PiAvat : note force of xard (like dir6 in 
dvofidxo/Mi, I fight it out. Lys. adv. 
Sim. 26). See Plato Rep, 578 c (of dv 
TvpayviKbt Sjv) /x^ IdidrTiv plov xaraPufi 
. . , is prevented from completing his 
private life; also Plato Protag. 366 a 
and Luc. V.H, A12 €mainov4crrara xop* 

30. T&v KaO' ^)ta« : men of our day 

(like rd lir ifuO, Hdt. 1, 5), but in Rhet. 
Praec, 11 men of our pattern. 


456 ayaOol^ avZpd(Tij to yei/eiop Xeycj /cat to ^ahidfia koX T7)v 
avafiokrjVj iirX 8c tov fiiov koX t<op npayfidTtov avTL<f}d€yyo- 
fi€i/ov^ ro) a")(7JfiaTL Kal TavavTia vfiip inLTTjhevovTas Koi 8ia- 
(f>0eipovTa^ to d^uofJLa T179 VTrotr^cVcoi^? Tf/avaKTovVj koX to 
wpayfia ofioLOp cSd/cei fioi KaOdirep dv ci ri$ viroKpLTTf^ Tpa- 

460 ywSCa^ iJLaXOaKo^ avTo? cSi/ koI yvvaiKeios 'A^tXXca 17 Syjaea 
Tf Kal TOV 'HpaicXca xmoKpivoiTO airrop fiTjTe jSaSC^oiv fiiJTe 
fiocip TfptoLKOVy dXXa Opwroficvo^ vno TrjjkiKovT(t) irpoo'coireLWy 
ov ov8' dv Tf 'EXanj trork 17 Tlo\v^€vy) dvda")(oivTo ircpa tov 
fierpiov airraid irpoaeoiKOTa^ ov^ ottcj? 6 'HpaKX'^^ 6 KaXXti/t- 

466 Ko^y dXXa, fiol Soicec, rd^ior' di' ini/rp v^ai T(p po7rd\<p irauov 


32 TaTeOrjXvfifievo^ Trpo? avroS. Touavra koI vfids irdaxovTa^ 
VTT iK€Cv(ov 6p<ov ovK 7Jv€yKa TTjv alaxvvTjv rfj<; xmoKpia^to^^ cJ 
irCOrjKOL OI/T69 iToXfiria'av rfpcjcov Trpoo'cjTrcZa irepiO^aOai rj tov 

470 iv Kv/iT) ovov fitiMTJaaadaiy 09 keovTTJv ir^pifioKoii^vo^ rf^iov 
\4o)v avTos €lvaL irpo^ dyvoovirra^ Toifq KvfiaCov^ oyKCJ/ievo^ 
fidXa Tpa)(y Kal KaTaTrkrjKTiKoVy dyjpi hrj ri9 avrov ^ivo^ koX 
\4ovTa tScii/ Kol ovov iroXXdict? TjXcy^c waUov rot? ^vXoi?. o 
Sf fMoKia'Td fioi h^ivovj ta 4>iXocro<^ta, KaTe^aivero^ tovto Jjv • 

475 ol yap dvOpcoTTOL ci rti/a tovtwv iwpcjv irovrfpov rj aaxrifiov 
rj dKreXyes tl iinrqhevovTay ovk itmv octti? ov (f>L\oa'0(f>iav 
avrfiv yTiaTO Kal tov Xpyaiirirov evOif^ 17 Il\dTO}va rj Ilv0a- 
yopav Tj OTov avTov iirmrvfjiov 6 SiafMapTdvc^v eKeivo^ cttoicito 
Kal ov Tovq \6yov^ TrpoaeiroLeiTO, Kal diro tov /caicoi? ^lovv 

480 T05 irovrjpd irepl vficov €LKal,ov twv irpo ttoXXoG TeOvrjKOTcov 

31. dvTi^OryyoiUvovs: contradicting , otbv n . . . 6 Afffioirds 0t7<ri trot^<rai rbv ip 
as in d6 Salt. 23 tQs dm4>$^y€<y$ai ixtl- rg K^fijj 6»ov. Cf. Aesop Fab. (Halm.) 
MMf ToXfi^s; The first meaning is echo- Nos. 333 and 336. — o^Kd^iuvot : cf. 
ing. — o*x ^irtn: cf. Char.S, note. — Fugit. 14 (J7«co<r^ai, and note the con- 
Jmrpi^oi : cf. Ktihner-Blass «, § 214, 3. text for the oft-repeated description of 

32. r6v iv Ki»|i|| 5vov : cf. Fugit. 13 the externals of the philosopher. 


ov yap irapa tfivras vfia^ rj cferacrt? avroC iyCyvero^ aXX* 
vfi€L^ fikv iKVohdpy eKtlvop Sc itoptou {toj^S)^ airavre^ Seti^a 
Koi acefiva cirtTTjScvorra, ware ipyjfiTiv rjkiO'Kea'de [ler* av- 

33 Tov Koi iirl ttjp ofioCap SiafioXrji/ o'vyKar^a'Traade. ravra 
486 ovK yjveyKa oplav eyoxyc, dXXa rjkey^ov avrov? koX hUKpivov 

d(f>* vfiS>v • v/i€i9 8c, TLfiaiy iirl tovtol^ 8cW, €5 hiKaucTTrjpiov 
dyere. ovkovv tjv riva Kai tS)v ficfixrqfici/cjp iha>p i^ayor 
peoovra toiv deolv ra diroppirjTa koX i^op^ovfiei/ov dycu/a- 
fcnjao) Kal SicXey^-o), ifik top dSiKovvra 7iyT]a€(r0c eu/aa; 

490 aXX' ov BucoLOv. cttci koI ol ddXoderax fiaxmyovv elajdaaLPy 
rjp Tt9 vTroKpi'n)^ *A07)pdp 17 HoatLhcjpa 'q top Aux viroSehv 
KWf; iirj icaXa)9 vwoKpCpoi/ro firjSe icar* d^iap t(op de&Pf koX ov 
817 trov opyC^opTcu outols CKCti/oi, on top TrepLKcifiepop avTCJv 
ra TrpocrcwTTCta Kal to axrjfia ipSeSvKOTa iTrerpeffap iraUiv 

496 ToZ^ fia(myo(f>6poL^j aXXa icat rjSoiPT dp, olficUj fiaaTiyov 
fiepoyp' oiK€T7fP fi€P yap rj dyyekop Tipa fir) 8e|'ca)9 xmoKpi- 
paadax fiiKpop TO Tjralo'iJLay top ACa Sc tj top 'Hpa/cXea fi"^ 
KaT d^uLP eirihet^axrOai, to7,% deaTal^ dirorpowaiop (09 at- 

34 axpop. Kal yap ad Kal Tohe trdpTcop aTorrajTaTop iaTLP, otl 
600 Toifs fi€p Xoyov^ vficjp irdpv dKpifiovaip ol iroWol avTwPy 

KaOdwep 8c inl tovto) fiopop dpayipwcKomc^ avrou? Kal fie- 
\€T(0PT€Sf (OS TapapTia C7nTT78cuotci/, ovTojs fiiovaiP' irdpra 
fi€P yap ocra (f>aa'Cpy otop ^^pTjfiaTCJp KaTa<f>popeLP Kal 80^9 
Kal fiopop TO KaXop occcrdac dyadop koX dopyifTOP elpai 
605 KoX Ttop XafiTTpcjp TovTKop vnepopdp Kal i^ icrort/Ltux? avTois 
8iaXey€cr^at, /caXa, cS deoCy Kal a'o<f>d Kal OavfidcLa \Cav 
CO? a\7ju(os- 01 0€ Kai avTa raura ctti fiiau^o OLoaxrKovcri 
Kal Toifs TrXovcLOvs T^drjiraai koX irpos to dpyvpiop K^yrj- 
pacLPy opyiXcjTepoL fiep tS)p kvplSuop opTeSy 8ciXorcpot 8c 

33. ^v Tie . . . viroKpCvoiTo : see In- Heaven help us, how disgraceful thai is I 
trod, 36 (a) . — dirorpdiroiov w% alo^p^v : Cf . vw€p<t>vh <a ^ and mirum quam. 


510 7(01/ XaycjStPy Ko\aK€VTLK(jJT€poi, Sc TCJv WLdiJKioVy dcekyeo'Tcpoi 
he T(ov opa}Py apirajcnKiirepoi hk rlov yakiov^ (f>iXov€uc6T€poL Se 
tUv dkacrpvovwv. roiyapavv ycXoira otfjiktCKdj/ovo'iv (Jdt^o- 
fieuoL iwl ravra kol wepl ras r&v ttKowtuov dvpa^ aXXi}Xov9 
trapcodovfiepoL, Seim/a wokvdpdpayrra heiTTvovm'e^ Koi iv avroi? 

M6 Touroi? iwoLPOvvref: (f>opTiK(!}^ Kal irepa rov Koktos €)(ovto^ 
ifi(f>opavfi€i/oi, Kal fiepj^iiioipoi (f>axv6fi€uoL Kai iirl rf}^ kvXlko^ 
drepTrfj Kal dircfSa <f>L\oao(f>ovvT€s Kal top aKparop ov <f>€pop' 
TC5 • oi tSc£rat 8c ottoo'ol ^vfiTripovcif Si/XaSi) KaTaimiovo'L 

36 (f>iXoa'0(f>iaSy ct rotavra KaOdpfiara €KTp€^€i> to 8e Trdmwp 

620 oUt^iotopj art ftijSci/o? heiaOajL \4y(t>p occwrro? avrtop dWa 
fiopop irXovcLOP elpcu top co^op KCKpayo)^ fiiKpop varepop 
atret irpoarekdiop koI dyapojcrel pji) Xa/Sdpy ofioLOP wq et ri9 
ip fiaaikiKfa O'X'jP'OLTt opdrjp Tidpap €)(a}p Kal Sidjhrjiia Kal to, 
aXXa ocra ^acrtXcta? ypcopurfiaTa irpoa'aiToiy) T(op vTroSccarc- 

526 pcop SeofMepos* OTap fi€P oip airrovs ri heg XafifidpeiPy iroXv9 
6 trepl Tov KoipwpiKOP etpaL Setp Xoyo9 Kal co^ dhia^opop 6 
7rXovT09 Kat, ri yap to "xpyatop 17 dpyvpiop ovhep twp ip rot? 
atyiaXot9 \lrri(f>CS(i)P Sia(f>€pop ; otop Se ti% liriKovpia^ Scd/ic- 
1/05 eralpos €K TraXatov ical (f>i\o^ dn ovk oXiycjp oXCya alr^ 

530 wpoo'ekdioPy (riamrj Kal fioinj Kal dnopia Kal dfiadia Kal ira- 
Xti/aiSta Tiop \6yoiP irpos to ipaPTiOP- ol he ttoXXoi Trepl 
(f>tXia^ eKelpoL Xoyot Kal 17 dperfj Kal to koXop ovk otS* onoi, 

34. XaymAv: see App. — 4|i^po^ 14 £f. where the goblet of i^tap&rcpov 

|uvoi : in Symp. 11 Lucian describes an proves too much for the Cynic's equa- 

old Stoic as he appeared when con- nimity. But see App. — For general 

fronted, not by theories and syllogisms, thought in § 34 cf. S. Matt. 23, 2-7. 

but by blood-puddings and other dain- 35. |ii|8cv6s: see In trod. 30 (a). — 

ties : 6p$f . . . Hvtas i/Mftopeirai r(av tnf/wv dSiA^pov : technical term of Stoics. 

Kal dpar4x\riffTai fw/ioO rb Ifidriov Kal Hera See Vit A uct 21 , and the notes on VU. 

ri} Taiil KarSiwiv ifrrloTi 6p4y€i \avddp€LV Auct. 20, for this whole passage. — rAv 

oi6fuvos roi^f dXXoi/$ ; — rbv &Kparov oi 4v rot« al^ioXott i|n|^(S«*v : with this 

^ipomt : they lose their heads, cf . § 32 passage compare Tim. 56. — |ioW| : see 

o^K ^HjKa r^¥ al^x^vrip. Also Symp, App. 





7roT€ OL)(€Tai irdvTa ravra dirowrdfievay TrT€p6€VTa (o<: dXyjOS)^ 
CTDj, fidrr^v 6<rqyi4pai irpo^ avriop cV rat? SuxTpi^al^ CKtafia- 


a»/ /Lti7 dpyvpiov 7) )(pv(ru)v jj irpoK^ip*€vov iv rm p>^(T(a • rjv 


Tt9 o^okov iTnSeL^y povov, \i\vTaL pAv 17 eipijirrjy danopSa 
8c *cat dKTjpvKra irarra, Kal ra /St/SXui e^aXi^XtTrrai /cat 17 
dperrj iri^evyev^ oXov tl kqX oi kwc? irdo'^ovo'Li/ - iireiSdp rt? 

540 ocrrovi' C9 pecov^ aurov? ipfidkrfy dpaTryiSTJaapre^ SdKvorj- 
(XIV (zXXtjXov? /cat t6i/ irpoapTrdaravTa ro oo'tovp uXa/croScrt. 
Xeycrat 8c icat ^acrtXcu? rts AtyvTirto? indrJKOv^ 7roT€ irvpr 
piyil^^Lv hihd^ai /cat ra difpia — pipifkorara 8c ccrrt tcjp 
dvdpojTTLvojp — iKpadeiv ra^tora /cat op^^ctcr^at d\ovpyC8a^ 

545 dpire^op^va /cat irpoo'cjTrcta Trcpt/cct/xci/a, /cat P'^XP^ 7^ ttoX- 
XoS €v8oKLp€lv TTfv 0€aVy dxp^ 8i/ rt? dearff^ aorcto? /capva 
VTTO /coXttoi/ e)(ciii/ d^y\K€v c? ro piaov • ot 8c TriOrjKot t8oi/rc? 
/cat €Kkad6p€voi r^9 opx'ijo'eto^;, rov0* oir^p Jjaavy iriOtfKoi 
eyivqvTo dvrl Truppix^dTfav /cat ^vverpifiov rd TrpocrcoTrcta /cat 

550 r'^i/ iaOrJTa Kar^pprjyvvov /cat ipd^ovro irepl rfj^ oncjpa^ 
7rpo9 aXXi^Xous, ro 8c avvraypa r^9 Trvppixv^ 8l€\€\vto /cat 

37 /carcycXaro vtto roC Oedrpov, roiavra /cat ovrot TrotoCcrt, /cat 
eycoyc rou? rotourov? /ca/coJ? rjyopevoi/ /cat ouTTorc iravaopax 

36. vXoKToGoa : with ace. Cf. Ar. 
re«/). 1401-1402 : 

Ata-utrof drb delryov ^aSlj^ovft iffir4pas 
6paff€ta Kal fieSwrri ris vXdKTei kOuv. 

And the context here about the dancing 
apes suggests the fable (in Aesop Fa6. 
Hal in. 88) of the weasel metamor- 
phosed into a pro tempore maiden but 
recalled to her weaselhood by the sud- 
den advent of a mouse. See, too, the 
story (cited by Heitland) in Apol. 5, 
about the ape ov KXeoirdrp^i rj ndw 

tfxurl yepiffOai • iKcTvov yiip ^ihax'^ivra 
riws fiiv 6px€^(r0ai trdyv KOfffjUus Kal ififie- 
Xtat . . . itrel Si eldcv l<rxddaSj olfuu^ j 
dfijCySaXoy vbppta KtifUwriP, fULKpd x"^^^ 
tf^pdffayra rocs ai)Xo(t Kal ftvOptoTs Kal ipx'^h 
fULffi^ <rvpapTd<ratrra KaTarpftrfeip, dwoppt- 
yj/avTa^ fiaWov Bk trvm-plyl/ayra rb Tpoa<a- 
veTov. — irvpptxClciv : the Spartan and 
Cretan military dance degenerated — 
or developed — into a mimetic ballet. 
See Diet. Antiq. b.v. **Pyrrhica" and 
**Pant()mimus." — 6ir^pa«: this word is 
used both for fruit trees, cf. V, II. B 13, 

AAIEY2 147 

8tcXey^{ui/ ical K(OfiwSoipy Trepl vfitav he rj tS>v vfiiv irapairkyf 
556 aixov — €10*1 yap, ctcrt rive^ cJ? dkyjOcJS ff>L\oao<f}iav ^ijXow- 

T€^ Koi Tol^ VIJL€T€pOL^ VOflOL^ iflfJLCVOVTe^; flT) OVTO) fiaP€LTfV 

iycj a>9 fiXdcffyrffMOv eiireZv ri rf crKaiop. tl yap vfilv tol- 
ovTO ^e^uoTaL ; rov9 8c aka^ova^ eKeivov^ kcli 0eot<; i)(Opoif^ 
a^Loi/ oT/Liat iMKreLV. rj oif ydp, (o Uvdayopa Kal IlXar<ui/ 

660 Kal XpucriTTTTC icai 'ApwrrorcXcs, tl <^aT€ ; irpoo'TJKeLP vfup 
TOU9 TOLOVTov^ 7) olKeloi/ TL Kal ^vyyevk^ inLSeLKPvo'OaL rol 
/Sio); PTj Ata 'HpaKkyj^:, <f>aaL, Kal ttlOtjko^. rj Stori iroryojr 
va^ €)(ova'L Kal f^Lkocoi^eLV f^axTKOvcL^ 8ta tovto XP'^ vfuv 
€i/ca^€ii/ avTov<; ; aXXa riveyKa av, ei itLOavol yovv ^aav koX 

565 cTTi T179 xmoKpurea)^ avrrj^- vvv 8c ddrrov av yinjf drjSova 
fiLfirjaaLTO t) ovtol <f>L\ocr6<f>ov<;. €Lp7)Ka vnep ifiavrov oiroara 
elxpV' <Tv 8c, CO *AkTJ6€Lay fiapTvpeL irpo^ avjoif^ el dXyfOrj 


38 <[>IA. McTctoTij^t, 0) UapprjCLaSr), ctl Troppoyrepo). tl 
670 TTOLtofiev rffi€L<;; 7ra>^ vplv elprfKevai dvr)p iSo^ev ; 

AAH0. 'Eyci /licV, cj <[>iXoo'o<^ui, fieTa^if Xeyojrro^ avrov 
KaTa TTJ? 7^9 8Si^at 7)vxofir)V' ovto)^ akifOrj irdvTa elnev. 
iyvcopL^op yovv aKovovcra eKaarrov tS>v itolovvtwv axrro Kd- 
<f>TJpiio^ov ii€Ta^v Tot9 XeyoficvoL^; Tovto ficv C9 rwSc, tovto 
676 8c 6 Selva TTOict • *cat oX<w9 cSct^c tou9 dvhpa^ ivapyS)^ KaOd- 
irep iiri tlvo<; ypa(f>'rj^ ndvTa ioLKora^^ ov to. o"w/xaTa fiovov, 
aXXa Kal Ta9 ^v^a^ avra^ C9 to dKpL^earaTov a7rct/cao"a9. 
SX14>P. Kdycj irdvv i^pvOpCacray <o 'AXi^^cta. 
4>IA. 'T/Ltcr9 8c rt f^are; 

and for the fruit itself such as grapes, utter contrast, like "Beauty and the 

pears, etc.; cf. Plato Legg. 844 d ff. Beast.'* 

Here it refers to the nuis^ Kdpva, 38. Tovro |&fv 4s r6v8c : sc. dp/i6i^€i, 

37. oiiTw . . . «s: see lutrod. 20. — intrans. as in Isocr. 21 i> rA Si irpb^rda 

trv . . . tL (|>aTc : note plural verb. — ^ cvvovaiai apphmi. — KaOdvcp 4iri rivos 

'HpaKXi)sKalir£OT)Kos: proverbial of an 'ypa^fjs: of. CharA) uxnrep iv ypa<pais. 



680 ANAB. Tt 8c aXXo rj d<f>€Ur6(u airop rov iyKkijfiaTo^ 

Kol if>ikov Tfiuv KoX cvcpyenjv dvayeypauf^dcu ; to yovv t<ov 

'iXteiwi/ aT€)(ySi^ 7r€7r6vdafi€i/, Tpay(aS6v riva rovrov c<^' ij/xag 

KeKivrJKaiiei/ daofievop ra? ^pvyiov ^vii^opd,^. aSerco 8* ow 

* icai Tov^ Oeol^ i^dpov^ iter pay (j^^iro}. 

585 AlOr. Kat avTo^j a> ^iXocrcx^ia, irdw iTrcuvo) top dvhpa 
fcal dvaTi0efi(u ra KaTTjyopovfJLei/a Kai if>Ckov noLovficu airrbv 
yevvalov oirra. 

39 ^lA. ES yc, <o Yiapp7)(Tidhr) • d<f>Ufi€i/ crc rfjq cuTia^y koX 
Tat? TTcurcu? Kparei^ kol to Xolttov urdi 'qfierepo^s (ov. 

590 IIAPP. npocacupr/a'a rtfv TlTepaynjv /laXXoi/ 8c Tpayi- 
KCJTepov avTO Troti^crcti/ /lot 8oKci> • aefivorepop yap • 

cS fteya ae/jLvri Nuoj, roi/ €/toi/ 

fiCoTOV KaT€)(OL^ 

Kal fiTj Xi^yot5 aT€<f>avova'a. 

596 APET. Oufcovi/ Scirrcpov Kparrjpo^ rjSrj KaTap)((ifie0ay 
7rpo(TKak(Ofi€v KdK€ivov<ij (W9 hitcqv xmoa'^iao'iv dvd* &v e? 
v/xa9 v/SpC^ovai - Kanr)yoprja€i 8c Wappyiaia^^ cfcoorov. 

— T& tAv'IXUmv: a proverbial expres- 
sion like **We have only ourselves to 
blame for it.** It is more fully given 
in Pseudolog. 10 ixcl yi^p xardi riiv rapoi- 
fi/ai' *IX(et>s u¥ Tpay(fidoi^i iiuaOilxrta^ icai- 
p6$ iqbm <roi axoOeiv rd aavroO xaxd. 

39. rais irdo-oif (sc. ^i^^ois) : in £m 
Ace. 32 the disguised Lucian lacks one 
vote of unanimous acquittal. AIK. rlt 
jcparct; EPM. xdcraif 6 Zi$pot xX ^ ^uas. 

— IIp<Nrf K^vi|<ra : cf . § 6 note. — tt|v 
IlTipMT^v : a happy conjecture for r^i» 
ye vpiirriv. See App. The winged Vic- 
tory, crowned with a golden wreath, 
and standing on the outstretched hand 
of the great chryselephantine Athena 

in the Parthenon, was itself more than 
six feet high. We must suppose that 
Lucian addresses this Nike. — •• . . . 

O inajestical Victory, shelter my life 

'Neath thy covert of wings — 

Aye— cease not to grant me thy crowning. 

fjjya is adverbial like rdvv. This ana- 
paestic formula is found at the end of 
three Euripidean plays; i.e. the Tau- 
ric Iphigenia, Orestes, and PJioeniasae. 
Another formula (presumably repeated 
by the actors) was used at the end of 
the Alcestis, Andromache^ Bacchae^ 
Helena^ and Medea , and is likewise bor- 
rowed by Lucian for the grand finale 



IIAPP. 'Op^(it>9, a> *Apenj, cXc^^a?- cScrrc crv, Trat SvXXo- 

yLafMC, icaraKvi/fa9 C5 to aarv irpocKrjpvrr^ rov^ ^ikoaoif^ov^. 

^ STAA. "AKove, aCya- Toif^ ^tXocroc^ov? r/Keiv c? aKpoTro- 

\lv dirokoyy^aoiievovs cttI t^5 ^Apenj^ koI ^Lkoaoif>ia^ Koi 

IIAPP. *Opa^; oXiyot awep^foprai yi/fopurairre^ to ict/- 
pvy/jLa- aXX(w5 yap SeStao't ti71' AiKrjy. oi woXkol 8c avrcii/ 
606 ov8c o"xoXi^i/ ay ova IV dfi<f>l Toif^: wkovaiov^ cj^oi^c?. €t Se 
^ouXei irdvra^ rJKeiv^ Kara tciSc, c5 2vXXoyio"/ie, KTjpxrrre. 

^lA. Mi7Sa/xc39, otXXa o"iJ, cS nappTjaa^r)^ npoaKaXei 

Kad* O Tt 0*01 SoKCC. 

41 IIAPP. OuSci/ ToSc ^(aXcTroi/. *Afcovc, aCya- oo'ot <^tXo- 

610 a'0(l>OL eh/ax Xeyovo"i icat oo'ot irpoaiJKeLj/ avroi? oioi^ox tov 

oyofjLaro^y 7)Ktiv C5 aKpoirokiv iiri rtfv hLOi/ofiiji/. Svo /ti/at 

iKdaT(p hodTjaovTai Kai crrjaajMaio^ TrXoKov?- 09 8* ai/ ircS- 

ycDva fiadvv e7rt8cti^Tat, *cat Trakddjjp ia^dhtav OVT09 yc 

of his Symposium, — iroS 2vXXoYur|ii 
ktX. : Deduction, m^ &o^ (induct them 
into the Acropolis). ^vWoyurfU is 
chosen, apparently, as a pun on av\- 

40. "Axovt, 9-lya : this formula is used 
again Deor. Coricil. 1, while in Bis Ace. 
12 we find dKovere Xct^ (cf. OyezI 
Oyez I). See Ar. Aves 448 ; Pax 661 ; 
Ach. 1000. For aiya cf . -4cA. 128 where 
the herald cries atya^ xdBil^e. For rixtip 
as imv., chiefly in poetry and legal lan- 
guage, cf. Gildersleeve, 8.C.G. 420, 6. 
In Ar. Ac?L 172 the herald uses it 
bluntly without any dKoderc, i.e. rodi 

4 1 . 8vo fjivaC . . . o-T|o-a|jiatos irXaKOvf : 
Ruskin takes this as motto in Sect. I 
of Sesame and Lilies. These cakes 
were a favorite dish. In Luc. Symp, 

88 they form an essential part of the 
feast : €l<r€K€K6/xLaTo iifuv r& ivrcXit ivo^ 
fM^byxvov dttrvop, fUa 6p¥is ixdartfi xal 
Kp4as v6s Kal Xayfa xal Ix^ if^ Tayi/jyov 
Kai fftiaaitovvrtt koX 69a iyrpayeiy. So in 
Symp, 27 the Stoic who had been left 
out notifies the host by letter that it 
would be useless to try to appease him 
by sending fmpdp riKa ^ (tv^s ^ i\d<pov ij 
ffifffattovpTiKf and the Cynic in § 16 had 
been tamed down by the providential 
advent of a rXaKOVS ed/uyiOris, vpds op 
drofiX^as "^fxepiircpoi iy^pero xal IXi}^ 
rod Bv/jjov Kal ip€<pop«TTo (and proceeded 
to lay in a cargo) avpirtpuCip (accom- 
panying the waiter as he made his 
rounds). Cf. § IS, where he is de- 
scribed as changing, like the Scythian 
nomads, ever to pastures new as he 
followed round with the waiters who 



npoaeTnkrj^lteraL. ko/il^civ 8' clcaoroi/ caxf^poaiiprjp fiep rj 
616 8LK(uoaijv7)v rj eyKpar^iav iirjhafJLco^; • ovk avayKaZa, yap rav- 
rd y€y rji/ (jltj 'rrapfj - irivre hk (rvWoyixriioifs i^ arraano^ • ov 
yap de/jLL^ avev tovtwv €u/ai ao^ov. 

icetrai 8* iv ixeao'oia'i hvo ^vaolo raXai^a, 
TO) SofjLO/ o9 fiera iraaiv ipL^e/iev €^o)(o^ eirj. 

Ba)8ai, 0)5 nXijpr)^ ficp r/ ai/0809 taddfliieviav^ iirei ra? 81J0 
fjLi/a^ rfKovaav /jlovov. irapa 8e to WtKaqryiKOv aXXoi kcX 
Kara ro * AcKX-rjirLelop erepoi Kai napa rov '^Apeiov Tray op eri 
7rXctov5, evLOi 8c Koi Kara rov rov TaXa> rd(l>ovy at 8c koI npo^ 
ro *Ai/aK€LOP irpocrdefi^voi KkifiaKa^ dvepirovo'i fiofjLPrjhov ir^ 



bore the relishes. — oniXXoYttf'i&ovs : cf. 
Vit. Auct. 24. — KfiTOi 8' kt\.: a par- 
ody on II. 18, 507 ff.: 

KcTro d* dp iv fjJff<roi<rt Svo xpv<ro<<> '''^- 

Tt} 56fU¥ OS furd rourt dUriv l&6vTara 

42. Bapa£ xrX.: for a similar scene 
cf. Bis Arc. 12 and 13 (beginning /3a/3a2 
Tw &op6^u) wliere the parties to all 
overdue suits are summoned by Hermes 
to the Areopagus. — irapd 8c r6 IlcXa- 
vy\,K6v: as Farrhesiades mentions the 
following places he must be supposed to 
move from one side to the other of the 
Acropolis: (a) t& lleXaayucdyj a lai^e 
precinct at the base of the Acropolis 
extending from the Asclepieum on the 
south side, about opposite the south- 
west corner of the Parthenon, round the 
west end and the northwest corner of 
t!ie rock. Cf. BI3 Ace. 9, where Pan's 
cave is mentioned as luxphv inrip IlcXa- 
eyiKov, and see charts in Harri.son and 
Verrall, Mythol. and Monuments of 

Anc. Athens, p. 296 and p. 4 ; see also 
p. 538. (6) xard rd ' Atf-jcXi^xtetby : on the 
south side of the Acropolis adjoining 
the Dionysiac Theatre; see Harrison 
and Verrall I.e. and pp. 297-329. (c) 
rapd T&i' ' Kpevov 'r6,yov: the Areopagus 
lies west and slightly north of the 
Acropolis, (d) Karb^ rhv rov TdXw rii- 
00V : immediately above the Dionysiac 
Theatre and the Asclepieum, on the 
south side of the Acropolis and at the 
base of the cliff. Cf. Harrison and 
Verrall, pp. 296 and 299. Talos (called 
Kalos by Pausanias 1,21,4) was thrown 
down this cliff by his mast-er and uncle 
Daedalus on account of his inventions 
and too great proficiency in pottery, 
just as the boy Lucian excited (as he 
alleges to his mother Somn. 4) his 
uncle^s jealousy, (e) rpds t6 'AyoKetoyi 
the "AvaKcr (Aiuicref or AtSaxovpot) had 
their precinct probably on the northern 
slope of the Acropolis. For the wor- 
ship of the Twins at Athens see Harri- 
son and Verrall, pp. 151-163. Note in 
the above the shift in the prepositions 

AA1EY2 151 

626 Ata Koi /SoTpvSov^ Iva koX Kad* OfjLjjpop cittco^ aXXa KaKeWa/ 
cS /taXa iroXXol Koiprevdep 

fivpioLy oaaa re if>vWa koL ai'^ca yiverai oip-g. 

lieaTTj 8c ij aicpoTroXi? iv fipa^ei KXayyqSov TrpoKaOil^ovrmv 
KoX napraxpv irrjpa irarymv KokaKeia avai(r)(yvTUL ^atcnqpUi 

630 Xi^i/€ia cruXXoyio"/io9 <\>ikapyvpia • ol okiyoi h4^ ottocol 7rpo<; 
TO irp&rov Krjpxry/ia CKeivo di/yecavy d<f>apei^ kol aaiqfioi, 
dvapx)(d€VT^^ T(f jfkrjd^i roiv d\k(0Vf Koi kekyjOaaiv iv rg 
o/ioioTTyrt Tciv dk\(ov (rxyj/idrioi/. tovto yovv to heivoTarov 
ioTLVy ct> ^iXocroc^ta^ fcai o T19 olv /te/t^atro <rov /taXicrra, 

636 TO fjLTjhe em^aXeiv ypdipia/jLa kol crrnieiop avroi? • iridavii- 
repoi yap oi yoijrc? ovrot 7roXXaici9 T(ov aXij^ai? (^tXoo'o- 

^lA. *E<rrat tovto /xer* oXiyoi/, dXXa 8cj(cl>/ic^a 1787^ av- 


Q4Q IIAAT. *H/ia5 npwTov^ xprf Toif<; UkaroiPLKOv^ ka/Selp. 

UTS. OvKy dXXa tov? Ilv^ayopticovs ij/ia?* nporepo^ 
yap 6 Uvdayopa^ 7jv. 

STAIK. ATjpeire- a/jLeCpov^ ij/tct? ot diro t^5 oroa?. 
HEP. Ov ftci' ovPy dXXa ci/ yc Tot? xpTjixaaL npSyroi dv 
646 Tj/iet? etriiJL€v ol eK tov nepLTrdrov. 

ETIIK. ^H/iti/Toi? *EmKovp€LOL^ roif^ nkaKovpra^ 8ot€ icat 
Ta? 7raXdda9' Trcpt 8c tS)v fiuS)v nepifMevov/jLePy kov vard- 
Tov^ ^eji Xa/x)8d^cii/. 

AKAA. Ilov rd 8vo rdXapra; 8etfo/xci/ yap oi 'AKa8iy- 
650 fialKol ocov tS)v dW(0v eo'/xei/ IpiaTiKan^poi. 

Topdy Kardj Tapd, xard, irpbt. — |JivpCoi comic collocation: first two pairs of 

kt\,i II. 2, 468. Another Homeric the outer and inner indicia, then the 

reminiscence; as porpvdSv from II. 2, outer and inner alternate. 

89 and K\ayyri66v rpoKaBi^brruv^ from 43. orAKa8i||iAuco£: the newer Aca- 

12. 2, 463. — iH|pa . . . ^iXafryvpta : demies, e.g. Arcesilaus, about 260 b. c. 


STAIK. Ov^ iJ/tcSv yc tUv 'S,T(oikZv jrapovrtov. 

44 <I>IA. YlavaaaOe. if>Lkov€iKovpr€s ' v/x€c9 Se oi KvvlkoI injre 
<o6€LT€ aWijkov^ H'V'^^ '^^^^ ^Xot9 waiere • in aXXa yap tare 
K^KkriiL€voi' Kol vvv eycry€ 17 <I>tXoa'o<^ta fcat *Apen) avnj 

056 icat *AXi^^€ta ^iKdaofiev rti/C5 ot opdo)^ <f>iXoa'o<l>ovvT€^ ctcrti/, 
clra ocTot /ici' ai/ evpeOcjai Kara ra rjiiiv hoKOVpra fiiovpre^f 
cvhaxixovrjo'ova'iv apiaroi KeKpifia/OL' rov9 yorqra^ 8c ical 
ovhkv rjfuv Trpocnficoi/ras icaicou^ icafccS? imrpv^ofievy oj? /X17 
ai^tTTotoii/ro rail/ vTrcp avrov? aXa^di^e? oi/rc?. rt tovto ; <^cv- 

660 yere; vff ^Ca^ Kara rwv ye Kp7]iivw 61 'troWoi aXXo/t€)/ot. 

KeVTf S* OVV Tf ^AKpOTTokl^y TtXtJI/ okiyOiV TOVTCDPy OTToaoL fie/jLe- 

45 inJKaaLv ov <f>o/3yid€irr€<: rfji/ Kpurip. oi vwqperai^ dvekeaOe 
rriv TTTJpav rjv 6 KvvicTKo^ aircppixjiev iv rg rpony. <^€jp*tSo) rC 
Kal €\€L, rj irov depfiov^ rj fiipXiov rj aprovs riav avToirvpvriov; 

W5 IIAPP. Ovic, dXXa ^pvaiov rovri koL fivpov kol Kdroir- 

rpov KoX Kv/3ov^. 

^lA. Ev yc, cS yevpoie. Toiavrd crot tjp rd ec^dSia rvj^ 

datcrjaeo)^ /cat fierd roxmav y^^lov^ XoiSopcIcrdai dnaci, koI 

Toif^ dWov^ TraihaycryeLV ; 
670 IIAPP. TotovToi /!€!/ oSi' v/xi)/ ouToi. -^fprj 8c v/ta? crico- 

TTCti' ovTiva rpoTTOv dyvoovfiepa ravra ircTravcrcrax icai 8tayi/a5- 

<Toi/rai ot €VTVY)(dvovTe<i^ otrti/c? ot dyadol airrSiv fcat otrti^e? 

aS TraXti/ ot rov erepov fiiov. 

^lA. cru, cS ^AX-j^^cta, i^evpiaKe — vnep aov yap tovto 
675 yivoiro dv — 0)9 pjt) irnKpaTTJcji to ^ei}8o9 firjSe vtto rg 

founder of the Middle Academy, and ferring to ipil^4fupy end of § 41. 

Carneades, about 150 B.C., founder of 44. dvriiroioCirro: opt. after primary 

the Third or New Academy. He asserted tense, see Introd. 36 (a), 

that there was no sure criterion of truth. 45. ol {nn\^nu: for case see §21. 

Hence Lucian often classifies the (new) — t6v airoirvpiTAv : qf whote-wheat 

Academics and Sceptics together. The bread. For case cf. ruv wavriiyuc&p in 

Old Academy is represented above by note on §46, contrast gen. in Introd. 31. 

ro^i UXaTUPiKo^i. — Ipumxi&Tf poi : re- — t1|« &o*id|0'c«»« : for your profenion. 



ayvoia Xavddpoyaiv ol (f>av\oL riov avhpStv ae Toif^ XPV' 
(7TOV9 yL€iiiixy)ixivoi. 

46 AAH©. 'Eir' aur^, ct Soiccc, ITap/yijcrtaSi; TroiijcrctJ/ie^a to 
roiovroi', cttcI \priaTo<i coTrrat Kal cvi/ov5 i?/^!!' ical ce^ a> 

680 <I>tXoo"o<^ta, fiakLara davfid^ojUj to irapoKaPovra fieO* cav- 
ToC Toi/ ^EXcy^oi/ airao'i roi^ ^ao"*cQv<Ti (^iXocroc^ci^ ivrvy- 
^di/€iPy eld* ov ijukv av evpy yvrjaiov (a<i aXrjdw^ (^tXdcro^o^, 
crTe<f>av(oadT(o OaWov <rrc<^aj'o> icat €5 to npirrai/cioi/ ica- 
Xco"aTct>, 'i^i' Sc Tt^t — olot TToXXot elcL — KaTapdro) apSpi 

685 VTTOKpiT^ (jiiXoaotjiia^ ^^^XV^ '''^ rpL^wvLov irepiandaa^ arror 
K^ipdroi Tov Trdryoiva ev XPV ''^^^^ rpayoKOvpiK^ /la^aipq, 
Koi iirl TOV fjLerdmov orCyfiaTa iTn/Sakero) t) iyKavadrta 
Kara to ii^aoi^pvov - 6 8c tvtto? tov Kavrfjpo^ iaro) dXdr 
wq^ rj iriBifKO^. 

690 ^lA. E5 yc, c5 'AXi^^cia* 6 8c €\ey)(o<i^ <a Happijcidhy)^ 
Totdcr8c coTO), otog 6 tS)v derSiv irpo^ tov 7)kiov elvai \eye- 
Tat, ov fta At' cootc KaKeCvov^ dvripkeir^iv t(o <^<wti icat irpo^ 
iKelvo SoKLfidl^eadaiy aXXa Trpodel^ \pv<rLov kcI ho^av icat 
7)hovrfv ov fjLev dv aircov lSj/^ vnepopiovTa /cat injSaiicj^ 

696 ikKOfJLevov 7rpo9 rfiv o\ftiVy ovto^ ccttcw T(o 0akkw aTe(l>6iJL€vo^, 
ov 8' av aTCvc? dno/S^eTrovra icat T171/ X^P^ opeyovra CTrt to 
^pvaiov^ drrdyeLv cttI to Kavrrjpiov tovtov diroKeipavra irpor 
repov TOV TTary(ova» 

46. diroKcipdrM . . . fjiaxaCp^ : cf. 
the shearing of the philosopher's beard 
in D, Mori, 10, 9. *IA. xal ris 6 dro- 
KcLpwv Kirrai ; EPM. M^Mirirof oirrwrl \a- 
P(hw ir4\eKV¥ riav yainniyiKw droxd^et 
a^dy (i.e. r6y Tilfyuva) iiriK&r(fi ry diro~ 
fidBp^ XPV<fdfie¥os. — rriy^ra hnfia- 
khm {| lyKava-d.rnn let him tattoo or 
brand. Cf. Catapl. 24 ff. where, at the 
trial before Rhadamanthus, it appears 

that ivSca iLy ris , , , womripd ipydarirat 
rapd rbv fitov^ Ka6t cKoarop a^(av d<pay^ 
ffrlyfiara 4irl rijs ^ux^* rcpup^pei. — 6 
r&v dfTMv : in Icar. 14 an eagle is the 
king eagle if dvrlov bibopKc rf ijXlt^ and 
rfv dffKapdatiuKTl {without winking) Tpbf 
rdi dtcTivas ^X^iru. — krrX ri Kavr^piov: 
branding-place (cf. diKaffr-i^ptov, pov\€v- 
TifiptoVi and §27 Tia\riT'^piov)y or perhaps 
branding-iron or brand as in § 62. 


47 IIAPP. *fl9 eSo^ep eoTai ravra, co ^ikoo'o^iaj koX o^ei 
700 avTiKa fiaXa tov^ ttoXXov? avrSiv dXoiTrcfcta? rj Tn0yjKO(l>6' 

pov^y oXtyov? 8c Koi iare^avcDfJiei/ov^ - el fiovXeade iximoij 
KOLvravOa avd^w nva^ v/uv vrf At* avriov* 

<I>I A. Ilai? Xeyct? ; avd^ei^ rov^ <f>vy6vTa^ ; 

IIAPP. Kal /xaXa, rjvir^p 17 i4p€id /lot i0ekrja"ri wpo^ oXt- 
706 yoi' ^py^crai rrfv opfiiav iKeivrju Kal to ayKiarpov^ onep 6 
aXtev9 dp€07]K€v 6 Ik Ti^ipaiSi^, 

lEP. 'I80V 8^ \a/3€j Kal Tou KoKafiov ye a/ia^ 019 irdina ^ot?. 

IIAPP. Ovicovj', CD lepeiaj Kal tcrj(a8a9 /loi Tti'a? 809 aw- 
aaca Kal okiyov rov ^pvaiov^ 
710 lEP. Adfji/Sape. 

<I>IA. TC irpdrreLv dvfip ^LapoelraL; 

lEP. AeXcoura^ to dyKio'Tpov la^dSi Kal tgI ^pvau^ Kade- 
l^ofJLevo^ inl to aKpov rov rei^iov KadrJKev i^ rf/j/ noXiv. 

<I>IA. TtTttVTa, 0) UappyjCidByi^ Trotet? ; 17 TrovToug XiOov^ 
715 aXtcvo'eii/ SieypojKa^s ck tov TlekaayLKov ; 

IIAPP. ^idmrja'op, <3 <l>tXoa'o^ta, ical r^i/ dypav irepifieve - 
aif 8c, ndo'ciSol' aypev Kal ^Xii^iTpiry) ^i\y)j itoWov^ rf/jLiv 

48 ai/aTTC/xTTC tgJi/ I^Ovojv, dXX* opcS TiJ'a XdfipaKa evfieyedj], 
fiaWov 8c ^pvaoi^pvv- 

47. dX«»ircKCas 4) iriOi|Ko^dpovs : the incident prevailed in the title. It con- 

fox-and-monkey brand. Ti0rfKOif>6povs is tains in brief the leading idea — Lu- 

coined on the analogy of aafjuf^dpai (At. cian^s crusade against sharks and 

Nub. 122), a blooded horse branded shams. The ** Resurrected " are only 

sampi (^), and dXwxe«ciac to recall kot- a chorus. — dv^t|Kfv: this or the imper- 

r arias (At. Nub. 2.3), <f -branded, is per- feet is regularly used in inscriptions of 

verted from its meaning of ** thresher the person who dedicates an offering. — 

shark.** This anticipates, too, the ^k roO IIcXao-YkKOv: see note on §42. 

shark-fishing below. In another pas- — i4|v &7pav: cf. S. Luke 6, 9 iirl tJ 

sage (Indoct. 5), Lucian has /corira- iLypq. r(av IxB^v. — d^pcO: an available 

4>6pov meaning a Corinthian bred horse epithet for the appropriate god in the 

with a Pegasus pedigree, 9 standing for mouth of the hunter. 

^6piv0oi. — {\ Upcia (sc. T^; IloXtdSot): 48. XdpfMiKa and xf^^^^pw: the 

see § 21. — 6 aXuvs: this concluding snaicher and the gilt-head naturally 

AAIEY2 155 

720 EAEF. OvK, aXXa yaXeo? cort- irpoa'4p)(erai 817 t(o ay 
Kurrpoi K€X7)i/(o^. 6a'<f>par at tov xpvaLov • irXifciov rjhy) iarip- 
offavaev • eik-rjirrai • avaa7rd(r(0fi€v. 

IIAPP. Kal cnJ, a> ^EXcy^c, wj' ^vvem\a/3ov 7^9 op/jLia^- 
avoi iarL (f>€p* iScd rt? cl, co pi\ria'T€ l^Ovtov; kvcdv ovto^ 
726 yc. *HpaicXct9 roll' oSoi^cdj/. titovto, a> yei/vcuoraTe ; ciXt;- 
^ai Xij(j/cva>r TTcpl ra? Trerpa?, €v^a X7yo"cii/ '^XTrtcra? VTToSe 
Svfco)9; dXXa iwp eajg (jiavepo^; airao'iv ck rSiv Ppay^uov 
ain}pT7)ii4vo<;, e^-cXcD/xci/ ro SeXeap /cat to ayKiarpov, to 
8c Ti ,• Kevov aoL ro ayKiarpov - 17 8* tcrxa? 1787J rr poaia^r ai 
730 icat TO ^pvaiov Iv r^ KoiXia. 

AlOr. Md ACi^e/ieo'dTfOy a>5 817 /cat e7r*dXXov9 8eX€dcrct>/x€)'. 
IIAPP. E5 c^^et • TL <^U5, CD Atoyei/€9 ,• olaOa tovtop ooti? 
ioTLv, rj irpo(rT]K€L aoC tl dvrjp ; 
AlOr. Ov8a/xci>9. 
736 IIAPP. Tt ovv ; iroaov a^iov avrov XPV <^di/ai ; iya> jxkv 
yap 8u' 6/3o\(OP irpcfrqv airrov iTLfirjadiJLrjv- 

AlOr. IIoXXov Xeyci? * d/Spoxro^ re ydp iari Kal elBexdr)^ 

Kal CKXijpo^ Kal aTi/iog- d<f>€^ cLvrov iirl K€<f>a\7iv arro T175 

irerpa^' av 8c dXXoi^ avdanaaoj/ Kadel^ to ayKiarpov, 

740 eKeivo /icvroi, opa^ ct> UapprjO'idSTjy fjLTi KaiMTrro/ievo^s aoL 6 

fcdXa/to9 dTTo/cXao'd^. 

cameflrsttothehook. — YoXtds : a kind is Sff^tpaliferai. — 'HpdxXfis: the oath, 

of shark. Tr. aeorcat (see Cent. Diet. as usual, is chosen with judgment, 

s.v. ** Wolf-fish ") or cat-fiah, Thislat- Heracles was the patron saint of Cyn- 

ter name is applied to the wolf-fish ; to ics. At the Banquet (§ 16) the Cynic 

the common American cat-fish, which says to the bride, Tpoirivta o-oi, i KXea^Bi^ 

sometimes weighs a hundred pounds; 'BpuLxX^ovs dpxvy^rov. — E2 Ixct: that^a 

and,locally, in England, to the Scyllioid right! (said as the gold reappears). — 

shark. We have the dog-ahark^ and the 8^' opoXwv irp^'i^v : the price paid for 

fish in question here turns out, when Diogenes Vit, Auct, 11. — IIoXXov X^ 

landed, to be k^v ns. — vpoa-ipxerox "ycif: so, in D. Mort. 4, 1, Charon com- 

. . . dvoo^rdo'wiuv : note the effective plains of the price paid by Hermes for 

asyndeta. — oo-^parcu: the classic form the anchor. — 4Kftvo fUvroi ^pa: but 



IIAPP. SdppeLy (o ALoyeve^' KOv<f>oC cicri kol rtav a^wav 

AlOr. Nt^ At*, a^veaTaroi yc ■ avdo'Tra hk o/ta>9* 
'^ft ITAPP. 'iSov- Ti5 dXXo5 OVT09 6 jrKaTvs; oxrirep 'qfiCro- 
/X05 Ix^^^ irpoaepx^cLh ^Trd rts, icc^^rji^w c? ro ayKiarpov • 
Karenuvy c^crot, aj/eandaOta. 
AlOr. Tt9 cVrti' ,• 
EAEF. *0 nXara>i/tKos cu'cu Xeyoi^. 
750 II AAT. Kat cru, dS KardpaTe^ tJkci? ctti to ^pvcrtov ; 
IIAPP. Ti <^U9, cS nXarcDJ/; rC TroLtofiev avrov ; 
HA AT. 'Atto t'^? avTTj5 irerpas /cat ovro?. 
60 AlOr. 'Ett' dXXoi/ KadeUrdo). 

IIAPP. Kat fjLTfj/ opSi Tiva irdyKoKov irpoaiovTa^ oi? av iv 

765 /3v0o} Sdfetc^, TTotfctXoi^ rfjv j(/)dai', raxvia^ Tiva^ iirl rov 

vcjTov iinxpva'ov^ €)(ovTa, opa^j c5 "EXcyj^c; o roi' *Apt- 

ototcXtji/ Trpoo'7roLoviJL€Po<: ovt6<: ioTiv. rj\d€V' etra TrdXti^ 

dnevij^aTo. TrepiaKonel aKpL/3(o<:' ovOl^ iirainjXdev' €)(av€V' 

CtXTJTTTat ■ dvilMTfjo'do}. 

760 APIST. M17 €/)ij /x€, (w napprjCLdSrjj nepl avrov- dyi/oa> 
ya/) o<rrt5 iariv. 

look out for this above all. A legitimate 
use of iKcTvos. Cf . Lysias contra Erat. 
79. Schmid, however, 1, 238, classifies 
this with other cases in Lucian where 
ixtTvos merges its meaning with ovro^. 
— d^vMv: from d<f>6ri sardine; d<f>vuv 
from d^vi^v toeak-minded ; perhaps tr. 
weak-fish and Atpv^araTot very weak in 
the upper story. 

49. 6 irXaTis: the flat OT pkUe (fish) 
and ^^TTo, meaning the plaice or pla- 
tessa^ and blockhead, introduce the ref- 
erence to nXdrwif. — *Airi tH« airijs 
ir^Tpaf Kal ovrof : sc. i^lcOto (see Aipci 

§ 48). So too end of §§ 50 and 51. 
Cf. for § 51, Schmid I, 423. 

50. itoikCXov tt|v xp6a.v : perhaps 
alluding to Aristotle's versatility, as 
in Swinburne's Sappho **a mind of 
many colors '* (ToiKiXStpptav). — raivCa« 
. . . lirixp^<rovs: with golden bands. Oar 
ribbon-fish (Taeniosomi) is so named 
from the shape. The fresh-water sun- 
fish would come nearer this descrip- 
tion. Aristotle's wealth is alluded to 
also in Vit. Auct. 26. — mpio-KomC &Kp^- 
p«ts: he is thinking it over carrfuUy, 
This suits the context, and Aristotle^s 



ITAPP. OvKOVP Kal ovTo^y (o *AptoTOTcXc9, Kara twv ire- 
51 Tpwv, dXX* '^v IBoVy noXXov^ nov rov^ ix^^^ op(o Kara 
Tavrov ofjLOXpoa^, aKavddBei^ Kal rrfp i7n<f>dv€Lap iKT^rpayy 
766 (Tfievov^y i)(Cpo)v 8vo"X7j7rTOT€pov5. yj ttov aayrjvT)^ in avrov? 
Seijaei; aXX' ov TrdpeoTii/. iKapoi/ el Kav a/a ripa c/c Trjq 
dyeXrj^ dvacTTrda'aLixev. rj^ei, 8c inl to ayKiorpov 8iyXa8i7 
OS av avTS}v dpaxrvraTO^ jj. 

EAEF. Kdde^y ct BoKely <Tt87j/)c5cras ye nporepov iirl ttoXu 
770 TTj^ opfLia^y fjLrj dnonpiaj) rots oSovai KaTairiiav ro ;(pvo"tb^. 
IIAPP. Ka^^ica. av 8c, o) IIoo'ci8o^^ raj^cta^ ciriTcXct 
TTiv dypav. /3a/3al, iid^ovrai irepl tov 8cX€aros, icai avvd/ia 
iroWol TreptTpdryovo'i ttjp la^dSay ot 8c 7rpocr(l>vpT€^ expvrai 
TOV xpvaiov. cS ^ct • irepLeirdpyj ns /taXa Kaprepo^. <f>€p* 
775 iSco TLvo^ indw/jLOv aeavrbv elvai, Xeycts; Kairoi ycXoio? yi 
eifii dvayKdl^wv i)(dvv XaXctj'- af^tavoi yap ovrol ye. dXXa 
cnJ, w ^EXcy^c, cittc ovriva €)(ei 8t8dcr*caXoi/. 
EiA'Er. XpijaiiTiTOP rovropC. 

mental processes, better than the Ms. 

51. TT|v lirt^viiav lKTcrpaxvo-|ii- 
vovt : rigorism was a chief characteiistic 
of Stoicism. The insinuation that it 
was superficial was not made concern- 
ing Chrysippus himself even in Vit. 
Auct.., but in attacking contemporary 
Stoics (see Symp., Hermot.^ etc.) Lu- 
cian has much to say of the discord 
between their real character and the 
outward man. Add this compound, 
in the meaning roiighen,^ to Chabert*s 
lists (op. cit. pp. 125 and 189) of new 
compounds (or of new meanings) in 
Lucian. — k^ivmv : here searurchvns. — 
onStipd&o-at . . . 6p|ua« : first sheathing 
toith iron a good piece of the line. In 
Homer^s times a sheath of horn had 

been sufficient Cf. II. 24, 81 : 

ff re (i.e. the sinker) xar dypwSXoto /Sods 
Kipas ^/K/Se/Savta 


For irl xoXtf with gen. cf. iwl fUya in 
the description of the iron-plated jib of 
the crane, Thuc. 4, 100, i<re<n^pwro 4rl 
fUya KoX rod AWov ^6\ov. — |jii| diroirpUrg : 
in Praed*8 Red Fisherman the abbot 
'* gnaws in twain " the ** choicest line " 
and makes off with the bait — a bishop's 
mitre — but the fisher exclaims : 

Let him Bwim to the north, let him svim to 

the south, 
The abbot vill carry my hook in his mouth. 

— &^voi : see App. For proverb cf . 
note on Vit. Auct. 3. — Xpf^a^mrov : 



n APP. MapOdvo) • StoTi ^pvaiovy oT/iaiy Trpofrfjv r^ ovo- 

780 ftari. aif 8* oSj', XpucrtTTTre, 7r/)05 rrj^ *Ad7)i/as eind, olcrda 
Toifs avhpa^ tj roiavra iraprjvei^ aurot? iroieiv ; 

XPTS. N17 At', v^piOTiKo. ipojTaSy m llapprfO'id^, irpoc 
rjK€iv Ti rfiiiv vno\afi/3dv(ov rotovrou? opra^. 

IIAPP. E5 ye, cS XpyaLinre^ yevvalo^ cT. ovtoi? youi/ *cat 

786 auT05 CTTt K€<f>a\rfv fierd Ta>v aWcoPy iirel kol aKavOtiBri^ 
cart, /cat Seog, /UL17 Biairapy T65 toi' Xat/toi/ icOCcjp. 

52 <I>IA. ''AXtg, cS Wappijaidhri^ r^5 ay/)a5, /X17 icat T19 crot, 
ofot TToXXot eicLpy ot^Tjrat a7roo"7ra<ra9 ro ^(pvaiop Kal ro 
dyKiarpoPj elrd <r€ aTrortcrat r^ iepeia Serjay. cworc tj/ici^ 

790 /xcj/ dnUofjiep ncpmarjja'ovo'aL • Kaipo^ 8c *cat v/xas dinepai 
o0€P ijiccrc, /X17 /cat vrreprjiiepoi yeprjade rfj^ TrpoOecfiia^, 
(TV 8c /cat 6 ^EXcyjfo?, c3 TlappTjCLdSr), kvkXo) inl ndpras 
auTov5 tdi/TC9 17 aT€(f>apovT€ rj iyKdere^ ct>s effnfp. 

IIAPP. *Ecrrat raura, <o ^tXo(ro^ta. x^Cpere^ w ^ScXrt- 

796 crrot dpSpcop, i7/xct9 8c /carta>/xci/, c3 ^ElXcy^c, /cat Tc\a)/i€i/ 
ra naprfyyekfiepa. irol 8c /cat npSyrop ciTrtcVat 8€7;cr€t ; /icii^ 
es Ti)j' * Pi.KaZy)iLiap rj i<; tt^p %Todp ; rj dno rov AvKeiov Trott/- 
KrcofieOa Trjp dp)(T]p ; ovBep 8tot<TCt tovto. nXrjp 0I8' cyci ois 
OTTot TTor' ai^ dTTcX^oi/xcj/, oXCycop /icp tcop (7T€<^a^a>i/, ttoXXoIi/ 

800 8c rcSi' Kavrrjpuop ScTjcro/ic^a. 

see Ftt. -4ttcf. 21 ff. — TcwaCos tt : you 
are a gentleman. Cf . note on § 24 
supra; and in Ar. T^ies/n. 220 Euripides 
asks Agathon to lend him a razor and 
is told to kelp himself from the razor- 
case. This he proceeds to do, remark- 

Tcpfdios el. 
L. & S. S.V., 3, misinterpret this expres- 

sion in the The»m. as "a civil refusal." 
— |iT) Stairapfj xis riv Xatit^v : leal some 
one get his throat punctured. 

52. vircp^|upoi . . . rfijf irpo6io^(a« : 
like Charon (Char. 1) the philosophers 
were on a furlough limited (§ 14) to 
one day. — o^Sfv StoCo^t: cf. Hermot. 
86 where Lucian expressly disclaims 
any partiality: *' first come, first 
served.'^ — KavTt|pC«»v: yide supra on 



These short pieces, like the Dialogi Mariniy are dramatic pictures.^ 
It is, indeed, a temptation to think of them only as miniatures in 
which Lucian gives precedence to his artist's love of style and form. 
Certainly, as has been said,* " one is puzzled to find irony or satire 
in many of them. Not a few resist analysis. Complete and rounded 
they are, but complete and rounded as is the soap-bubble — which 
mirrors for a moment sky and sea and earth, then vanishes in an 
iridescent collapse." 

But the satire, even if not too obvious, is generally there, and 
is all the more effective because the gods with their own mouths 
convict themselves of folly and passion. They plead guilty by 
explaining. To the Greeks men had been near gods (ayx^O€oi) from 
the first; and Zeus and Hera, from Homer on, are subject to anthro- 
pomorphic fits of anger and other frailties. These topics were as 
legitimate as the weather ; and, as for that, the weather-bureau fig- 
ured largely as a business office for the " Boudoir of Zeus." ■ Thus 
the satire of Aristophanes, irreverent as it is, has apparently no 
intent to overthrow the Olympian dynasty. If Zeus rains, snows, or 
metamorphoses himself into a bull, it is matter of public interest, 
but none of his eccentricities need shake the orthodox belief. With 
Lucian, on the other hand, under the mock reverence there is the 
most iconoclastic intent. Zeus and the other gods come before us 
in all their chryselephantine pomp, but they lay open their breasts 

1 Cf. Schmid on Hirzel, Der Dialog, in Bursian's Jahreaber, 1901, p. 247: " Die 
Hetaren-, See- und Gottergespraclie sind atticistisch zubereitete fufwi.^^ 
^ Gildersleeve, Essays and Situiies, p. 340, with the whole context. 
» Ar. Ran, 100. 



to us with confiding frankness and show their unlovely and wooden 
interior.^ Such testimony admitted no rebuttal. The case goes 
against them by default — ^p^f^i/j duroXoyovfiivov ovScvos. 

These dialogues as pictures suggest that some work of art, 
whether painting or sculpture, served Lucian by way of a model. 
The most persuasive parallels have been drawn* between certain 
extant monuments of art and many of the scenes depicted both in 
the DiaZogi Deorum and in the IHalogi Marini, Gould we have 
access to all that was then known, this indebtedness would doubt- 
less be still more apparent. Lucian was not straining after novelty 
— neither new pigments nor new models — and such reminiscence^ 
when it suited his purpose, was a matter of course. 

The form itself of the dialogues, with their brevity and penetrat- 
ing wit, is not of a piece with the frank comedy of Aristophanes, 
on which Lucian elsewhere draws so freely. It is rather akin to the 
"ironical and treacherous grace" which is attributed' to Menippus,* 
from whose well-worn Cynic's cloak, through windows gaping here 
and there (irokvOvpov rpifi^viov ^), Lucian's mocking eyes look forth. 

1 Cf. Jupp, Drag. 8, and Gall 24. 

^ See Bltlmner, Studien zu Lucian, pp. 69-76 ; also see note to D. Deor. 13, 2, 
and Introd. to D. Mar,, p. 169. 

' Cf. Croiset, p. 62 : ** La grftce ironique et perfide dont M^nippe parait avoir 
eu le don.*' 

^ See Introd. to D. Mort, p. 189, note 2. 

« D. MaH. 1, 2. 



1 H^. 'EdpaKa^y w^AttoXXoi/, to t^9 Mata? ^pei^os to apri 
Te)($€Vy CO? Kokov t4 ioTL Koi npoafiei^i^ iratri fcai S17X0C 
rjBri fieya Tt ayadov ano/Syjcoiiepoj/ ; 

An. 'Eic€ti/o TO l3p€<f>o^y CD H^atOTC, ^ /xeya ayaOov^ o 
5 roO *Ia7rcTov wpeafivrepov eariv ocrov iirl ry nauovpyiq. ; 
H^. Kal Tt a J/ dSiK'^crat SwatTo aprtroKov op ; 
An. 'Epcira toi/ nocretSoi^a, ov rrfv rpiaivav eKke^^v^ tj 
TOP *Ap7j • icat TovTov yap i^eCXKyae \a0ov eK tov Kokeov to 
^i^o^y LPa fiTj ifjLOVTOP Xeycw, op d^amXice tov to^ov koI t<op 
10 ^cXcSi/. 

2 H<I>. To peoypop Tavra, o /tdXig €<m)K^j to ip Tot5 cnap- 

ydpois ; 

An. EuTTj, 0) "Hc^aio'TC, ijv 0*01 npoccXdji /jlopop. 

7 tor of the human race. — &prCroKov: 

H*AI2T0Y KT\. : 8C. «tdXa7os, and »« ^ ^^o"*- ^i 406 the word used is wo- 

80 with the following titles. y^- Cf. infra §2. See Shelley, //ymn 

1. tA . . . Pp4<|>ot: read A. //om. 3 (also ^ Mercury, 3 : 

Shelley's translation 3 ; 8), with Ilor. The babe was born at the flrst peep of day ; 

Carm. 1, 10, for epithets of Hermes as He began playing on the lyre at noon, 

X^wf , dyiivios, dut.Kropos, movctuAj, kU- ^"^ the same evening did he steal away 
, , , , , Apollo*s herds. 

TTJJSy iptOVVtOS, yUXOTOflTOS. — IMYflk . • . 

diroPno^yMvov : going to tur n out to be 2. Iv roC« (nrofrydvoif : cf . A. /Tom. 3, 

some great blessing. — 'lairrroO : father 237 where Hermes, after his cownateal- 
of Prometheus and hence remote ances- Ing excursion, (rrdftyav Haut Kar4dvv« 




H<l>. Kal firjp irpoa^kOeu 17817. 

15 All. Tt ow ; ndvra €)(€l<: tgl ipyakeia Kal ovSep airoXo)- 
Xev avTcov; 

H<I>. Hdirray (o ^AttoWov, 

ATI. O/jLO)^ iwuTKe^ai aKpifiS)^, 

H<I>. Ma AUlj TTji/ irvpaypav ov^ opw. 

20 All. *AXX* oi/f€i irov ii/ rots cnrapydvoi^ avrffp tov fipe- 

H<I>. OuT(W9 o^v^eip iarl Kaddnep ip r^ yaxrrpl c/c/icXc- 

TTJaa^ rrjv KkeiniKrjv ; 

3 AIT. Ov yap 7)Kov(Ta^ avroy fcat \a\ovPTo^ lySiy OTco/xvXa 

25 icat CTTtTpo^a* o 8c Kal 8taKoi/€tcr^at rffjuv cWXct. X^^^ ^ 

wpoKakea'diJL€Po<; top '^Epcora fcarcTraXatcrci/ cu^u? ovk otS' 

07ra)5 v^eXdjp rcw 7rd8€ • clra /lera^ itraipoviiepo^ vfj^ *A<^/)o- 

81x779 /x€j/ Toj' /ccoToi/ eK\€^€ TT poa"trTv^aiLip7)^ avTop inl ry 

piKjiy TOV A109 8c ycXcSi/To? crt ro (rKrJTrrpop • ci 8c /x'i) fiapv- 

30 rc/009 6 Kepavpo^ rjp Kal noXv to rrvp cTx^, KaKeiPOp dp 


H<I>. Topyop TLpa top 7rat8a <^2?^- 

Ov fJLOPOPy aXX* 17877 icat /jlovctlkop. 

T(f TOVTO TCKfiaipeaO at ^€19 ; 

XekcoPTjp TTOv peKpdp evpoip opyapop att* axrnj^ (xvpe- 
irrj^aTO • mjxei^ yap cVap/xocra? /cat ^vycicra?, cTrctra icoXXa- 
)8ou5 ifjLmj^a^ Kal /tayaSa vtto^cI? /cat iirreipdixepo^ CTrra 





Bvi^irra. — TT|v mypd^pav : for sing, 
number cf . Germ, die Zange ; also die 

Scheere (scissors). — o(ix*^P • " -'^"^^ 
great is Hermes* self, light-Jingered 
god," R. II. Stoddard. — ixiuXcHia-as : 
note gender ; so in § 1 some Mss. have 
\ae<Jav for \a66v, 

4- jfryavov: in D. Mar. 1, 4, Doris 
in ridiculing Galatea's troubadour de- 

scribes the parts of his crude instru- 
ment also. See Diet. Antiq. B.y. 
*'Lyra," and cf. for the Stealer and 
the tortoise Kipling's Song o/the Banjo: 

The gratKlam of my grandain was the lyre 

[O the blue below the little Usher huto !] 
That the Stealer stooping beachward filled 
with Are, 
Till she bore uiy iron head and ringing 



^opSa? c/xcXoiSci wdw y\a(f>vp6v, cj H<^at(rr€, icat ivapfio- 
VLOVj 0)9 icd/xe avra! (f>0ov€iv iraXcu KiOapi^eu/ a<rKovvT(i^ 
40 eXeye 8c 17 Mata aj9 /xijSe fia/oi ra9 vuicra^ iv T(f ovpavwy 
dXX' VTTO ir^pupyia^ ^XP^ '^^^ AtSov Karioiy icXo/^o)!/ re ^d^€t- 
^cj/ SijXaSTj. uTTOTrrepo? 8* cori icai pdfi8ov Tiva TreTrowj- 
Tcu davfiaaiav ttjv 8vvafiLVy y ^Iw^ayaryei koI Kardy^i rov^ 

H<I>. *Ey<a €K€Lyr)v eScDKa avro) iraCyvLOv 6&ai. 
An. Toiyapovp an€8cDK€ croc toi/ /iKrOov, rrjv irvpdypav — 
H4>. ES yc ^Cfiirrja'a^' cHare ^a8iov/jiat aTroXT^o/xci/o^ 
aimjv, ci TTQV 0)9 <^g9 cupc^cnj cV rots airapydvots. 




1 ZETS. IXavcracr^e, c5 'AcricXTjTrce ical 'Hpa/cXct?, ipCl^ovre^ 
7rpo<: dXXijXov? warirep dvdptoiTOL' aTrpeirfj yap ravra koI 
dXXorpia roS crvinroo'iov tcjp deZp. 

HPA. 'AXXa cWXct?, w Zcv, rovroi/l roi' <f>apfiaK€a irpor 
6 KaTaKkiv^o'dai fiov ; 

ASK. N'^ Ata* icai dfi^ipcji/ ydp ci/xi. 

and, again, for Celt and Greek con- 
nected by language and the lyre : 

So I draw the world together link by link : 
Yea, from I)elo8 up to Limerick and back! 

— Kd|U: cf. Shelley, op. cit., 72, where 

IJBtened with all his soul, and laughed 
for pleasure. 
Close to his side stood harping fearlessly 
The unabashM boy. 

— |fci|8^: for oMi. See Introd. 39 (&). 

— «&8 • • . oipavf : that ke won't ttay in 

fieaven 0' nights. Cf. Shelley, 3 : 
Kor long could in the sacred cradle keep. 

— KarA-yct: cf. Char. 22, line 480. 


1. ^opiiAK^a : druggist. Inciden- 
tally, the classic meaning poisoner is 
viciously suggested, as comes out be- 
low in ^tforA/xoj (v e n e f i c u s) . — irpoica- 
raicXCvfo^ai: for the places of honor 
see Symp. 8 and cf. Plutarch Quaest. 






HPA. Kara Tt, c5 ififipovrrire ; rj Stort a"€ 6 Zevs iKepav- 
Vioaev a firj Oefii^ woLOvvray vvv 8c icar* cXcoj/ aS^is d^ai^a- 
crta? fi€TeL\7j<l>a^ ; ^y *' . 

10 A2K. 'EiTTtXcXijcrat yap koI cniy c5 "HpciKXec?^ ^v Ty OirQ 
KaTa(f>\€yeL^y orn fioL 6p€l8l^€L^ to irvp ; 

HPA. OvKovv lea koX o/Ltota /Se/Stcorcu 'fjiilvy 09 Atos ftii/ vtd? 
€t/Lit, rocravra 8c irenovrjKa iKKaOaLprnv tov fiCov^ Oyfpid Karaywr 
i/L^Ofievo^ Kal dvdptoTTOv^ v^pKTTa^ TLficDpovfievo^ ' aif 8c />t^o- 

16 TOfio^ cT Kal ayvpT7)% voarovari fiep ceroid apdp(a7roi^ ^prj(riiio^ 
€7nu€(r€i, Tdiv (f>apiiaK(0Vy avopcjoe^ 0€ ovO€v C7rcococty/jici/09- 

2 ASK. E5 Xeyct?, ort aov ra iyKavfiara iaadfirjVy ore 
'TTpiirqv avrjfKOe^ tj/xm^Xc/cto? inr dfi(f>6tv hi€(f>0apfi€vo^ to 
(rS)fiay Kal rov )^ltcjpos Kal fierd tovto tov irvpo^ • iyoi 8c ct 

20 KoX fiTji^kv aXXo, ovT^ ihovXevaa wrir^p (tv ovt€ i^cuvov epta 
iv AvSta TTO/x^vptSa c^8c8vfca)9 Kal iraiofiepo^ viro rfj^ '0/jt<^a- 
Xij? ^pv(r(f. (Tavhakif^ dXXa ov8c /xcXa-yj^oXTjcra? dir^Kreiva 
ra reKva koX ttji/ yvvaiKa. 

HPA. Et 117) iravariQ XoiSopov/ievo^ [xoiy avriKa fiaka ^Ifrg 

26 0)9 ov TToXv crc omjaeL r) dOavaaia^ cVci dpd/ievo^ crc pa/ra> 
CTTt K€(f>aXriviK rod ovpavovy ^aT€ /irjSe rov IlaLCJva idcearOai 
are TO Kpaviov arvvrpipivTa, 

ZETS. Havo-aa^c, <f>yiiiif Kal fjLrj iTnTapdrrere rffiiv t^u 
^vvovo'Cav, rj dfi<f}OT€pov^ diroTreiiiffOfiai v/id^ rov ^Vfnroariov. 


Sympos, 2, 4 ; and S. — ^r\ O^fus: Askle- 
pios was killed by Zeus^s bolt because 
his healing art held back too many from 
Pluto's realm. For the worship of As- 
klepios see note on Pise. 42.— ixKaOaC- 
P«ivktX. : Heracles refers with just pride 
to his strenuous career. — lirtiNo'ci : we 
might have expected ir/>6s (or els) iirlde- 
ffip, see App. 
2. x^i'^*'<>9 ' i-6- ^^^ ^^^ steeped in 

the blood of Nessus. — *0(&4dXT|s . . . 
<rav8dXfp : from the detailed repetition 
in Hist. Conscr. 10 it is to be inferred 
that Lucian has some actual work of 
art in mind, just as Eros chastised by 
Aphrodite (D. Deor. 11, 1) was prob- 
ably suggested by one or another statu- 
ette (cf. BlUmner, op. cit., p. 71) repre- 
senting a woman with her raised right 
hand holding the threatening sandal. 


30 icatroi evyvto/iovy (o 'HpaicXet?, TrpoKaTaKkCveo'daC aov rov 
'AcKhrfmop arc ical irporepov dwoffavovra. 


1 A<I>P. Tt Si^TTore, c5 "Kpo)^, rov^ fikv aXXou? ^cov? Karrj- 
ycDvCao} airavra^y rov J^ia^ rov IlocrctSai, rov 'AttoXXoi, ttjj/ 
*P€aj/, c/jtc r^i/ fir]T€pay fiopj)^ 8c OLnexjl tt]^ ^AOrjva^ /cat 
cV* iKeCirr}^ anvpo^ fiev crot 17 Sa?, /ccn7 ^^ otcrroii/ ij ^api- 

6 r/)a, (TV 8c aTo^o^ cI zeal aaro^o^ ; 

EP. AeSta, c5 fiyJTCp, airrrjv • <f>ofi€pa yap iart koX ^apoinf 
KOLi 8cii/a)9 avSpLKT]' oTTOTav yovv iirreivdfievo^ to to^ov uo 
ct' avrrjvj iiriareiovara rov \6<f>ov CKTrXi^rrct /xc /cat vnoTpofio^ 
yLvoficu Kal aTToppel fiov to, To^etifiara Ik to)p ^eipS^v. 

10 A4>P. *0 "ApTj^ yap ov (f>ofi€pcjT€po^ ^v ; /cat OficD^ a^(a- 
TrXtcra? avrov /cat v€vucrjKa^. 

, EP. 'AXXa c/ccti/09 c/ccii/ irpoaterai /xc /cat Trpoa/caXctrat, 
Tj *AOrjva 8c vi^opdr ai act, /cat ttotc cyci /xci/ dXXco? Trap€7rrrjv 
irXyjoriov €)(Ci)v rrjv Xa/xTraSa, if 8c, ct /xot itpoaeij ifyrfO'Ly vfj 

15 roi/ iraTcpa, toI Zopari(a trt 8ta7rct/>a(ra 17 rov 7ro8o9 Xa)8o- 
/jtcnj /cat €9 roi/ Tdprapov c/x/SaXovaa 17 avr^ ^Laairaaafieirr) 
hia<l>0€p(o. TToXXa rotaura '^7rctX'»;a'C * /cat opa 8c Spi/iv /cat 
cVt roC arijdov^ cj)(ct irpoaroiTrov tl <f>ofi€pov c;(t8i/at9 Kara- 
KOfiovy' o7r€p iyo) /xaXtora 8cSta • /lopfioXi/jTeTaL yap /le /cat 

20 (f>€vyci) orav tSo) avro. 

— irpdnpov dvoOavdvra : ** First come, — dvSpiic^ : mannish. — v«dTpo|io« : all 

first served,** is Zeus^s solution. of a tremble. — ^Cvqiuu : see In trod. 40. 

19 — BXkmt: incidentally. — iir\ tqv o^- 

1. o^ 8i . . . &vToxot : like the plight •<«»« : for the Gorgon head on statues 

of Sennacherib^s men : of Athena see Paus. 1, 24, 7 and Har- 

The lances unlifted, the trumpet unblown. rison and Verrall, op. cit., pp. 445 ff. 


2 A<I>P. 'AXXa rriv /lev ^Adrji/av SeSta?? co? <^2/9, Koi ttjv Top- 
yova,^ KoX Tavra firj (f>ofir]0€l^ rov K^pavvov rov Ato9. at Se 
tAovaai Sia ri (tol arporroi koX i^o) fieXcjv eiartv ; rj kolk^vox 
\6<f>ov<s i'ma'eiova'i koI Topyova^ 'irpo(f>aCvova'Lv ; 
25 EP. Al8ovfiai avrd^y cd fi7JT€p - ar^iival yap ctcri icai dec ri 
^povTiCpvo'i Koi irepl wSrjv ^ovg^ Kal iyo) irapCoTafiai ttoX- 
Xdfct9 avrat9 K7f\ovfi€i/o^ viro tov fieXov^- 

A<I>P. *Ea Kal ravra^y arc aefipaC- rrjv 8c ^ApTe/iiv rivo^ 
o/eKa ov TirpdxrK^i^ ,* 
30 EP. To iikv o\ov ouSc KaraXafieiv avrrfv otop re <^€vyov- 
aav dec Scd tcjv 6pa>p - elra koI cScoi/ Tiva epa/ra rjSrf ipa. 
A4>P. Tci/09, c5 T€Kvov ; 

EP. Srjpa^ Kal i\d<f>cDv Kal v^PpSiv^ aipetv re SccS/covcra 
Kal Kararo^eieiVy Kai o\w irpo^ rol toiovt<o iarCv • CTree top 
35 ye dSeX<^oi/ aur^9, Kavroi To^6Tr)v koX ovtov ovra koX iKrj- 
fioXov — 

A4>P. OcSa, o) T€Kvovy TroXXd eKelvov iro^evaa^. 



1 ZETS. Oca TreiroCrfKa^y <o Tiravoiv KaKurre' aTToXoiXcica? 
rd ev r^ y^ dnapra, /leLpaKLto apoiJTfj} TrcoTcvcra? to apfia, 09 
rd fiev KaT€(f>\€^€ irpoaryeio^ ive^Bei^^ rd Se \mo Kpvoy^ 8ca- 
<f>dapyjpai iiroiyfO'e ttoXv avroiv anoarirda'as to wvpy Kal 0X0)9 

5 ovhcp o TL ov ^vverdpa^e Kal ^vvex^^y '^^^ ^^ H'V ^7^ fvJ^€C9 
TO yiyvofievov KaTcfiakov avTOv t<o Kepavvw^ ovhk Xevtltavov 

— |fcop|ioXikTcrai: for Mormo see 25 

Theocr. 15, 40 and Gulick, pp. 75 ff. 1. lutpaxC^: i.e. Pbaethon. This 

2. KaCroi : for Kaiirep. See Introd. reads like a synopsis of Ovid Met, 2, 1 

27. ff. — rd |uv KaW^Xf(c . . . Kpi^vt : cf. 



avdp(an(tiv eri ifi€Li/€i/ ap- tolovtov rjfiiv rivio^ov tov koXov 
iKeivov KoX Zn^pTjjKdryfv iKir€iTOfi<f}a^. 

HA. ^H/jta/yroi/, <o Zcv, dXXa firf yaXiiraivey el cttcut^tji/ 

10 vl(o TToXXa iKereoovTi • itoOev yap av koX TjXTrtaa TTjXt/covro 
yeinjaeaOai KaKov; 

ZET2. OvK rj^€L<; oarj^s iSeiro aKpifieia^ to irpayfia kol 
£09, ct Ppa)(y Tt9 iKfiaCr) rrj^ oSovy ot^^CTat irdvra ; riyv6ei<^ 8c 
Kal TcSj/ hnroiv tov 6vfi6i/y oJ? act ^vviyjeiv dvayKt) tov X^^*-" 

16 vov; el yap ivhoLTf Tt9, a<l>7ivLdl^ovaLv evdv^^ (ocTrep dfieXet 
Kal TovTov igrjveyKaVy aprn fiev inl to, Xaia, [xer* okiyov 8c 
CTTi TO, Sc^ta, ical c? to ivavTLOv tov hpofiov ivioTe, Kal dvo) 
icac Kara), oAa>9 ci/C/a epovKovTO avroi- o 0€ ovk ctx^v o Tt 
^prjaaiTO avTol^. 

• HA. Hai/ra /xci/ '^Tup'Td/iTjv Taxrra Kal 8ta rouro di/rctxoi^ 
cVt TToXv Kal ou#c itnaTevov avro) n^i/ cXatrtr- cttcI 8c icarc- 
XindprfO'e SaKpvcjv Kal 7) jjltJttjp KXyfievrf fieT avroO, dvafit- 
fiaardfievo^ inl to dpfia vnedefirjv ono)^ fiev x/>^ fiefii^Kevai 
avTov, i(f>^ oiToo'ov^ 8c C9 TO dvoi d<l>€VTa vTr€p€V€)(07JvaL, cTra 

26 C9 TO KdTavre^ avdi^ eTTLveveiv Kal oi? iyKparfj etvai t<ov 

JfVlW KoX flT) i(f>l€VaL TO) 6vfl^ T<OV LTTTTtOV • cItTOJ/ Sc Kal 

ijAtKo? o Ktrouj'o?, Ct /XT) opuTfv €\avvoi • o oc — 7rat9 yap ijv 

— CTTt^a? ToaovTov TTvpo^ Kal €7rtKvi|fa9 c? fidOo^ d-^ave^ i^e- 

irXdyrjy oJ? to eIko^ • ot 8c Ittttol 019 rjcdovTO ovk o^ra c/oic ror 

30 CTTt^c/SiyKora, KaTa^pojrqo'avT^^ tov fieipaKLOv i^erpdirovTO 


Ovid 3fe«. 2, 156-100. — ffScts : see In- 
trod. 14 (6). — dcC: see App. — ivSoCi] : 
for opt. in primary sequence see Introd. 
35(c). — d^vidtovo-iv : cf. Bis Ace. 1, 
where Zeus complains on behalf of the 
overworked gods: ** Helios here," he 
says, '* yokes his team, and, putting 
on his fire-halo with its flashing rays, 
scours the heaven the livelong day with- 

out so much as having time, as the say- 
ing goes, to scratch his ear. For if 
ever he forgets himself for a minute 
and grows careless, his horses run away 
(a<i>7)VLd.aavT€i), turn off the track, and 
burn up everything." 

2. &ir«<M|iiiv: cf. the explicit direc- 
tions in Ovid I.e. — pcptiK^vcu : keep his 
footing. — ol 8< I'lrirot . . . oiic 6vra {|U : 



TTj? ooov Kai Ta 0€Lpa Toura eiroirjo'av' o 0€ ra? ifvuL^ a<pcc9; 

o^cu ScSco)? fiTi iKTriarji avro?, cc^^cro rij? avrvyo^. dXXa 

ciccti/d? T€ iJSij e)(ti, Tifv ^LKTjv Ka/ioL, CO ZcO, iKavoi/ TO irevdoS' 

3 ZETS. *I*caj/oi/ Xeyct? roiavra roX/iija'a^ ; vvv fiev ovv avy 

36 yvd/njv aiTov€fi(i} croi, €9 Se to Xocttoi', 171/ Ti Ofioiov napavo- 

liij(rg^ rj riva tolovtop crcavrov 8ta8o;(Oj/ iKTre/ixIrg^y avriKa 

€io"[j onoarop tov aov wvpo^ 6 Kepavpo^ 7n;/)a)8caTcpo9. eSorc 

iK€Lvov fikv at aSeXi^ai Oawrercja'av iirl to) 'HpiSai/o!, Ivairep 

CTTCcrci/ iK8i(f>p€v6eL^y Tjk^KTpov CTT* avToJ 8aKpuovo"at Kat aty€t- 

40 pot y€vi(r6oi(rav liri T(o vdOcLy av 8c ^v/jt7njfa/jtci/o9 to apfia 

— KaT€ay€ Se Kal 6 pvfio^ avTov Koi arepo^ rS>v rpo')(mv ovv- 

TcVptTTTat — eXavve vnayaywv TOU9 t7r7rov9. aWa p.efiinja'o 


cf. Ovid Met. 2, 161 : 

Sed levo pondus erat, nee quod cog- 
noscere ponseiit 

Soils equi, solitaque Juguiu gravi- 
tate carebat. 

Quod slmulac sonsere (cf. (J s j<r0orro). 
— &vrvYOt : generally translated rim or 
edge and referred to the rail which in 
the vase-paintings is seen running along 
the top of an Attic chariot. Reichel 

(UomerUche Waffen^, pp. \A% ft.) con- 
tends that for the Homeric chariot, at 
least, it can mean only the dash-board 
or curved front, 

3. oldSiX^aC: the Heliades, mourn- 
ing for their brother, are changed into 
poplars and their tears ever distil as 
amber. See Ovid, Met, 2, 340-366, and 
compare with Virgil, Aen, 3, 37, Dante, 
Inf. 13.~0a«T<T«M'av: see Introd. 17. 



There are fifteen Dialogues of the Sea, and they contain some of 
Lucian's finest touches. In these aquarelles satirist and artist 
blend. And the reader is as docile as in the True History, Our 
vision is refracted by the shining water, and everything is credible 
beneath its magic depths. Whatever material Lucian borrowed 
from Ovid, or a common original, he had no need for the more 
cumbersome processes of the Metamorphoses, 

A delicate satire permeates the artistic charm, and these Marine 
Dialogues are un exemple perpetuel de cette derision presque imper- 
ceptible.^ While the satire in the Dialogues of the Dead is more 
obvious, stronger — partly by reason of the more weighty subject- 
matter — here, ever and anon, Fancy astride a dolphin rises from the 
clear water that holds the unnoticed satire in solution. In satiriz- 
ing canonical mythology and creeds Lucian reaches his end by no 
caricature. With an artist's restraint he simply changes the propor- 
tions and modifies the face." The credulity, too, of contemporaries, 
such as the pious Pausanias," gave Lucian opportunity for incidental 
mockery that may often be overlooked by a modern reader. 

As with the Dialogues of the Dead, several of these also were 
pretty certainly suggested by works of art extant in Lucian's time. 
Possibly many of the others may have been suggested by paintings 
or sculpture now lost.* 

1 Cf. Croiaet, 62 and 209. 2 n>id., 211. 

• See below, notes to D. Mar. 3, 1, and 12, 1. 

* Cf. the following notes and see Blumner, Studien zu Lucian^ pp. 70-82. 
Blttmner^s suggestion (I.e. p. 81), that these dialogues were really intended as a 
formal satire on the degeneracy of contemporary art, seems to ignore the more 
obvious motive. 



The " iridescent bubble " does not burst in vain. It condenses 
in a water-drop of the " Ocean of the Streams of Story." Thus, in 
2, we have Polyphemus's brute strength succumbing to intellectual 
cunning, and, inlaid upon it, the mimicry of Homer's ram; in 3, 
the cool, bubbling fountain ; in 5, the banquet scene and the quar- 
relling goddesses; in 6, the girl and. her water-jar; in 8, Arion 
playing to the sailors ; in 14, the rescue of Andromeda ; and in 15, 
the two pictures, Europa carried off in the midst of her maidens, and 
the wedding journey — such processions forming a favorite motive 
for painter, sculptor, and writer. And, finally, the picture in 12 is 
one likely to rest in the memory — the blue Aegean, the island 
rock, the fair and smiling child, the fairer mother, the brawny, 
gentle fishermen. 



1 KTK. ft irdrepy ola Triirovda vtto tov KaTapdrov f ci/ov, 09 
fieOvaa^ i^erv(f>\(tHr€ fie KOLjitofiepoi iTn^eipnTjaa^. 

nOS. Tt9 Se ^v 6 ravra roXfirjara^, ci Tlokvifyrific ; 
KTK. To ii€v irpioTov OSrii/ avrov aTrcKaXei, C7r€i Se 8tc- 
6 (f^xrye Kal i^cj ^v /8eXov9, 'OSvcrcrcv? 6pofid[,€a'6aL e(fyq. 

n02. OiSa ov Xeyct9, toi/ *l6aKT](rLov - i^ 'iXtov 8* ape- 
irXei. dXXa ttcD? ravra eirpa^ev ovSc Trai^v evdapayf^ a>v ; 

2 KTK. KareXa/Sov €i/ rol avrpif diro ttj^ vo/itj^ dvaoTpe- 
ijfa^ 7roXXou9 rti/a?, CTrt/SovXcvoKra? 817X01/ ore rot? iroifivLOL^ • 

10 iircl yap inedrjKa r^ dvpa to wtofia — irerpa 8c cWc irafifie- 
yedrj^ — ical to irvp dveKavara ii/avardfiei/o^ 0€(f>€pop SdvSpov 
diTO TOV opov^y i<l>dvrja'av dTroKpvTTTeiv avrou? ireipwfievof 
iyo) 8c crvWafidv rii/a? avrcSj/, i^irep etKos '^Vy KaT€<f>ayov 
Xj^crra? yc oj^ra?. evravOa 6 iravovpyoraTo^ iKeivo^y eiTe 

2 'Arodpciairrldov M. GovilU son of M. 

Title: cf. Od. 9, 216-542; Ar. Fesp. i2ea(2z^-to-l^tde-aii;a2^. — q^Sc . . . ci6ap- 

17(^190; Eur. Cyclops. oHJs: Odysseus ToXiJ/tAiyrif represents the 

1. KOi|u»tUv^: so. ^juo^ from fxe. — Greek cunning, not the ideal knight- 

O^rtv: Homer^s polyphonic puns — hood of Achilles. 

oSrtt and ovrn Od. 9, 366, fi^ rts 406, 2. irlrpa : a massive crag, not a {H- 

fiijTiiAl^ — reappear only in part in Ar. rpo^) mere stone, is made the **lid'* 

Fesp. 186 ff. and Eur. Cyclops 672 ft, (irw/no) of the cave's mouth. Forthecon- 

— ^lOoidjo-iov: Aristophanes, Vesp. 185, trast see Thayer's N.T. Lex. s.v. xirpa, 

prolongs the pou'I^xos (as if from t0i) — o X^pov: note the casual mention. 





15 Ourt? €LT€ 'OSiKTcrcu? 'Jjvy SiScDO'i fioL irieip <f>dpiiaK6i/ tl iy- 
X^^^9 V^^ H'^^ '^^^ €voa"/jto»/, iirifiovkorarov 8c /cat rapaxoih^r 
OTarov airavTa yap €v6v<s ihoKci fiOL 7r€pL<f>€p€a'd<u movTi 
Kai TO (TTnjXaLOv avro di/eaTp€(f>eTO koI ovKeri oXa)9 iv c/iav- 
Tov Tjv, reko^ 8c c? vttvov Kareandardrfp. o 8c ano^vva^ tov 

20 fiox^ov Kol TTvpeoa'a^ ye irpoaen iTv<f)\cDa-€ /le Kadevhovray 
KoX an eKeCi/ov TV(f>\6^ ei/iC croc, cj TloareiSop. 

3 nOS. 'n? fiadvv VTTVOV iKOLfirjOrj^y <o rcKvov^ 05 ovk cfe- 
Oope^ fiera^v Tv<f>\ovfi€voS' 6 8* oiv 'OSutrcrcv? ttcj? Scc<^i/- 
y«/,- ou yap ai/ c5 0I8' on 'q8vvT]6r) diroKLvrjo'aL ttiv nerpav 

26 aTTO r^? dvpas. 

KTK. AXX' iyo) d(f>€LkoVy (is [idWov avrov XdfioifiL i^L- 
ovraj KoX KaOCcas irapd rifv Ovpav idrjpcov ra? j^ctpa? cicttc- 
rdaaSf fiova irapels, rd npofiara €9 T171/ vofirjvy ivTCiXdfievos 

^ e 

9 \' 

TO) icpio) OTToa'a expyjv Trparreiv avrov virep efiov. 
g* IIOS. MavOdvo)' VTT ciccti/ot? eXadov vircf cX^di/rc? • <rc 
8c rou5 dXXov5 KvKkcjiras c8ct inifioTJa'axrOai en avroi/. 

KTK. Xvx/cfcaXccra, c3 Trdrep, /cat i^/cov cttci 8^ yjpovro 
TOV iirL^ovXevovTos Tovvofia Kayw €<l>7)v ori OSrt? ccrrc, 

**A tree that I had m my hand.'* — liri- 
PovX<SraTov: Polyphemua was served 
with unmixed wine. Cf . Eur. Cyclops 

ZEI A. tQs ovp KiKparai ; 0^/>e diMTKef/iih' 

KTKA. diroXett * 6bs ovrus. 

— iv {|jiavrov : for case cf. ^i^ and els 
"Atdou. For the meaning cf. the Eng- 
lish idiom beside myself. 

3. 6 8* oZv kt\.: bid Odysseus, to 
return to him, etc. ; see L.& S. 8.v. odu. 
— ci otS* Sn: cf. In trod. 29. — Ivnt- 
XA|uvos r$ Kpif : the address to the 
ram in the Odyssey (9, 447 ff.) is well- 

nigh comic in its Epic naYvet^ : KpU 
ir4iF0Vf ri fjuoi (J5e ktX, . . , rf <r^ y dra- 
KTot 6<p$a\fjubp Toddeis, ktX. Aristopha- 
nes (Vesp, 179) does not miss this 
comic element in Bdelycleon's pathetic 
address to the family ass, led forth to 
the auction-block with the old man 
under its shaggy belly: 

KdvOiap, ri icXdets; &ri rerpdaci r-^/iepop; 
pddi^€ BoTTov, rl <rriP€iSi el fi^ <f>4pcu 
'08wnr4a riv\ 

The charge to the ram is Lucian*s own 
contribution to the story. 

4. S^v JTi : the &ri is used like 
** ", but see note on Peregr. 28. — 


li€\ay)(o\av ovqOevr^^ /xc (f^omo ainovTe^. ovt<o KaT€a'0(f>L' 
86 (TaTO fi€ 6 KaTapaTo^ r^ opofiaTi, Kai o fidXiara 7JpCaa'€ /le^ 

art Koi 6v€i8il^a}v i/iol rriv crvii(f>opdvj OvSe 6 irarrjpy <f>r)arLVy 

6 TloceiSciv IdaeraC (re. 

nOS. Sdppetf Q) tIkvov dfiwovfiaL yap avrovy ds fidOifj 

art, ical ei irrjpoicriv /xot 6(f>6aK[jLS}v iaa'6at dSvvarovy rd yovv 
40 r<Si/ irXeovroyv ore to ciflfiiv avTov% /cat oiTroXXvi/at d'n ifiov 

7r/)o<rcoTt • TrXct 8c ert. 


1 nOS. Tt TovTOj *A\(f>€L€; [lovo^ rtov dWoiv ifnr€ara)p c? 

TO irdkayo^ ovt€ dva/iiypvarai rg dXfi^y (o^ ci9o9 irorafiot^ 

dvaciVy ovT€ dvairav€L^ ceavrov 8taj(v^€t9j dXXa 8ta rr}^ 

OaXdm}^ ^vv€aT(o^ koX ykvKv ^vkdrroiv ro puOpoVj dfiLyrjs 
6 ert icat Kadapo^ iireiyg ovk otSa oiroi PvOio^ viro8v5 Kaddirep 

oi \dpoi KoX epoiStot; icat ioiKa^ dvaKu^eiv nov koI aiOi^ 

dvaAf}av€iv acavrov. 

AA<I>. ^^pajTLKov rt to it pay fid carti/, c5 IlocrctSoi/, cSorc 

firi cXcyj^c TipdardT}^ 8c koX avTo^ TroXXaict?. 
10 nOS. TvvaiKo^^y (o *AX<^€tc, rj vuii(f>7j^ ^P^^ V '^^^ '^^^ 

Hyipri&tou avrSiv fiid^ ; 

|iA#ll 6'n . . . ^Tt: see App. — irXit 8i tremum hunc, Arethusa, mihi 

(hi: cf. PoBeidon^s remark, Od. 5, 290 concede laborem: | . . . Sic tibi, 

{taee Fernvk tA\oc.)f i\\* Uti flip fdp^fu cum fluctus subterlabere Sica- 

ddiiv ikdaw KaK&rriTot, nos, | Doris amara suam non 

intermisceat undam. 

^ 1. |&4vot r&v &XX«*v : like the use of 

Title : cf. Virg. Aen, 3, 694-696, the superlative. Cf. Od. 6, 106 di^pti- 

Alpheum fama est hue Elidis rarop AWup. This idiom is a sur- 

amnem | occultas egisse vias vival of the old ablatival gen. used with 

subter mare; qui nunc | ore, sup. as well as comp. (Perrin ad loc. ). 

Arethusa, tuo Siculis con fun- So less often in Latin, e.g. Tac. Agric. 

ditur undis. Also £cl. 10, 1-6, Ez- 34 hi ceterorum Britannorum 



AA4>. OvKy dXXd TTrjyrjsy c5 nocethov, 

nOS. ^H 8c aoi TTov rr}^ yrj<; avrrj pel; 

AA<I>. Nija-talTt? ion XiKeXij' *Ape0ovaav avrf/v icaXoO- 

15 (Til/. 

2 nOS. OlSa ovK afiop<f>ovy c3 *AX<^ct€, rr/v * Apedovarauy 

dXXd SiavyTJ^ t€ iari koX 8ia Kadapov di/a/SXv^ei koX to 

vOcjp iiriTrpeneL rat? \lrq<f>Lcnv o\op imp avrtoi/ <f}aLi/6fi€vov 

20 AA4>. n? aky)65}% olaOa rrjv TrrjyrjVy o) Hoo'clSov' Trap' 

iK^lvt)v ovv anep^^ofMaL. 

nOS. *AXX* aiTidi fikv Koi evTV)(€L iv rm epayn • iK€ii/o 8c 

fioL ctTTC, TTOV Ti^i/ ^ Apedovaai/ cISc? avro? /icj/ ^ApKO,^ cSi/, ij 

8c ci' Svpaicoucrai? iariv; 
25 AA<I>. 'ETTCiyo/xci/di/ /xc Karc^ct9, c5 nd(rct8oj/, irepUpya 


nOS. Eu Xeyct9* X^P^^ vapa rrfi/ ayan(oii€vriv, koI dva- 

8u9 ano tt}? ^aXdmjs ^vi/avafiiyvvo'o rrj tttiy^ kol ii/ vSojp 


fugacissimi. — NT|<ri«ris: i.e. inOr- 
tygia. Pans., 5, 7, 2, accepts the whole 
Btory — oOk iffTiv 6iru>s dirurr'^iru) — and 
quotes a Delphic oracle to prove it. 

2. 8id KoOapoi^ dvapXi{ci : bubbles 
up through a pure subsoil or, perhaps, 
sends up its stream through the (pool of) 
pure water. — iiriirplirci rats +'n+fflriv: 
lends beauty to the pebbles, appearing 
all silvery-white above (i.e. because of) 
them; on this use of dirnrpiTei cf. D. 
Mar. 1, 1 iiriirpiirei rtf /uerc^iry, and 
ibid. 3 itrnrpirio a&rtp. If used in the 
other meaning, tr. is made conspicu- 
ous by the (background of) pebbles. A 
fountain in the Mediterranean coun- 
tries was a pilgrim^s shrine: witness 

Horace ^s Bandusian fount. The mod- 
em visitor to Syracuse finds the site of 
tlie fountain surrounded by papyrus 
plants, but Arethusa, betrayed by an 
earthquake, now ** blends with the 
brackish Dorian stream."— Iv vSnp: 
cf. Shelley, Arethusa: 

And now from their fountains 

In Kniia's niountAins, 
Down one vale vrhere the morning baskB, 

Ijike friends once parted 

Grown single-hearted, 
They ply their watery tasks. 

— &,yav»^vr\v : beloved, like 4>i\Q or 
even ipd. So in Mod. Grk., e.g. By- 
ron ^s Zia-Zj fwv <rds dyaxio. See L. & S. 
8. v. 47airw and Thayer, N.T. Lez.,s.v. 




1 ITAN. EiSc?, c5 Takrjprjy X^^^ ^^^ iTToCrfaev ij ''Ept? napa 
TO Seinvov iv ^€rr aXtia, Sidri firj Kal avrri iKkrjdt) is to cru/x- 
iroo'iov ; 

FAA. Ov ^weiOTLtofiTfi/ vfiiv eyarye • 6 yap IlocrciSaii/ ckc- 

6 XevcTC ii€y o) Ilaj/oTnj, d.KVfiain'ov iv ro<rovT(o ^vkdrr^Lv to 
ireXayo^. ri 8 ' oZv iTrotrjO'ep rj *'Epi9 firj irapovara ; 

HAN. 'H 0m9 fikv rjSri koI 6 HiyXev? aireXriXvdearai^ is 
Tov Odkafiov VTTO rrjs * Kfi^irpinqs koX rov riocrctSoii/o? irapa- 
nefi(f>6€VT€Sy 17 "^piS 8c iv roarovrto Xadovfra iravras — eSu- 

10 vrjdri 8c pijihuoSy tS)v fikv TTivovrtoVy ivicjv 8c Kporovm'wv rj 
TO) 'AttoWwvl KidapltfiVTi rj rat? Mouo"at? q,hovaais Trpoae- 
XpvToyv rov vovv — ivefiakev is ro ^v/ittoo'lov iirjXov n rrdy 
KoKoVy ^pvo"oSi/ o\oVy (o Takyjvrj' ineyeypaTrro 8c "17 KaXrj 
Xa)8era>." *cuXii/8ov/li€i/oi/ 8c rovro (Sanrep i^eirCrrjSes '^k€v 

J? €vOa *Hpa re Kal *A<^/)o8tr'»7 Kal *Ad7)va Kar^Kkivovro. kSl- 
ireiBrj 6 'Ftpfirjs dv€\6fi€vos iireXe^aro ra yeypafifiivay at fiev 
HrjprfiSes rjfieLS direcKimTJa-afiev * ri yap cScc rroieiv iKeCveov 
TrapovcSyv ; at 8c dvreiroiovvro iKdarrr) koX avrrjs elvai ro 
lirjXov ri^iovVy koX ct (jltJ ye 6 Zeifs StccrTTjcrci/ avrdsy Kal d^pi 

20 x^ipcjv dv ro irpdyfia Trpov^^wpijcrci/. aXX* iKelvos, Airros 

Title : cf . Milton's Lycidas : 

The air was calm, and on the leyel brine 
Sleek Panope with all her sisters played. 

1. "Epis: cf. Tennyson's Oenone: 
•*The Abominable, that uninvited 
came." — 8i6Ti (a^: see In trod. 39(c). 
— Ti irAYKoXov : one of your perfect 
beauties, — ivtYfypavTO : thjore was writ- 

ten on it. — KartKXCvovTo: the god- 
desses were superior to the convention 
that prescribed for respectable women 
a sitting posture at meals. Cf. Symp. 
8, where the words oOk 6\lyat odcai for- 
bid the conclusion that there was room 
for them to recline on the one bench 
allotted to their use, and see Gulick, 
p. 123, and Gardner and Jevons, p. 349. 
2. iinX^aro: Ionic for di'^7rw. Cf. 



fiev ov Kpivioj (f>7)(rCy ir^pi rovrov — Kairoi iKeiuai avrov Sifca- 
aai ri^iovv — aTTtre 8c c? rrfv ^iSiji/ irapa rov Tlpidiiov TratSa, 
09 olBe r€ Siayi/a>]/at to icaXXioi/ <^tXdfcaXo9 cSi^^ Koi ovk av 

iK€LVO^ KpLvai KaKCJ^. 

26 FAA. Tc oiiv at Oeaiy cj Tlavoirq ; 

IIAN. Tijiiepovj olfjiai,, airiao'iv €9 ttjv ^IStjj/, Kai rt9 ij^ct 
/iCTol iLiKpov airayyeWoiv tjiili/ rffv KpaTovarav. 

FAA. ''HSt; croc <f>yjfiL, ovk aWr) Kparrjcreu rrj^ *A(f>poBirr)^ 
ay<avil^ofi€irq^j rjv fir) ndpv 6 StatXTjr^? afifiXvwrrjj. 


1 TPIT. 'EttI Trjv \4pvavj w TloaeiSoVy Trapayiverai KaO* 
ikdarrjv rifiepav vSpcvarofiarq irapdcvo^y irdyKokov ri XP^I^^ ' 
OVK olSa eyaryc /caXXuo TratSa l8(ov, 

nOS. ^'EtXevdepav rivd^ <o TpCrcDVf Xeycc?, rj Oepdrrcuvd rt? 
5 vhpo<f>6pos iarCv; 

TPIT. Ov fiev ow, dWa tov Alyvirriov €K€lvov dvydrTjp^ 
fita rSiv irevnJKovra koI avrijy *Afivii(oyr) Tovvo/ia • iirvOop/rjv 
yap rJTL^ koKoIto koi to ycvos- 6 ^avao^ 8c orKXyipaycryel 

V. EC. B 36. — SiOirvir^: D. Deor. 20, 
entitled OeCjp Kp£<rtt — for which this 
may be considered a first sketch — fur- 
nished Hans Sachs material for his 
Judgmerd of Paris. Cf . Introd . p. xxii f . 


Title : for story see Class. Diet. s.vv. 
•* Danaus " ; ** Aegyptus " ; ** Amy- 
mone.^* See also the fresco still in 
situ in the House of the Vettii in 
Pompeii, discovered in 1894-1895. Cf. 

Mau^s Pompeii^ p. 323. 

1. A^pvav: situated some five miles 
south of Argos on the west side of the 
Bay of Argolis directly opposite Nau- 
plia. — MfMvov|UvT| : slaves, when avail- 
able, were the water-carriers; but so 
also were the women of the citizen 
class (cf. Ar. Lys. 327 ff.) and, in heroic 
times, even princesses (Baumeister, 
DenkmiUer, I, 367). See note on Vit. 
Auct.7. — ToD ' AfyvirrCov : i.e. Danaus 
brother of Aegyptus. 


ra^ 6vyar€pa^ /cat avrovpyelv StSacriccc kol 7r€/i7r€t vSa>p t€ 
10 apvaofieva^ kol irpo^ ra dWa TraiScuec aoKvov^ etvai avrds- 

2 nOS. Mom; 8c irapayiveraL p^aKpdv ovro) rifv bhov i^ 
*A/3yov9 ^9 Aepi/av; 

TPIT. Momrj' TroXvSo/rioi/ 8c ro'^ApyoSy co? otada* ware 
avdyKT) del vSpo(f>op€iv. 
16 n02. ft TptTCJv^ ov fierpuos 8tcrapaf as /ic ct^rcui' ra nepl 
rfj^ 7rat8o9 ' oxrre uo/iev in* axrrrjv. 

TPIT. "it^fiev Tj^j) yovv Kaipos rlj^ v8po<l>opLa^ • kol (t^c- 
o6v TTOv Kara p.€<rqv ttjv 686v ioTLv lovaa cs tt/p Acppav. 

nOS. OvKovi/ l^ev^oi/ TO dpfia • rj tovto fxev iroWrjv €)(€i 
20 rrjp hiarpifiriv imdytiv rov<; vmrovs Tjj C^vyXji kol to dpjia 
CTTtcrifcua^cti/, av 8c dXXa Sekifni/d fioC Ttva tcov (OKetov irapd- 
(mqarov - i<f>L7nTd(ro[jLaL yap ctt* avrov ra^wrra. 

TPIT. 'l8ou (Toi ovTocrl SeX^tvcjv 6 dicvTaTos- 

nOS. Ev ye • dnekavviofiev • aif 8c TTapavrj)(OVj <3 TpiTcov. 
26 Kawethrj Trdpearyiev c? Tifv Aepvavy iycj p.kv \o)(7Jaro) ivTavdd 
irovy aif 8c dTroaKoirei - oirorav aladrj irpocriovarav airn^v — 

TPIT. AvTTj croc TrXijcrtoi/. 

3 nOX. KaXi^, CD TpLTCjPy Kai (opaCa irapdevo^' dXXa crvX- 
XTjTnrca y^pxv ioTLv, 

30 AM. Ai/0pcjiT€y TTol fi€ ^vvapTrdaa^ dyct?; di'8/)a7ro8c- 
OT^S cl, /cat cot/ca9 '^7/itr vtt* AtyvTrrov roS ^ctov cttittc/k^^tj- 
vat • dJoTC fiorjarop^cu top Trarcpa. 

TPIT. Xidtjnrqo'ovj c5 *ApAjpmrq' IIo(rci8cDi/ ccrrt. 
AM. Tt nocrct8ft)j/ Xcyct?; rt Pidl;ri /xc, o) dpdpoDirey /cat 
36 C9 r^i/ OaKaTTav KadeXKU^ ; iyo) 8c dnoirviyyja'opai rj ddXia 

2. «9f pto^a : i.e. because Homer 72. 3. ri noo-ctSAv X<y<^: the same 

4, 171 called Argos To\udlrf/iop. — l^tir- form, noaeidiav, is retained in quoting. 

irdo^fuu: 80 raplwireuov is used of a Cf. similar use with the article, e.g. 

dolphin-mount in D. Mar. 15, 3, t6 Z^ph* ^he word Xerxes^ and cf. 



n02. Sdpp€L^ ouSez/ Scti/oz/ fxrf nddrj^ • dX.X.a Kal Trqyrfv 
iirdtivvixov COL di/a8odrjp(u 'rronjo'ct) ivravda Trard^a^ rjj rpi- 
aCvT) rffp nerpav nXTjciov rov Kkvcixaro^j koX av evSaC/jicjp 
40 iarf Kal ixovq rS)v dheki^fov ov^ v8po<f>opTJa'€LS dirodavovaa. 



1 n02. Ev ye, c5 AeX^ii^es, ore act <f>L\di^0pamoL core, kol 
TraXat /xki/ ro rrj<; ^Ii/oCs TrathCop inl top ^Wd/xop iKo/xCa'aTe 
virohe^dixepoL diro rSyv XKeipcjpiBcjp {lerd rrj^ fjLrjTpo^ ifiner 
(TOP, Kal pvp aif top Kidapo&op tovtopI top c/c Mrjdvfxpri^ 

6 apaXaficjp i^epij^o) cs Taipapop airry (TKevy kol Kiddptf^ 

ovSe TTcpcctSc? Ka/ca>9 vtto tS}p pavT<op diroWvix^pop. 

Peregr. 33 r6 T4\et. — oiSiv Stiviv fi^ : resentation of a comic chorus moanted 

no eoil shall befall you; see examples 

in GMT. 295, 290. See App. — inr|- 

Y^jv: this is a *' copious spring" tx)-day 

at the modern Mt)\ot (Lerna) on the 

road from Argos to Tripoli tza. Amy- 

mone alone {{jMinj rdv ab€\4>(a») among 

the Danaides was to have a fountain 

instead of a sieve for her ifdpoipopla. — 

fOSaCfiMv : the other exception, Hyperm- 

nestra, fares still better. Cf. Horace 

Carm.S, 11: In omne virgo | nobi- 

lis aevum. 


For the story of Arion read Hdt. 1, 
23, 24; Ovid Fasti 2, 91-116; Pseudo- 
Arion Fragm. (Ardh. Lyr. 5); and see 
H. W. Smyth's Melic Poets, pp. 205- 
208, for discussion of the legend and 
the authenticity of this fragment at- 
tributed to Arion, and for embellish- 
ments of the story in later, writers. 

For the story of "The Boy and the 
Dolphin'* cf. Pliny ^p. 9, 33. For a rep- 

on dolphins see Daremberg et Saglio, 
Dictionnaire des AntiquiUs^ fig. 1428. 
1. ri rl|« 'Ivovs ircuS£ov : Melicertes- 
Palaemon. The names both of mother 
and son suffered a sea-change. Cf . Od. 
t6v di tb€v Kddfwv Ovydrijp iraXX/<r^vpov 

*T ' 

AevKoOiri, ^ vplv likv tnjv pporbs a^di^etrtra. 

The rider on the bronze statuette at 
Taenarum has been by some critics 
identified with this Melicertes-Palae- 
mon who was carried by dolphins to 
the Isthmus, and by others with Taras, 
son of Poseidon, who rode safely on a 
dolphin from Taenarum to Tarentum 
(see Smyth, I.e.). — lKO|iCo-aTt: so in 
Bacchyl. 17, 97-100 the dolphins bear 
Theseus swiftly to the halls of his father 
Poseidon : ipipop di deXtfnyet dXipaUrtu 
fiiyav OoQt Qijiria varpbs lirwlov hhfjuov* — 
T^v Ik MT|Oii(ivi)s : A rion . — I((^(m : see 
y. //. B 47. — airg o-kcv^ Kal KiOdpf : 


AEA4>. Ml) Oav/iaurrj^y <o Ildo'ctSoj', el roif^ av6p(!mov<; ev 
TTOioviiev i^ av6 p(lyiTb}v ye. koX avrol i\6ve^ yevo/jLevoi, 

n02. Kai /x€/x<^o/xai ye ra> Alovucto}, otl v/jlSl^ Koravav- 

10 ixaxTjaa^ /xcTC)8aX.c, 8eoi/ \eip<i>a'aa'dai {xovov^ oMnrep Tov<i 
aXXovs inrqydyero. TTois 8* ovv ra Kara top *ApLOva tovtov 
eyevero^ <o Ae\<f>ii/ ; 

2 AEA4>. 'O llepLavSpo^^ ol/JLaL^ e)(aipev avT(p kol ttoXXci- 
Kt? ixereTTep^irero airov eirl rrj Te)(vrj, o 8c TrXovnjo'a^ napa 

15 rov Tvpdvvov eTredvp/qae 7rXcv(ra? orKa8€ e% rrfv MTJdvfii/av 
iiriSei^aa'daL top ttXoutoz/, /cat CTrtjSa? TropfffieCov rii/09 Ka- 
Kovpywv avhpSiv o5? ehei^e Trokvv aydiv y^pvaov re koX dpyv 
pop, inel Kara {leaov to Axyaiov eyevovroj eTTifiovkevovciv 
avT^ oi i/avrat • o 8c — yJKpodjfjiyjp yap diravra napavecjv rw 

20 a'Kd<f>ei — 'EttcI ravra vpHv hehoKraij e<f>rfy aXXa rrjv crKevrji/ 
dvaXafioPTa [le kol daavra ffprji/ov riva in c/xavTftJ eKovra 
edxrare pv^ai c/xavrdi/. eirerpe^av 01 i/aOrox koX dveXa^e 
rfjv CKex/Tjv kol ijcrc ndvv Xiyvpov, /cat erreaev c? ttji/ ^aXar- 
rav o5? avTiKa TrdpTO)^ d7rodavovp,ei/o<; ' iyw 8c viroXaficjj/ 

25 /cat dvade/jLevos avrov e^evrj^dp/qv e)((ov c? Taivapop. 

nOS. *¥nraLvo} ere tij? if^iKopiOvaia^' d^iov yap top pi- 

adov aTTohehwKa^ avT(o aKpodaen}^. 

80 in Hdt. I.e. Arion, after putting on On the Lysicrates monument in Athens 

xcurap r^p ffxivrfv and taking t^v Kidd- we see the metamorphosis half-finished. 

pap, stands before the sailors and dis- 2. IlcpCavSpof : Periander, tyrant of 

courses music and then flings himself (*orinth, comes off with credit in this 

into the sea cJs cfx^, a^p t^ axevy ird^r^. stage of hiscareer, but he fell from grace 

In Ovid I.e. in medias ornatus and was repeatedly displaced from re- 

desilit undas. — i{ dvOp^iruv . . . vised lists of the **Seven Sages.*^ — It 

tx^vft : cf. h. Horn. 7, 51 ff. where the tt)v M^v^tvav : both Methymna (in 

pirates, who had kidnapped Dionysus, I^sbos) and Corinth, with her twofold 

are changed by the god into dolphins : water-ways, had legends to tell of grat«- 

. , . otdi Wpafe KaKbp fi6pop i^a\6opT€s ^ul dolphins. See Smyth, I.e. — oUciSf 

irdyrei 6/itos inJ3ij(ra>», iirtl tSop, €ls d\a h Tt|v M^Ov^vav: in Ildt. 1, 24 Arion 

Siap, was on his way back to Corinth from 

dcX^ipts 8* iyipopTo, Tarentum. — circo'cv: see App. 



1 AHP. Ti 8aKpv€L<;, c5 ^ert ; 

©ET. KaXX-umji/, (3 AcjpCy KOfyrjv €tj^op cs Kifiorrov \mo tov 

iraTpo<; iiifiXyjOelirav, axmjv re koI fip€<f>o^ avrrjs apTLyevpt)^ 

TOP • ciccX.€vcrc 8c o Trarfip roif^ pavTa<; avakafiovra^ ro k t)8c5- 

5 TLOVj CTTCtSai' TToX-v OLTTo 77)% yrj<; airoairdaoHTiVy a<f>€Li/aL cs rrfu 

daXarraPy c5s anoXocTO rj ddXiay Koi avrrj Koi to fip€<f>o^. 

AHP. Tti/o? §€ €i^€Kay c5 aS€\<f>'ij ; eiiriy ci re i/Made^. 

©ET. ^AKptfio)^ airavra. *0 ya/o ^AKpurio^ 6 narrip av- 

T^s icaXX-toTTjz/ ovixav inapOepevev cs x^'^o^^ rti'a daXa/jLOv 

10 i/Jifiakdj/' cTra, ct /utei/ aXTj^c? ouk c^co ciTTCtj/, <^a(rt 8* oui/ 

TOP Alia \pv(Tov y€j/6iJL€vop pvfjvoL 8ia roS 6p6<f>ov in avTTjPy 

Scfa/utcVjjj/ 8c iK€Lvr)v cs toj' icoX-ttoz/ KwrappiovTa tov deov 

iyKv/JLOpa y€P€(T0(U. tovto aiixdoixeifo^ 6 naTijpj aypto^ rt? 

Kal ^TjXoTxmo^ yepwv, -qyapdKrqo'e Koi vno Tci/09 iitfiOL^iA- 

15 (xdai olrfdw avrfjv c/x)8aXXct cs riji/ Kifiorrov apn TeroKvlav. 

2 AftP. *H 8c Tt iirpaTTeVy w 0erc, ottotc KadUTo ; 

12 1. x<^Koi)v 9dXc4iov: cf. Paus. 2, 

Title: Doris is either the mother 23, 7 6 x^^*^^^ $d\atws op *AKpl<rifn 

of the Nereids or (as evidently in D. xore hrl ^povpq. r^ Ovyarpbt frof^e. 

Mar. 1) is herself one of the Nereids. Lucian is perhaps again (see 3, 1) ridi- 

Thetis here, calling her by name, culing Pausanias's credulity. — KtP«»- 

seems to address her as sister. For t6v : ark; used of a treasure-chest Lys. 

list of the Nereids see Hes. Theog. 12, 10. Cf. Philopa. 27 where the san- 

240 ft. dal was lost vrb rJ Kipurf. It is used 

For Danae and Perseus see Simon- of Noah's ark Gen. 7, 1 ; and of the ark 

ides Fragm. 13 and the almost over- of the covenant Heb. 9, 4. The baby 

beautiful translation of J. A. Symonds Moses, however, Exod. 2, 3, was put 

(Greek Poets c. x); cf. also Horace «/j ffipiv. In Simon. 87, 1 the "carven 

Carm. 3, 16, and William Morris, T?ie chest" is Xdpwict SaidaXdq, (cf. Smyth, 

Doom of King Acrisitis. DanaS was Cheek Mdic Poeto, ad loc.); but Xd/>Mi( 

the great-granddaughter of Hyperm- is also used, like Noah's Kiptardt, of the 

nestra and Lynceus. ark of Deucalion, e.g. de D, Syr.' 12. 



©ET. ^Tnep avrrj*: {ikv cVtya, cu Acopi, Kai i<f>€p€ rfjp Kara- 

hucqvy TO fip€<f>o^ 8c TTapjiT€LTo /JLTJ aTrodavu,v 8aKpvov(ra kol 

ral TTiXTnTif h^iKviovaa avroy koXXxotop ov to 8c vtt* ayvoia^ 

20 rSiv KaKCjp v?r€/ui€i8ta Trpos rrji/ ddkarrav. VTroTri/uiTrXa/uiat 

avdi^ Toif^s 6<f>daKiMoif<: 8aKpv<op /ivrj/JLOpevova-a airriav. 

AflP. Kd/uic 8aicp{;<rat cVotTjcra?. aX.X.* tJStj r^Ovaaiv ; 

0ET. Ov8a/xa)?' inj^eraL yap en tj Kifiarro^ afxi^i t-^v 
%ipi^ov tfivra^ avrov^ <f>v\drTova'a. 
26 AflP. Tt ovp ov)(i a^^oii^v avrfiv rot? aXtevct rovTOL<; 
ilxfiakovaaL €9 ra hucrua rot9 %€pL<f>ioL^; ot 86 avauoriror 
<raKr€9 <rc5<7ov<rt 8*^X01/ art. 

0ET. Eu Xey€t9, ovro> TTotaJ/utci/ • /117 yap aTToXccr^cu /xi^rc 
avn) /Aiyrc ro 7rat8toi/ ovra>5 oi^ koXov. 

2. K^LXXio^rov ^v: this recalls the 
pathos of KoisbvirpfHrfavov SimoD. 87, 12. 
— r^trcu: U floating. Cf. archaic or 
coUoqaial English use and also Germ. 
68 schwimmt. — 2<p«4ov : this little 
island nursed Perseos to maturity, and 
in after days refused submission to 
Xerxes, but in Roman times degen- 
erated into a penal colony. For the 
story of Themistocles and the man 
from Seriphus see Plato Rep. 380 a. 


For the story of Perseus cf . Ov. Met. 
4,662-761 ; William Morris, TkeEaHhly 
Paradise^ **The Doom of King Acris- 
ius " ; Kingsley^s Andromeda and his 
admirable juvenile version in The 
Greek Heroes. For an exhaustive com- 
parative study of the whole myth see 
E. Sidney Hartland's Legend of Perseus^ 
a Study of Tradition in Story ^ Custom^ 
and Beli^. Cf. especially vol. Ill, c. 
xvi-xviii, **The Rescue of Androm- 

eda,** and c. xxi where the author 
makes an instructive differentiation 
between the myth-making of savages 
and of more civilized nations — in this 
case Japan, Greece, etc.: **We have 
found," he says, »*the Supernatural 
Birth, the Life-token and the Medusa- 
witch founded on superstitions com- 
mon to all mankind and arising in the 
depths of savagery. The Rescue of 
Andromeda, on the other hand, ap- 
pears to be restricted to nations which 
have attained a certain grade of civi- 
lization, and to spring out of the sup- 
pression of human sacrifices to divini- 
ties in bestial form." 

For the word-picture in §§ 2, 3 cf. 
Lucian^s de Domo 22 with BlUmner*s 
discussion (op. cit., pp. 67, 62, 68, 82) 
of Lucian*s descriptions or imitations 
of ancient paintings and sculpture. 
See Introd. to I). Deor., p. 160, and to 
D. Mar.^ p. 109. For a comparison 
of all these scenes with the fupun of 





1 TPIT. To Kfjro<; vficjv, cj Ntj^tjiSc^, o iirl rrjv rov Kri<f}€(o^ 
Ovyaripa rrfv ^Av8pofie8av inefJAlfarey ovre t^v TratSa ^Swcij- 
aev, gIs oL€<rd€, kol avro ijSij TedvrjKev. 

NHP. 'Ttto rivo^j <o TpCrcop ; rj 6 K'q<f>€v^ KaOdirep SeXcap 

5 irpodel^: rfjv Koprjv aTrc/cTcti/ci/ iirioiVj Xoj^i/cra? /xcra ttoXX^? 

TPIT. OvK ' dXXa tcTTC, ol/jiac, o> *I<f>Ldpaxra'ay rw Tlepaeay 
TO rrj<; Aavdrf^; TraiSioi/, o /xcra t^9 iirjTpo^; iv ry Kifioyrto 
ip^fiXyjdcv c? TTjP dakarrav viro rov iirjTpoTrdropo^ iacjcaTe 
10 oiKTipaaaL avrov^. 

I4>. OlSa OP Xeyci? • €iico9 8e 17817 veavCav etvcu Koi /taXa 
ycz/j'atoi' TC ical /caXoi/ ISeip. 

TPIT. Ovro9 aTTCKTcti/c to k^to?. 

I4>. Ata Ti, ft) TpLTa)v; ov yap Srj (rcJOTpa rjfiiv Totavra 
15 iKTiveiv avTov ixPV^' 

Herondassee Bursians Jahresber. 1901, 
p. 247. 

1. Ti Ki)ro«: the marine divinities 
— Nereids, Tritons — and the Cetacea 
may have felt with Hephaestus ( Aesch. 
Prom. 39) that blood is thicker than 
water ; but this Nereid's perfunctory 
indignation at the slaying of this lub- 
berly sea-monster reminds us also of 
the Seriphian fishermen who, by a kind 
of totemism, came to identify a certain 
huge rock-lobster with Perseus himself. 
If they caught one in their nets it was 
returned to the sea, if they found one 
dead they would bury it weeping. See 
Hartland, op. cit., 1, 9; III, 154. The 
skeleton of this particular /c^ros, if we 

are to believe Pliny the Elder, Nat 
Hist. 9, 5 (4), 11, was dug up near 
Joppa. This would conveniently settle 
the scene of the rescue, as the petrified 
carcass would not have drifted far I — 
ovrc . . . Kat : an extension of the usage 
ovre ... re, e.g. Aesch. Prom. 260 ovr 
ifiol X^7cti' I Ka0* ijdov^p ffol r dXyoj. It 
is found in Eur. I. T. 591 <rb . . , ovre 
dvffyei^i Kal . . . otaOa., also in 2). 
Meretr, 2, 4. — 'I^idvcuro-a : Lucian 
perhaps takes this Nereid's name from 
//. 18, 46 ff. where KaWidvacca and 
^l&vacaa are given in the list of thirty- 
three Nereids. Hesiod Theog. 243-262 
gives fifty daughters of Nereus and 
Doris, and amongst them a Kvcidpuaaa, 


3 TPIT. *Eya> v/jlIv <f)paar(i} to nap cu? iya/ero • ioTaky) fxeu 
ovTos inl ra? Topyova^ ad\6v riva rovrov rw fiaaiXel lm7€r 
Xoij/, eTTcl 8c d(f>LKero c? rrip Kifixrqv — 

I4>. TlS>^j (o TpCrojv ; jiovo^ ; 1^ koX aXX.ov9 (Tviiiia)(ov^ 
20 rjyev ; dXXcog ya/3 hvcTTopo^ 17 oSd?* 

TPIT. Ata ToC ac/)05* vTToirrepov yap avrov rf ^Adrjya 


oT/jLaLy o 8c a7roT€fia}i/ rfj^ McSovcnj? T171/ Ke<f>a\rfp ai^cro 


26 I4>. Hals tScuj' ,• adiaroi yap cicrii/ • 17 o? ai^ i8y, ouic aj/ ri 
aWo fiera ravra? Sot. 

TPIT. 'H *A0r]va Trjv ao-TrtSa Trpo^atvoxHra — roiavra 
yap rJKOvo'a 8irjyoviJL€i/ov avrov npo^ rrfp *Ap8poiJLeSav Kal 
irpo^ TOP K7j<pca vcTepov — ij Aurji/a orj CTTt rrj? a(r7rtoo9 

30 aTToo'TtXjSova'Tjg <o(m€p cttI Karonrpov irap4a'\(ev avT(p iSelp 
rfjp elKova rrj^ Mehovari^' ctra Xa)3ofi€i/o9 t^ Xata ttjs 
KOfirj^y kvopSyv 8* cs tt7I/ cticoi/a, ry 86^ta 7171/ apirqv ^ft*x', 
aTTCTC/jtc T171/ K€<f>ak7)v avrfj^, Kal nplv dve.ypio'dai ra? a8cX- 

3 <^a9 aveirraTo. kir^i 8c icara ri^i/ irapaKiov ravTy)v Aidioiriav 

36 ey€v€rOj 17817 npoayeio^ Treroixevo^;, opq, rr^v * Avhpojxihav npor 
KeifievTjv iiri Tti/09 nerpa^ npo^XyJTo^ TrpoaTrcirarTaXevfievrjPy 
KakXiOTTjPy (o deoLj Kadeifjievrjv tcl^ icd/xa?^ rjfiCyviivov ttoXv 
ipepdep T(op iiaarSiv koX to {ikv TrpSnov oiKTLpa<; rrji/ tv- 
)(7]v avrf}^ dvrjpwra rfiv alriav t^9 KarahiKif]^^ Kara yuKpov 

40 8c aXou9 CjpaiTt — k)(prjv yap (rea'cjaOai ttjv 7rat8a — )8oi7- 
^ctJ' 8t€yi/a>- icat C7rct8'^ to ktJto^; iirri^i fidXa <f)ofi€p6v w? 

2. T$ poA-iXcC: i.e. PolydecteH, king III, c. xix,xz, **The Mednsa-Witch in 

of Seriphus. — {rirdimpov . . . I9i)kcv: Marchen"etc. — ti(yin\v: falchion. See 

for this Homeric usage cf. Od. 6, 229 Diet. Antiq. s.v. *»Falx." Heracles 

t6p nip . . . OrjKep /i£<^ora, also 18, 106 with this slays the Hydra, cf. Eur. Ion 

and II. (I 139; 9, 48.3. — rl^ Mc5oiicn)t 191, 192 Aeppatop vdpap ivalpei | x/>i'0'^ais 

Ti|v Kt^oX^v: see Hartland, op. cit., vol. dpxatt 6 Aids vah. 


KaTairtofiepop r^v * Kphpofi^ihaVj v'iT€pax(oprid^i^ o peapiCKO^ 
npoKomop e)((i)P t^v apinfv rg {ikv KadiKveiTaL, Ty 8c irpo- 
BcLKvifs Trfv Topyova \idov kiroUi avrd, ro 8c r46vr)K€P o/iov 

46 Kal ireirqyev avrov ra iroX.Xc£, o<ra cISc T171/ ^ihovcav o Sc 
Xvaa^ TOL 8e<rfia rij^ Trapdivov^ vTroaxiov rriv X^P^ vttcSc- 
^aro dKponohrjrl Kariovcrav €k rrj^ nerpas oXwr^Tjpa? ovKrrf^^ 
Koi vvp ya/xct ev rov Kij^eiw? koX dird^ei aMfV c? '^Apyo^^ 
oicTTC dvTL davdrov ydfiop ov top tv)(6vt(i evpero. 

^ I4>. *Eya> fxep ov irdvv toI y^yovori axOop^ai- rC yap 17 
Trat? ^8uc€t 17/uias^ €c Tt rf p^yfrrip c/uteyaXav^^ciTo icat Tj^iov 
KoKXUov ^vax ; 

AHP. Oti ovto)^ dp 7J\y7)a'€P cttI tq OvyarpX p^tJTrip ye 

55 I4>. M7]K€TL iiefipdiieda, (o AwpC, iKeCptoPy €t ti fidpfiapo^ 
yvpTj virkp ttjp d^Lop iXdXrjO'ep' iKainfP yap rip2p TL/jiayputp 
ihcjKe <f>ofirj0€ia'a inl rjj TvaihL x^Cptofiep oip r^ ydfiat- 

3. irp6K«irov: drawn, AhiO grasped rov ic/jrovs c7de r^v "NLi^vcaVy 11811 \lBot 

by hili and hilt^aspiTig, Cf. Aesch. iffrl^ rb 8' 6<rov (Ifixf/vxov m^i^c, rj ^^V 

Agam. 1651 and 1652, where the old K&irrerai. — Xvo-of rd 8w|id ktX. : al- 

men and Aegisthus make ready for most all of the many antique monu- 

combat: ments (except the vases) representing 

XO. efo 3iJ, e^^j irp6Kunrow was rit ei5- ^« scene give the details as here de- 

Tperi^iria, scribed by Lucian. See BlUmner, op. 

AL dXXA Mf?»' «<i7«J> vp6Kiairos oiJic dwai- cit.,pp.77,78,and the epigram from An- 

vofuu Saptip. tiphilus {AnthoL Lib. 4, Tit. 9, No. 20) : 

— T^ 8€ irpoSciKvvs Ttiv FopYdva : in X* f^^ ^^^ ffKoviXoio xaXj wUa <riiird8t 

Ovid Perseus fights with his falchion vdpxq, 

only and makes no use of the Medusa "^^P*" ' ^ *^ h-v^t^p pvfufwKofu? t6 

head, although the Medusa head is re- y^pas, 

f erred to in another connexion. See — vikmtxmv ty|V x<^ 'f''^-- so in Char. 

Ilartland, op. cit., Ill, 152, for the 5 Hermes helps Charon up the slippery 

conjecture that in the original tale ascent. — Iv roO KT|^i«»s : sc. ofjc^. 

Perseus rescues Andromeda on his 4. Wtp ty|v d(£av : so Dem. 18, 2.3 6 

way to slay Medusa. — Sa-a ct8< i4|v tnkv yi^ (i.e. Philip) bwip ri^w dJ^iav xc- 

M(Sov0>av : cf. de Domo 22 where the voliiKe t^» airroG, and cf. Dem. 16, 1 for 

painting is thus described : r6 fxip 8cov irapd rijv d^iav. 





1 ZE<I>. Ov TTftJTrorc tto/xthji' cyw fieyaXoTrpeneoTipai/ eiSoi/ 
€P rjf uaKarrii, a^ ov ye eifii icat npecj. <tv oe ovk cioe^^ cj 
Ndrc ; 

NOT. TtVa rauTTji' Xey€ts, w Z€<f>vp€y rrjp no/jLTnjv; rj 
6 Tti/€9 ot irefiirovTe^ Tjcrai/ ,• 

ZE4>. 'HSuttov ded/iaTo^ a'n'e\€uf>dr)Sf olop ovk av oKKo 
tdoi9 ert. 

NOT. Ile/M vfiv *^pvdpav yap ©aX.arraj' eipya^ofirjVj iire- 
nvevaa 8c k al /JLcpo^ rfj<; *Ii/8t/cTjs, ocra irapakia ttJ? \(!t)pa^ • 
10 ovSci/ ovi' olSa (iSi/ Xey€is* 

ZE4>. 'AXXa tov Xihdviov *Ayrjvopa oi8a9 ; 
NOT. Nat- Toi/ Tijg EupcoTTij? 7raT€/3a. rip/qv; 
ZE4>. Ilepc avr^? iKeCvrjs Sirjyija'opaC o-oc. • 

NOT. Mcij/ art 6 Zcvs ipaarrj^; rrj^: TratSog eic ttoXXov; 
15 TovTo yap ical TraXat T^TTtara/xTji/. 

Title : for the Btory of Europa Lucian 
had abundant material both in art and 
literature (cf. BlUmner I.e. pp. 7^-80). 
In art two different moments were 
given. In both types Europa grasps 
the bulPs horn with her left hand, with 
the other she either draws in her flut- 
tering robe just as in Lucian (e.g. 
Moschus, Id. 1 (2); Ovid Fasti 6, 607, 
and on the Sidonian coins) or, as in Ovid 
Met, 2, 874-5 and in many other repre- 
sentations, altera dorso | imposita 
est. To this latter class may also 
(since 1895) be added the very archaic 
(?ca. sixth century b.c.) Selinus met- 

ope, now in Palermo ; for a reproduc- 
tion see Gardner^B Greek Sculpture^ p. 
146. The Doric garment is too short 
to be Ovid^s tremulae sinuantur 
flamine vestes. 

1. ol H^inyrn : the basic meaning 
escort comes uppermost ; cf . vofiv^, — 
d^' o^ : sc. xp6vov. — '£pv0pdv 6dXaT- 
rav: this in Hdt. included not only 
the Arabian Gulf (modern Red Sea) 
but also that part of the Indian Ocean 
lying between Arabia and Hindustan. 
Later it included also the Persian Gulf. 
— lipYa(6|iT|v, lir^mfwa : note tenses. 
— otSat: but oTtr^a just below, see App. ; 
for form se;' Introd. 14 (6). 



ZE4>. OvKovv Tw jxev ipo/ra oto'da, tol jiera ravra Se 1JS17 

2 aKovaov. rj fi€P Ev/>cu7n7 icarcXTjXv^ct iirl rrjp 'qtopa Trai- 
Jovcra Ta<; 7}X.t/cia>rt8as napaXafiova'ay 6 Zcv? Se ravpo) €iica- 
cra? eavToz/ (rvj'CTratJcj/ avrat? icaXX-wrTO? <f>aLv6fi€PO^ • Xevicds 

20 re yap 171^ aKpifio}^ koX ra Kcpara evKafiTrfj^ Koi ro pkip^fia 
yjfiepo^' icTKCpra ovp kol avros inl rrj^ iJloi/09 Koi i/ivKOLTo 
rjhiOToVy (Sare rfjv ISiVpdyirqv rokiirja-ai koL dvafirjvcu avrov, 
oJg Sc Tovro iyeveroy Spofxaio^ jxkv 6 Zevs wpfiijcrev iirl rfjv 
doKarrav <f>€p(i)v avrrji/ kol ivrj\€ro ifiireadvy tj 8c Tram; 

25 iKirXayrj^ toJ Trpdyfiari r-g Xata /utei/ ct^cro tov Kcparo^j cJs 
/X1J dirokLO'ddvoij ry irepa Be rjpefKo/JLevop top wenXov ^v- 

3 NOT. *HSu rovTo Oiafia cISc?, cu Z€<f>vp€y kol ipoyriKovy 
vrj^oixevov TOV Aia <f>€povTa ttjp ayaircj/JLevrip. 

30 ZE4>. Kal /utiji' ra /utcra ravra ijSwy Trapa ttoXv, <i5 Norc • 
Tj T€ yap ^aXarra €vdv^ dKVficjv iyeveTo Kal Trjv yakyjpr)p 
CTTKTTrao'a/jteVjj Xctai' 7rap€L)(€v kavrrjvy rffJiei^ 8c irdirre^ yfov 
Xio,v dyovTt% ovSkp dWo tj Oearai fLOvov tS)v yiyvoii4v<tiv 
TraprjKoXovdov/JLevy *Epcurc9 8c TrapaTrcro/xci/ot {iiKpov eK rrj^ 

35 OaXdTTT)^, cos ivCore aKpoi^ toT,^ ttooXv CTTn/^avcu/ tov i;8aTo?, 
rilHi4va<i ras 8a8a9 <f>epoin'€<; -gSov a/uta roj/ vyi4vaixovy at 
KrjpriiSe^ 8c di/a8v(rat TrapCnTrevop iirl tcjp Se\<f>LV(ov cTTcicpo- 
rovcrat yffiiyvixvoi at TToXXat, ro re roll/ TptTCJPCDP yivo% koX 

2. TQ Xeuf . . . ^ : so in 
MoBchufl, Id, 1 (2), 126 ff. (Ahrens) rg 
ItJkv tx^^ roApoit doXix^v K^pas, iv x^P^ ^* 
AWjjl I tf^ve Trop4>vphiv aroXfiov irr^ay 
Bippa K€ n^ fjLip I 5e(^ i^\K6iJ£Pov ToXc^f 
d\bs dawerop vHap, \ KoKwibdji S* duifMuri 
x^Xof /3a^i>s Eipwreirjs. So in Ovid 
Fwiti 5, 607-609 ilia iubara (not 
cornu) dextra, laeva retinebat 
amictus . . . aura sinus implet 

(cf. icoXir(^ of Moschas). In Met, 2, 
874-876 (see above) the description is 
different. Tennyson {Palace of Art) 
catches still another moment: 

Or sweet Enropa's inantle blew unclasp*d, 
From olf her shoulder backward borne : 

From one hand drooped a crocus : one hand 
The mild bull's golden horn. 

3. lp«*TiK6v : aentimeTUal, — iropCir- 

ircvov kw\ r&v 8iX^Cv«»v : the blending of 



€L TL aWo fxr)' <f>ofi€pov tScti/ T(ov OaKaTTuov airairra Trcptcj^o- 

40 p€V€ rrfv TralSa* 6 /utej/ yap IlocrctSoIij/ imfiefiT)K(o^ apfxaro^ 

Trapoxovfjievrjp rffu *Aix<f>LTpiTyjv ^ov 7rpoyjy€ yeyr/dci^ 68o- 

TTOiSiv vrjxoii€v<p ra> aSeX^o!' inl naaL 8c tyjp *A<f)po8Crr)i/ 

8vo TpiT(ope<s e<f>€pop iirl Koyxrj^ KaTaKeifJievrjPy avdi) iravrota 

4 iinirdTTowTav ry i/vii<f>ji. ravra c/c 4>oti/tKT}? ^XP^ ''^^ Kpij- 

45 T7JS iyevero' cVct 8c iirefirj rp v^o'ta^ b /lep ravpo^ ovkcti 

i<f>aCi/€TOy iniXafiofxei^o^ 8c rrj^ ^€tpo$ 6 Zcvs aTr^yc r^z/ 

ViVpanrqv c? to AiKratoi/ avrpov ipydpimaav koI icarco opoi- 

o-ai/- T^TrMrraro yap rjht) i<f>* oto} ayoiro. rjixei^ 8c iyLirer 

a'6vT€^ aXko aWo^ tov TrcXctyov? ix4po% SteKv/iaCpofiep. 

60 NOT. *I1 ixtLKcLpLe Z€<f}vp€ rrj^ dia^- iy(o 8c ypvna^ kol 

i\€<f>apTa^ Kol fieXapa^ avdpdirov^ i(op<op. 

sea-hones and other mounts is well 
illustrated by a vase-painting (Inghi- 
rami, GaUeria Om€rica2, Tav. CLXVI) 
where three Nereids ride along, one on 
a horse which, from behind the front 
legs, tapers off into a scaly tail ; a sec- 
ond beast has the horse's upright neck 
and ears, but the nose and mouth are 
no longer equine, the scales begin at 
the jaw, the front legs have given place 
to fins, the body tapers off in a scaly 
tail ; the third Nereid rides on a fully 

naturalized dolphin. See notes on pp. 
178 and 170 above. 

4. Ik ^iv(icT|s &XP^ ^^ KfW)n|f : so 
the Orient was brought into Europe. 
Cf. Hdt. 1,2. — AiKToSov &vTpov : Z^iis 
brings back his bride to his own cra- 
dle; see Manatt, Mycenaean Age, p. 202 
note and p. 300. — |UXavat dvOp^vovt: 
blackamoors. Possibly Hindus, as No- 
tU8 had been blowing on India, but the 
Schol. says: 6 7dp N670S dirb rrjs Aifi^ 
v¥4€if ivOa oUovaip ol Al0lov€t. 



The thirty Dialogues of the Dead have served, perhaps, more than 
any or even all of Lucian's other works, to keep alive his popularity. 
The procession of imitators is well-nigh unbroken.* The reasons 
are obvious. Death is for all men the terminus ad quern, and 
it piques the imagination. Over the swirling Styx on this pontoon- 
bridge of dialogues we pass, pausing, as on the painted bridge at 
Lucerne,^ to inspect these grim and ghostly vignettes of the " Dance 
of Death," • while Menippus as cicerone explains his new liberie et 
fratemite that awaits us at the unfamiliar inn. 

I See Introd. pp. xx, xxii, xxiv-xxix, and cf. especially the valuable mono- 
graph by Rentschf Das Totengesprcich in der Litteratur. 

* Cf. Longfellow's Golden Legend^ v : 

Elsie. What are those paintings on the walls around us? 

Prince Henry. The Dance Macaber! 

Elsie. What? 

Prince Henry, The Dance of Death. 

All that go to and fro must look upon it, 

Mindful of what they shall be — 

* See Introd. p. xx. Hans Holbein's name is conventionally identified with 
the Dance of Death. Many representations of it have been attributed to him, 
some correctly, some just as falsely as referring to him the invention of the motif 
itself. Controversy still exists about the paintings in Whitehall, and as lately 
as the year 1808 the woodcuts in the original Lyons edition of 1538 have been 
claimed as his designs. As to the latter, the original drawings, now again brought 
to light, show that they were not all by one hand and that the designer was not 
always the draughtsman for the wood-engraver. See The Nation^ Nov. 19, 1903. 

This subject was a favorite decoration for bridges (e.g. the Pont des Moulins 
at Lucerne) ; for churches and churchyards (e.g. the Dominican convent at Basel, 
St. Mary's church at LUbeck, the famous "Triumph of Death" in the Campo 
Santo at Pisa) ; or for houses (e.g. the one at Basel alleged to have been decorated 
by Holbein, or the frescos said to have been painted by him for Henry VIII in 



Most of the dialogues are very short, and the attention is not suf- 
fered to wander from the point. The actors are not clothed upon 
with unnecessary rhetoric, but the snub-nosed skulls still have << spec- 
ulation in their eyes," the white femora step out bravely, and the 
vacant ribs re-echo the Cynic's ventriloquism. 

Life's futility is presented from various sides. We learn the 
vanity of riches that yield the Ferryman's fee as their only divi- 
dend ; we see the frustrated legacy-hunters ; see, too, beauty and 
kisses, flow of rhetoric and flowing beard, pedigree and patrimony, 
the fair fame of Socrates — all alike — go by the board and drift 
astern in the boat's livid wake as the passengers prepare to step 
ashore with naked bones that need fear no nip of Cerberus. Or the 
fancy changes and the dead arrive before the judge still branded 
with the stigmata of sins for which they are to suffer, in propria 
persona, most humanly as they deserve. 

The Dialogues of the Dead are the scenic application of the les- 
son of the Charon that "one ought to live always with death be- 
fore one's eyes." But here the disdain for human illusions is 
dogmatic and harsh.^ In the Charon there is less bitterness, a 
more humorous common sense ; in the Dialogues of the Dead the 
undertone is more trivial, as befits Menippus, the earnest* trifler 

(o cnrovSoy cAo40s). 

About Menippus we know little * more than can be inferred from 
Varro's • and from Lucian's writings. The title of Lucian's Menip- 
j>us or Necyomantia is a frank dedication of his work to this mock- 
ing Cynic, and so with the companion piece, Icaromenipptis; while in 

the palace of Whitehall and burnt in 1697). Many other representations might 
be cited, like the **Hans Holbein alphabet/* decorations on ladies* fans, etc. 

1 See Croiset, p. 159. 

^ Of. Croiset, p. 62. Diogenes Laertias in his life of Menippus (Lib. 6, c. 8) 
has nothing to say to his credit. He tells us that he was a Phoenician slave, 
then a usurer grown rich ; that, cheated of his fortune, he hanged himself ; that he 
produced nothing 9iroudaioPy but that his books are full of mocking ; that, inter 
alia, he wrote a N^kvuk, and that he lived at the same time as Meleager, about 
60 B.C. It is most probable that he lived about 250 b.c. See Teuffel, RomiscJie 
Lit.\ I, § 166, 3. 

' M. Terentii Varronis Saturae Menippeae «. Cynicae. See Teuffel I.e. 


these dialogues of the dead Menippus assumes the leading r51e and 
represents the Cynic phase of Lucian's own philosophy.* 

It has been fortunate for Lucian that he wrote these dialogues, 
but it has been a misfortune for him and for his readers that he 
should have been judged by them so exclusively. Apart from the 
question of larger opportunity for art in his longer dialogues, he 
here outdoes himself with a paralyzing negation of ethical effort. 
His wider outlook elsewhere is the more liberal Epicurean doctrine 
that the placid recognition of the certainty of death is a practical 
means for man to guard against all that infringes on liberty or in- 
spires false opinions. But even in that wider outlook he ever seems 
to miss the nobler humanitarianism that found expression in the 
age of the Antonines.^ 

^ See Boldennan, Studia Lucianea^ P- ^^i § 0- Cf. also Bis Ace, 33. 
^Cf. Croiset p. 172 ; Introd., pp. vii, ix. 



1 EPM. Aoyt<rol/x€0a, a> 'jropOfiev^ ci Soicei, oiroaa fioi 6<f>€C- 
Xcts: 17817? OTTcos fti7 avdi^ cpt^cu/xcV Tt Trcpl avrcSi/. 

XAP. Aoyio"(u/jtc^a, co *Ep/jt^- afieLPOi/ yap (opiadai Koi 
6 EPM. '^AyKvpav ivretXafieva) iKOfiKra nepre hpaxfiSyv* 
XAP. noXX.01) Xcyct?. 

EPM. N17 Toi/ 'AtSa>i/€a, rcSi/ ttcWc (ivrjo'dfiyjPy kol rpOTroi- 
rrjpa Svo o^okSiv. 

' XAP. Tt^ct irivre hpaxfi^as koX ofioXov^ 8uo. 
10 EPM. Kac aKiarpavvirkp rov IxttLov ttcWc ofioXov^ iyw 

XAP. Kat rovTovs irpoaTiO^i, 

EPM. Kat K7)pov (is iTnnXdaraL tov a'Ka<f>L8Cov ra dj/e<^ 
yora kol 17X0V9 Se kol icaXcuSioi/, a<f>* ov rffv virepav iiroirj- 
15 aasy Svo hpa\iiS)v diravra. 

XAP. Kat a^ta ravra (ovrjcd). 

EPM. Tavra iariv^ €t iirj rt aXXo 17^x019 StcXa^ci/ ci/ tgI 
Xoytcr/jtoJ. TTorc 8' ovi/ ravra anoSoxrcLv <f>iis ; 

4 — dvc^PY^ra : Att. is Avetpyfiiva. Cf . 

1. rmvgivrt: note article : ^ve, juat Schmid, I, 230. — Kal&jta «rrX. : well, 

ail say. — Mvt|<rd|iv|v : Att. is ^irpidMirf. you bought them cheap. For double 

See In trod. 19. — ws: cf. In trod. 26. meaning of d|ios cf. Eng. * reasonable.* 



XAP. Nvi/ /AO/, ft) *Ep/xi7, dSwaroi^, rjv Sc Xot/xo9 rt? ij 
20 7roX.c/xo9 KaTaTrefjulrg adpoov^ Tivd^j iveoTai rore d7roK€p8Sr 

POL irapaKoyi^ofiepov rd nopd/jiela. 
2 EPM. Nvi/ ovp iyta KadeSov/iai rd icaiciora €v^6iievo^ 
yeviadaiy 019 dv diro tovtcjp diroKdfioLiii. 

XAP. OvK ioTip dX.Xft>9, ft> ^Kpfirj. vvv 8c 6X.tyoc, (09 
25 opq,^y d<f>iKvovvTaL rjijuv' clpTjvrj ydp. 

EPM. A/JLeivop ovTO)^, ei Koi riplv irapareii/oiTo vtto (Tov 
TO o<f>\7jiia, irXriv dX.X' oi pAv iraKaLoij (o Hdpoipy olcrffa otot 
frapcyiyvovro^ dpSpeloi diravre^y alp^aros dpairXeo) koX rpav- 
pariax 01 iroKKot' vvv 8c rj <f>app.dK(j} Tt? vtto tov 7rai8o9 
30 dTToOaviiv 17 vtto rfj^ yvvcuKo^ rj vno Tpv<f>yjs i^(a8rjKai^ rffv 
yaarepa /cat ra (TKeXrjy c^^pol dirairre^ /cat dyci/i/cig, ovSev 
op^oioL CKCti/ot9. ot 8c TrXcto'Toc avTftii/ 8ca '^pfjp.aTa rfKovaiv 
inifiovXevovTe^ dXXijXot?, oJ^ coiicacrt. 

XAP. ndz/v ydp TreptTroOyjTd ccrri ravra. 
36 EPM. OuicoCi/ ov8* cyci 8o^at/xt dz/ dpapTavetv iriKpa)^ 
diraLTOfv rd 6<l>€L\6p,€va napd aov. 


IIAOTT. Tov yepovTa ourda, tov ndvv yeyqpaKOTa Xeyft), 
TOV nXoviTLOv lEiVKpdrrjVy ^ 7ral8e^ p^kv ovk elarCvy ol tov kXtJ- 
pov 8c dripQ)VT€^ TrevTaKiapvpioi; 

EPM. Nat, TOV XiKvdiVLov <^>/?. rt ovv; 

2. Kihr . . . diroXdpoiiii : later Her- 5 

mes concedes that a state of peace is Title : for the almost incredible part 

preferable, depressing though it be for played by the legacy-hunter (capta- 

the Stygian trade, and then again he tor) under the Roman empire cf.Fried- 

recurs enviously to the good old times. Under, SittengeschicfUe RomSy I, 304- 

— 4s &v : for use with opt. see Introd. 400, with the copious citations from 

35 (6). Horace, Ovid, Seneca, Petronius, Pliny 


5 IIAOTT. 'Ekcii/oi/ fiei/y (o ^Kpfirj^ ^rjv eiouroi/ cttI rot? iveprf- 
Kovra ereaiv d fiefiicDKev im/ierpTJa'as aXXa TOcraOra, et 8c 
otw T6 /cat ert ttXcmu • tov? Se KoXoxa? avroC Xapipov top viov 
KoX AdfioDva Kal Toifs aXXov? KaTdairaaov i<f>€^s dnavraS' 
EPM. ^AroTTOi/ av Sd^eie to rotovroi/. 

10 IIAOTT. Ov /lev ovvy dWd StKatoraroi/ • tC yap iKeli/OL 
iradovre^ ev^ovrax dirodav^tv iK^ivov ri rSiv \pr)iidT(t)v dvrv 
iroiovvrai ovSev npoa^Kovre^ ; o Se TrdvTdiv iarl iiiapdrrarovy 
OTL Kal rd TOiavra ev^ofi^voi ofKo^ depanevovaiv cv yc toJ 
<f>av€p^y Kal vocovvTo^ a jikv fiovkevovrai irdo'i npoSrjka, 

16 Ova^iv 8c oiid}^ vntcrxyovvTai rjv patcy^ Kal o\<os ttoikCXtj 
Tt5 Tj Ko\aK€La Twv dvSpSiP. 8ta ravra o fikv cotoi dddva- 
To^j o% 8c TrpoairLTcja'av avrov jidnqv iTn)(ap6vT€s- 

2 EPM. FcXota ir^lxrovraiy iravovpyoi ovre^ . . . iroWd. 
KaKCii/o? cS fidka SiafiovKokel avroif^ Kal cttcXtti^ci, Kal oXa>9 

20 dadevovvTL ioiK<os ippayrai ttoXv /jlolWov Ta>v v€<ov. ot 8c 
1787J Tov Kkifpov iv (n^Uri hirjprqfiivoi fioaKovrai ^co^v fiaKa- 
piav TTpo^ iavToxf^ Tidevre^. 

IIAOTT. OvKovv o fi€v dnohvo'diJievo^ to yrjpas aiavep 
loA.cct)9 avrjpyja'aTCjy ol 0€ airo fxeo'CDv rwv eKniOcDt/ top 

25 oveLpoTToXyjdevra irkovrov dwoknrovTes 7)Kero}(Tav rjBrj KaKol 
KaKct)9 dnodavovre^. 

EPM. 'Ajuc'Xtjctoi/, <o TIXovtcjv - jnercXcvcrojLiat ydp croi rjhrj 
aurov9 Kac/ «^a cgTj? • CTrra oc, oi/nat, ctcrt. 

IIAOTT. KaracTTTa, o 8c TrapaTTCjui/icc €KaaTov dvrl yi- 

30 povTo^ avdi^ irpdidrjfinq yci/djuci/os. 

the elder, Tacitus, the younger Pliny, See sub fin. So in Eng. a thouswnd^ 

Martial, Juvenal, etc. Also see Nigr. and in Lat. sescenti, may be entirely 

17, adc, Indoct. 19, and D. Mart, 6-9. indefinite. 

1. E^KpAniv : this is also the name 2. 'l6XfM« : by the prayers of Her- 
of the rich host in GaU.9 and HermoL cules ora reformatus primos lo- 
ll. — rnvTOKio^ipiOi: conventional ex- laus in annos (Ovid Ifet. 9, 399). — 
aggeration. There were only seven. lunXtvo-oiMii : for form see Introd. 19. 






1 MEN. IIov Se oi KokoC eio-iv ij at Kokaiy *EpjLi^ ; ^evdyrf" 
aov fxe t/er)\vv ovra. 

EPM. Ov a")(o\T] fioLy (o McVittttc- ttX-^i/ Kar eKcli/o dno- 
fiXoffoVf inl TO. Se^ia, evOa 6 *TaKivd6s ri i(m kclL ^dpKicr- 
6 cro? KoX Ntpcus /cat *A;(tXX€U9 Kat Tupci icat 'EXej/rj /cat Krjha 
/cat oXct)9 TO. ap^ata trdvra /cglXXtj. 

MEN. Ocrra /idi^a opcS /cat Kpavia tS)v aapKcav yvfivd^ 
ofjLota rd TroXXa. 

EPM. Kat fjLTjv eKeivd icriv d irdirres ol TrotTjrat Oavfid- 
10 Joucrt Ta dorra, (ov <rv cot/cas Kara^pov^tv. 

MEN. 0/ico5 T']7i^ 'EXeViji' /utot hei^ov ov yap dv hiayvoiifv 

EPM. Tourt TO Kpaviov tj 'EXcnj iariv. 

2 MEN. Etra 8ta tovto at ^tXtat i^-^c? ivXyipdOrjcav i^ 
16 dirdcrr)^ ttj^ 'EXXctSo? /cat rocrovrot eneaov "^lEXXrjves T€ /cat 

pdpfiapoi /cat TO(rai)Tat TrdXcts dvdaraToi ytyovaciv ; 

EPM. 'AXX* ovk ctSc?, cS McVtTTTre, ^cScraj' rijv yvi/aLKa- 
e<f>7)s ydp dv /cat av dpefiecrriTov elvai 

TOLrjS* dfi^X ywaiKi irokvv )(p6vov dkyea Trd(r)(€iv • 
20 cVet /cat ra dvdi] ^r]pd ovra €t rt? /SXeVot dirofie^XyjKora vqv 

1. ol KoXol . . . al KoXaC: * the beaux 
and belles.' — {cvd7T|crov: see Char. 1. 
— Kar iKctvo : in that quarter^ almost as 
if for ^KC((re, but the attention is arrested 
at rather than directed towards. — Tv- 
p^ : see V. II. B 3. For the others see 
Class. Diet. — tA &pxata irdvra KdXXi|: 
aU the beauties of the olden time; not 


all the old beauties.*' — Yvfjivd: see 
Introd. 23(6), and Schmid, I, 233.— 
TovtI rh KpavCov kt\. : of. Hamlet, v, 1 
*'This same skull, sir, was Yorick's 
skull" (Gildersleeve, Essays and Stud- 
ies, p. 343). 

2. 2^i|s : for form see Introd. 14 (6). 
— TOILS' &|&4»( kt\. : II. 3, 157 : with 
dyefjJurriTov cf. the Homeric oi fifians. 


pa(f)r)v, afiop(pa otjKov oti avro) oogei, ore fievroi, apuet Kai 
€)(€L rrjv )(poLdvy KCtXXtoTa iariv. 

MEN. OvKovv TovTOy (t) ^Ftpfjirj, dav/jLoi^coj el (jltj avyUaav 
ol *A.^aio\ irepl Trpdy/iaTo^ outo)9 okiyo^poviov koX paSuo^ 
25 dnavdovvTo^ irovovvre^. 

EPM. Oi cr^oXij /iot, (o McVittttc, cvix^iKoao^eiv (TOl* 
cjcrre crv /lei^ imXe^d/ievo^ tottov, evda av ideXri^y Keiao 
KaTafiaXwp ceavTov^ iycj Se tovs aXXovs vcicpovs rjhr) fiere- 


1 MEN. 'fl Kepfiepe — crvyyevri^ yap eiiii col kvcjp koI 
avTo^ cSi/ — eine fioL npos ryjs ^Tvyos oto? ijv 6 ^(OKparyj^ 
OTTore Karyei wap* v/jlols ' €t*co9 8c ae Oeov ovra fir) vkaKTelv 
fiopoPy dXXa Kal dv6pomivo)<; ^diyyeo'dai ottot c^c'Xot?. 

6 KEPB. TLoppcodev fxevj (o Mci/ittttc, TTavrdiraaiv iSoKei 
arpiwr<o roJ irpo(T(iTrio irpoaievai koX trpoaUc 6 ai rov ddva- 
Tov iican/ kol tovto ifi<j>T]vai rot? cfo) rov arofjiCov ioTcJcni/ 
idekcjVy €7161 8c KareKXAJfev ctcro) rov ')(d(TfiaTo^ koX cISc tov 
^6<f)OPy Kayo} cTt 8tajLicXXoi/Ta avrov 8aK(ov t(o Kcjpeio) /carc- 
10 (TTTcura Tov 7ro8o9, oJcTTrcp ra Ppe^t) eKciKve Kal ra eavrov 
iraxhia dSvpero koI navrolo^ iytvero, 

2 MEN. OvKovv a'0(f>ia-rri<s 6 dv0p(o7ro<; rjv Kal ovk akyjdo)^ 
Kar€<f)p6i/€L TOV TTpdyfiaro^ ; 

KEPB. OvKy dXX* iTreCnep dvayKoiov avro iwpa^ Karedpa- 
15 avvero oJ? hijdev ovk aKCDV TreKTOfievo^; o Trdvrays cSct iradeivy 

21 see A pp. — rf kmvcC^: with fn*ini humor 

1. |&i| vXaKTttv : ti-fi is quite normal Lucian makes the last twinge of the poi- 

liere. Cf. Kuhner-BIass^ II, §514, 2. — son antiripat^^ the prlp of Cerberus. 

ilMXois: for mood see Introd. 35. — U&v : 2. Oiiic, &XV : not that, but. - f«s rov 


(OS davfidacjirrcu ol dearaL koI oXcos nepl irdvrcjv ye T(ov 

rOLOVTCDP €177611/ aV e^OLflLf ifOS TOV OTOflLOV ToXfJiJipol Kol 

avhpeioLj ra he evhoOev ekeyxos aKpifirjq, 

MEN. 'Eycw he irws col Kare\7)\v6evai eho^a; 
20 KEPB. Movos, (o Meviinrey a^uos tov yci/ovs, Koi Ato- 
yevrfs npo crov, otl /xt) avayKatppLevoi eaiQeire fjbjjh* ddov- 
fjLevoLy a\X* eOekovcLOLf ycXoJi/rc?, oifi(o[,eip irapayyei\avTes 



1 XAP. 'AttoSo?, o) Kardpare^ rd iropdiieia. 
MEN. Boa, ei tovto crot, a> Xdpcjv, TjStoi/. 

XAP. *A7rd8o9, <f>Vl^h ^^^ ^^ ^^ hieTTopOiievaaiiev. 
MEN. OvK dp kdfioLS napd tov iltj c^oi^os. 
6 XAP. *EoTt 8c Tt9 ofiokov /it) e)((op; 

MEN. Et fjiev kol aXXos rt? ovk oI8a, eyw 8* ovk e)(^ct}. 
XAP. Kat firiv ay^oi ce vfj top llXovrwvay cj fuape, 'qv 
fi-q aTTOOO)?. 

MEN. Kdyco toI ^vkto crov irard^as SiaXvcro) to Kpaviov. 
10 XAP. MaTTji/ ovv eay ireirkevKCJ^ tocovtov ttKovv* 

MEN. *0 ^EpfjLTJs vnep efiov (rot dirohoTO), os ft€ irapehoiKe 


2 EPM. N-^ At' (opdfiTjp ye, el fxeWo) kol vwepeKTu/eLv tcjp 

o^ro|&(ov: ?«$, like /a^xp*7 ^ prep. c. gen. or 22 

with adverb. See L. & S. 8.v., I, 2.— 1. AvO'cSv: likeotJycKa, ^ecatiM. See 

KEPB. : for identification of Cerberus II. 990. — rf {*X<p : with my stick. An 

with Qabala8, one of the two dogs of essential part of the Cynic regalia. — 

Yama, the Hindu King of the Dead, see Jotj irtirXcvic^s : see Introd. 20. 
M.B\oom^e\d,CerberustheJ)ogof Ha- 2. Ni| AC* «M|fci|v: by Zeus, I am 

des, 1906. — 6tv ^i\: see Introd. 31) (6). in for a fortune. For aorist of the 


15 XAP. OvK airooTrja'oiiai aov. 

MEN. TovTou yc a/CKa /cat veoAKyjcas to iropdiiAov Tra- 
pd/ieve ' wkrfv aXX' o ye /ii7 e)(0), ttcS? ai' Xa^oi? ; 
XAP. 2v 8* OVK ^Sct? et>5 KoiLiZjeadaL Siov; 
MEN. *Ht8cii/ /xcV, OVK €l)(ov 8c. rt ovi/; ixpV^ ^^^ rovro 
20 /x^ anodavelv ; 

XAP. Movos oZv avxTJccL^ irpolKa TreirkevKei/ai ; 
MEN. Ov Trpot/ca, (o ^ScXtlcttc • kol yap rjvTkrjo'a Kal rfjs 
KGwnjs <Tvve!T€Kafi6iiJ}v /cat ovk e/cXaoi/ /xdvo9 reSi/ aXXoii/ CTrt- 

26 XAP. Ov8ci/ Tavra tt/oos ra Trop^/xeta* toi/ o^oXov (xtto- 

8oSi/at crc 86t' ov ^€/xt9 dXXois yeviadai. 
3 MEN. Ov/covi/ airayi lie av0L^ c? toi/ ^toi'. 

XAP. Xdpiev Xeyct?, tva /cat TrXTjyas iirl rovrff irapa tov 
Ata/cov TTpocXafio). 
30 MEN. Mtj ci/d^Xct ovv. 

XAP. Ael^ov ri iv rrj mjpq. ejects. 
MEN. 0cp/xov9, ct ^eXct?, /cat rij? 'E/ccltt;? to helTrvov. 
XAP. Uodev TOVTov ifixivj cj Epfirj, tov Kvva rjyay€<;; 
Ota 8c /cat cXaXct Trapa tov nXovv twv iirtfiaTCJv dndvTCDV 
35 KaTayeXciv Kal iina'KdmTO}V koX fiovos a8aii/ olfJLco^ovTcjv 


EPM. 'Ayi/oct9, (o Xdpcjv^ ottolov dvhpa 8tC7rdp^/xcv(ras, 
Ikeidepov d/cpt)3a>s ; ov8ci/os avroJ /xcXct. ovrd? corti/ 6 


40 XAP. Kat p,r)v av ac \dfi<o irori — 

MEN. *kv Xd^y^y <o ^cXtlotc • 81? 8c ovk av Xd^ot?. 

future cf . Gildersleeve, S, C. G. 263, and where the corpse rejects Dionysus^s 

GMT. 61. For 6valfiyiv see App. — overtures, saying / 'W ace myse^ re«ttr- 

jScif: see Introd. 14(6). — ii^vot tAv reeled first! dmx/St^ijv kvi^ TdXiv. — Xd- 

&XXc»v: see on D. Mar. 3, 1. pMv X^Yfit: txovo you are joking ! Fur 

3. Antfyf . . . pCov: cf. Ar. Ran. 177 accent see on Vit. Auct. 3. 




1 MIN. *0 fjiev Xyarri^ ovroal SciorpaTo? c? top UvpufaXe- 

yidovra ififiefi\TJ(r0<o, 6 Se tcpocrvXo? vtto T179 XifiaCpa^ 

hiao'Trao'drJTOij 6 Se rvpavvo^^ <o 'Epfirj^ irapa tov Tltvop 

anoTadel^ vtto twv yvirmv /cat avro? Keipiadoi ro rjirapy 

5 vfiel^ 8c oi dyaOol airiTe Kara ra)(o^ e? to *HXvo"toi' tt^ZLov 

KoX ra? fjbaKapwv mjcrov^ KaToi,K€LT€y avd^ &v Sucota cVotctrc 

irapa top fiiov. 

SflST. *A*couo"oj/, c5 Mti/o)S, ct (TOi SiKaia Sd^oi Xeyai/. 

MIN. Nvt^ aKovco) av^t?; ov yap i^ekTjkey^aty cS Sol- 

10 (rrpaT€y irovrfpo^ mv koX tocovtovs aireKTovKo^ ; 

XnST. 'EX^^Xcyjiiat jlicV, dXX' opa ei Kat Si/cauu? KoXa- 


MIN. Kat trawj ct yc airoriveiv rrjv a^lav hiKaiov* 

SftST. "Ofio)^ airoKpivai /xot, o) MtVoiS' ^payy yap n 

16 cpT/cro/xat crc. 

MIN. Aeyc, /X17 fiaKpa fiovop^ 619 Kat rov? aXXov? StaKpt- 

vcjfiev tjStj. 

2 SftST. 'OTTocra inparroi/ iv tw )8ta>, iroT^pa kKoiv cWpar- 

Toi/ 17 €Tr€KeK\<i}OT6 fioi VTTO tyj^ MoLpa^ ; 

20 MIN. 'Ttto T'iy? Motpa? SijXaSTj. 

SnST. OuKovi/ icat ot xpTjCTTol anairre^ Kat ot noprjpol 

hoKOVpre^ rjfjLeis €K€ivy VTrr)perovvT€^ ravra iSpcjfiep ; 

30 and, for Platens solution of the problem 

1. S^o^paros : mentioned {Alex. 4) of Fate vs. Free Will, Rep, 617 e. For 

in the list of knaves, traitors, etc., the Fates read Lucian's Cataplus and 

whom Alexander the False Prophet Jupp. Con/., esp. 15-18.— dv0* •¥: see 

rivalled. — Ilvp^Xf ^Oovra : cf . Plato on 22, 1 . — o* ^Ap IfcX^Xi ^{04 : have you 

Phaedo 11.3 n. For the whole context not been ronclusiveli/ canvicied f 

read Plato Rep, 614-r>21 and Pind. Ol. 2. StiXaS^: note the Platonic color- 

2. For the ri^pavvo^ note Rep. Oir, c d, ing throughout. — ELX«»6oC, . . . Ttwi)- 


MIN. Nat, rg KXco^ot, ly iKdara) CTrera^e yevirqOivri ra 

26 SnST. Et Toiwv dvayKaadei^ tl<; \nr aWov (f)ov€va'€Le 

Tiva OX) Swdficvo^ avTiXeyeiv iK€LV(p ^Sta^OjucVai, olov Sij/ito? 

rj Sopv<f>6po^y o fikv hiKaary 7r€to"^€t9, o Se rvpavv(Oj riva 

atrtacrjy rov (f)6vov ; 

MIN. Arjkou w<; top hLKaaTriv rj top rvpavvovj cTTCt ovSc 
30 TO ^iff>os avTO' v7rrjp€T€l yap opyavov ov tovto iTph^ rov 

dvfiov TftJ TTparra) iTapa<T^6vTi rtjp alriav. 

SnST. Ev y€^ & M 0/0)9, on /cat CTrtSai/itXevet t^ irapa- 

Sety/xart. tji/ 8c rt? dTroareikavTos rov Secrirorov tJkji avro? 

y^pv<rov rj apyvpov KOfxC^cji/y rivi rrfv X^P^^ IcTcov 17 rtVa 
36 €v€py4rr)v dvayparrriov ; 

MIN. Toi/ TTC/uw/iai^a, oi SckJoT/oarc • 8taK0i/09 yap 6 /co/xt- 

cra? tJi^. 
3 SfiST. OvKovi/ 6p^9 OTTO)? dStica Trotet? KoXa^coi/ 17/^019 

vTDjperas ycvoficvov^ mv 17 KXcodco Trpocrerarre, Kat rovrov? 
40 TLfiSyv Tov^ StaKomjcra/Licvovs aXXorptot? dyaOoi^ ; ov yap 

817 iK€iv6 ye ctTTCti/ c;(ot rt? di/, 015 to di/rtXeycti/ Swaroi/ ^1/ 

Tot5 /xcrd wdarri^ avdyKrj^ irpooTerayfiivoi^. 

MIN. *ft ^dxTTpare^ TroXXd tSot? dv koX dXXa ov icard 

Xoyoj/ ytyvo/icva, ct dKpifia>^ c^erdjot?. ttX-^i/ dXXd <rv 
46 TOVTO d7roXavo"€t9 ttJ? ipamj<T€(o<;^ StoTt ov Xjjo'ti7S /lovov^ 

dkkd Koi (To^icvrj^ Tt? eli^at So/cet?. drrokvaov ainovj oi 

^Epfirj^ Kol fxrjKen KoXat^cadcj, opa Se /utTj Kat roifs dXkov^ 

veKpoif^ rd o/xota iparrdv StSct^rj?. 

Mm: cf. Od. 7, 196 f. dUro-a o2 aftf-a also of trials of **iron and other life- 

jrar& KXw^f re /Sapccai | yiyvofjJv<fi rfi- less objects^' for homicide, and how 

(rarroXfi^,*r«AurWiceiLiijTiyp. — Tit(+at Cambyses was accidentally killed by 

afrtf: at the BoupAonia the priest fled his own sword with which he had 

after striking the ox, and the ax itself killed Apis (Hdt.3 , 29 and 04). But cf. 

was tried and acquitted; see Paus. 1, Daremberg et Saglio, s.v. "Dipolia." 

24, 4 and 1, 28, 10-11, where we hear 3. Sidri: see App. 




In this letter to his friend Cronius Lucian touches on more than 
one topic of vital interest to modern society, and on several which 
are important in estimating Greek and Koman life of his own day. 
He also makes casual allusion to matters that occupy the attention 
of the archaeologist and antiquarian.* 

Lucian in this letter is the pamphleteer, bitter and prejudiced, 
but he gives us a glowing, vigorous picture of the second-century 
crowd, its foibles and its life. Unfortunately, as in his account of 
Alexander the False Prophet or in the Complete Rhetorician or in 

1 This quaint title is taken from Tooke. 

3 Various parallels to Hindu thought and customs are suggested by the Pere- 
grinus. Professor C. R. Lanman calls attention to the following among others : 

For the rites etc. in connection with the self-burning (§§ 25, 27, 86, 39) and 
for the post-mortem reappearance of Peregrinus h Xev#c5 iaBrjTi^ § 40, cf. the 
Skt. epic Rdindyana, 3, 5, where the flame feeds on Qarabhaiiga^s ^^skin, blood, 
flesh, and bones*' but he rises anew radiant and transformed, ^* far-shining in 
his bright attire.'* 

On the ^^dissolution into vapors'* in §30 cf. Lanman's Sanskrit Reader, on 
Rigveda 10, 16, with citations, p. 379. 

On the mystic meaning of t?ie South § 36, it is to be noted that Tama — the 
first man who died and found out for all men the pathway *^ to a distant home, 
a dwelling-place secure " — conducts souls to the " Blessed Fathers " in the south, 
the region of the Manes. See Atharvaveda 18, 3, 13 ; 4, 40, 2. So the monthly 
offerings {(^addhas) to the Manes are performed in such a way that they eiid in 
the sovih, (Manu's Laws, 3, 214). The invoking of the Salfioves is in accord with 
Hindu thought ; e.g., the liturge in Hiranyake9in*s Grhya-sCitra 2, 10^ (see F. Max 
MUller's Sacred Books of tfie East XXX, p. 226), after inviting the Manes, sprin- 
kles water towards the south, saying : " Divine waters, send us Agni." 

The ycKpdyyeXoi and vcprepodpSfioL in § 41 may be an echo of Yama's messen- 
gers that has reached Lucian. See Atharoaveda 18, 2, 27 and H. C. Warren's 
Buddhism in Translation^ pp. 225-202. 



the Uneducated Bibliomaniac, his very vividness is inspired by an 
animosity that is all too evident, and the reader by a natural reac- 
tion may be led to make even too large an allowance for the per- 
sonal equation. Lucian holds a brief against this Peregrinus, 
afterwards called Proteus, and like a criminal lawyer pursues him 
relentlessly. With Lucian we review his career, sketched in no 
flattering terms. First, debauched as a youth ; then guilty himself 
of assorted crimes ; he crowns it all, we are told, by killing his 
aged father to anticipate the inheritance ; brought to trial for parri- 
cide, he adroitly eludes punishment by making over his patrimony 
to the commonwealth,^ and, instead of conviction as a criminal, is 
hailed as a public benefactor and a patriot ; next he avails himself 
of the communism of the Christians to secure a livelihood, and for 
a time is held in high honor and supported by these simple dupes, 
as Lucian deems them ; in time, transgressing certain laws or cus- 
toms of the Christians also, he is excommunicated by the church 
and now seeks by an action of replevin, at the expense of his towns- 
people, to reinstate himself in his forfeited inheritance ; failing to 
obtain approval for this from the Eoman government, he betakes 
himself to the Cynics and outdoes them all by his squalor and ex- 
cesses ; * and finally, when every other avenue to notoriety is closed, 
commits suicide in the most theatrical style after duly advertising 
the drama at the previous Olympic festival. 

Through this labyrinth of a life filled, according to Lucian, with 
crimes and follies, the guiding thread that brings us into the open 
— that makes the most selfish of lives consistent with a voluntary 
death as a would-be martyr — is his itching greed for notoriety, 
which grew with his growth and finally triumphed over his coward- 
ice. Even for Lucian himself, however, the thread seems to break 
off just here, and, grudging him the fortitude of the suicide, he 

1 His birthplace was Parium on the Hellespont. 

^ If the Detnonax la not spurious, the allusion there to Peregrinus might seem 
like a milder judgment by Lucian himself ; but as a matter of fact it brings 
what was really philosophic and ideal into sharp contrast with what was merely 
material in the Cynic creed ; cf. Demonax 21 UefKypLvov Si roG Xlpan-^ws inrifiuy- 
rot a^f 6ri fyAo rd toXX& xal roTs dyOfxinroii rpoo-^ral^c, xal X^oi^oj, Ai7/iwra|, o6 


hints tliat Peregrinus expected to be held back with main force hj 
the faithful pack of philosophers. The leaders of the Cynics, how- 
ever, insisted that he should complete his programme, knowing 
well that to pick his bones as a martyr would be worth more than 
all his now discredited barking. 

Is Lucian fair enough even for the purposes of a satirist ? It is 
largely a question of fact about the details of this biography, and 
sworn testimony is not forthcoming. Bernays, in his treatise on 
Lucian and the Cynics,^ calls attention to the fact that publicly 
solemnized suicides were not unknown ; and he has also given ' 
good reason to believe that Theagenes, the hewrepaytayurr^ of the 
drama, is grossly maligned by Lucian. The assertions about Pere- 
grinus, too, and the estimate of his character, are implicitly con- 
tradicted by Aulus Crellius, a contemporary of Lucian — and a 
pupil of Herodes Atticus, whom we find Peregrinus vilifying both 
here (see § 19) and in the narrative of Philostratus.' Grellius calls 
him virum grave m et cons tan tern and speaks^ of having often 
heard many helpful and noble discourses from his lips. But he 
does not see fit to demonstrate that his practices and his preaching 
agreed. He simply represents him as a well-known Cynic philoso- 
pher whose fair words were a sufficient index to his character. 
Lucian, on the other hand, assumes that greed for notoriety was 
the controlling factor and that all his actions are to be interpreted 
as contributory to this and this alone. Hence, even if we admit 
the credibility of the details which he gives us, we still feel an 
underlying distrust of our author's analysis of human nature. It 

1 Lvkian und die Kyniker, p. 68. ^ Op. cit., pp. 14 fl. 

> Lucian'8 account, § 19, of Peregrinu8*8 blander in criticizing Atticus, and 
his palinode § 20, may or may not go back to a common source with the following 
from Philostratus Vit. Soph. 2, 1, 33 (Didot edit.) : ^riyicoXoiJ^a 8^ rif ^BpiiS-g ko- 
Kios dyop€6<ay airbv rjfjufiapfidpip yXihrTji' ixurrpaipels otv 6 'Hpt^di^f **Jf(rr«," Jf0i;, 
** KaKC^t lu dyope^is, Tpds H Kal ovtus ; " hnKtipAvov 8k rod Up<aT4wi rah XoiSoplaiS^ 
**7e7iypdifOM<v/' t<pv* **fl"i> fiiy xaxw fie dyope^tap, iy<b W A/coiJwv." The scene of 
this is laid in Athens, and Philostratus may have adapted it from Lucian, whom, 
strangely enough, he ignores in his Vitae Sophistarum. 

^ Nodes AUicae 12, 11: Cum ad eum frequenter ventitaremus, 
multa hercle dicere eum utiliter et honeste audivimus. 


does not seem to occur to him that man is after all a complex being 
and that << human life cannot be reduced to a mathematical demon- 
stration."^ This intolerant enthusiasm of prejudgment we must 
bear in mind in estimating all of Lucian's personal satires. 

The fact of Peregrinus's suicide is well enough established. 
Athenagoras, his contemporary, refers, as to a well-known circum- 
stance, to his having flung himself into the iire;^ Tertullian also, 
among the Christian fathers, though probably a mere boy in the 
year 165 or 169, alludes • to his suicide on the pyre as recent; 
Philostratus, who was probably about twenty at the close of the 
century, in his account * of Herodes Atticus, speaks of ** the dbg 
Proteus " as being of so strenuous a philosophy as to fling himself 
into fire at Olympia ; later, about the end of the third century, the 
historian Eusebius in his Chronicon'^ refers to his self-immolation 
and fixes the date as the 236th Olympiad ;* later still, in the fourth 
century, Ammianus Marcellinus — who had a reputation for accu- 
racy if not for stylistic charm — to illustrate his approval of the 
constancy of a contemporary philosopher Simonides, says {Bes Ges- 
tae, bk. 29, p. 417, edit, of 1609) that he met with great firmness his 
execution by burning, " escaping from life as from a mad mistress," 
and adds: ^^Peregrinum ilium imitatus Protea cognomi- 
ne philosophum clarum: qui cum mundo digredi statu- 
isset, Olympiae quinquennali certamine sub Graeciae 
conspectu totius, ascenso rogo quem ipse construxit, 

1 Croiset, op. cit., p. 99. 

2 Cf. Supplicatio pro Christiania 26 (131) roOroy 3* (i.e. Proteus) ovk dypoeire 
jii^arra iairrbv is rb rvp repl r^r *0\vfi.Ttap. 

> Cf. ad Martyraa, c. 4 : Minus fecerunt philosophi. Heraclitus 
qui se bubulo stercore oblitum exussit. Item Empedocles qui 
in ignes Aetnaei montis desiluit, et Peregrinus qui non olim 
se rogo immisit. 

* Cf. VU. Soph. 2y 1, 38 (Didot edit.) Ijy /jl^v yiip rCtv owrw 0appa\4ws if>i\wro- 
^wOvTtar 6 Upurreifs ovtoj, «s Kal is Tvp iavrhv iv 'OXu/irf^ /&?^a(. 

* Preserved by Jerorae in a Latin tr. Cf. fol. 91 of Stephanus edit., Parisiis 
1518. The text is abbreviated (and spelled) thus: Oly. 236 | Apud Pisas 
pegrinas Phtls: rogo que ex lignis cOposuerat incenso | semet 

^ See below, p. 206, for date. 


flammis absumptus est." This account, which by the word 
ascenso differs from Lucian's as well as from the others just 
cited, suggests the dignified self-control of a Brahman,^ and might 
seem to reinforce the opinion of Aulus Gellius. But the date is 
too late for it to have independent worth as even the disciples' ver- 
sion, against the agreement of contemporary accounts. 

Among modern commentators, Wieland the famous translator, or 
paraphraser, of Lucian took up the defence of Peregrinus (see 
above, In trod. p. xxviii), and Bernays in his elaborate discussion 
of Lucian's relation to the Cynics declares emphatically that the 
picture is a caricature. 

Croiset, too, in his admirable and sympathetic analysis of Lu- 
cian's limitations and the prejudices that hamper the satirist, is of 
opinion that Peregrinus was " a sincere fanatic." This is the view 
taken by Zeller in an interesting article comparing Alexander the 
False Prophet and Peregrinus.* With this interpretation in mind 
we shall be inclined to make large allowance for exaggeration, but 
we can nevertheless sympathize with our author's vigorous attack 
on a fanaticism inlaid upon vanity and a greed for notoriety ; we 
shall perhaps even find little to choose between this and the con- 
sistent charlatanry of Alexander. 

The Cynics. — Lucian's shift from his apparent' earlier approval 
of Cynicism (as, for example, in the character of Menippus *) to the 
unsparing bitterness of these later pieces may not require further 
explanation than his maturing ethical sense and his hatred of all 
shams, especially when veiled in the cloak of a false philosopher. 
We must remember, too, his native incapacity to appreciate any 
system of philosophy (see Introd. pp. ix, xiii). To his readers 

^ See below, § 25 note. 

8 Alexander urvi Peregrinus. Ein Betriiger und ein Sckwdrmer, by Eduard 
Zeller. Deutsche Rundschau, Januar, 1877. 

« Croiset, op. cit., p. 146, concludes that Lucian never really approved of the 
Cynics, only tipped his darts with the venom of their acerbity. Some of their 
tenets, however, may easily have appealed to him — such as their rejection of 
polytheism, even when he refused to accept the tendency to monotheism. Cf. 
Bernays, pp. 31 and 32. 

* See Introd. to VU. Auct., p. 91, and Introd. to D. Mort., p. 189. 


it may easily seem that all philosophers in his day were false 

The Christians, — Lucian's biography of Peregrinus leads him 
incidentally to speak of the Christians. His testimony, certainly 
not partial to say the least, is of great interest as confirming the 
accounts in the New Testament or the claims made by Christian 
writers such as Justin Martyr. The genuine and self-denying com- 
munism of the early Christians ; their loyal devotion to an impris- 
oned member ; their care for widows and orphans ; their worship of 
their Founder ; their indifference to worldly interests and to martyr- 
dom itself; their settled belief in immortality — are mentioned, 
with patronizing contempt it is true, but yet as well-known charac- 
teristics of the Christian brotherhood. That the Christian fathers 
later could not distinguish this half-admiring contempt (see Introd. 
p. xv) from active hostility ; that in the sixteenth ^ century the 
Peregrinus was placed on the Index librorum prohibitorum and hence 
excluded from nearly all the Lucian Mss. (see App., p. 240) ; that 
Suidas on account of these allusions consigned Lucian to a warm 
nook at Satan's fireside ;^ that the Scholiast at the word ^vfui<rTi;v, 
§ 11, bursts out indignantly : OavfjMxrrrfv /xcv ovv, (o /xiapc, kcu. travros cttc- 
K€iva BavfjLaoTos ' ci koi aoi rv<^X^ ovri kou dXa^ovi to koAAos avrrj^ SLveirC- 

<rK€WTov Kox dOiaroy — all this only proves a lack of discrimination on 
the part of these worthies respectively. 

The Christians, in short, were to Lucian only a part of the back- 
ground against which he was painting an impostor. He did not find 
them worthy of attack, his audience was not sufficiently interested 
in the subject. It is also unnecessary to suppose that by the vul- 
ture which he let fly up from the ashes of Peregrinus he was satir- 
izing the dove at the* martyrdom of Polycarp.* The eagle that flew 
up at the apotheosis of a Eoman emperor or that soared above Pla- 
to's tomb would make a better quarry for his satire. It may be 
mentioned too that the only other allusions to the Christians in 

1 See BemaySf op. cit. , p. 88, who points out that the Index was printed later 
by Pope Alexander VII in 1664. 

* See below on § 2 for Suidas' s words. 

• Cf. infra on § 39. Also, on PkHopa. 16, Norden, Kunstprosa^ p. 619, note. 


Lucian's genuine ' writings occur in the companion piece Alexander 
Pseudomantis, § 25 and § 38, where the Christians are classified by 
Alexander with atheists and Epicureans ^ — which on Lucian's page 
meant almost a compliment. Thus, in Alex, 38, the prophet, in 
warning off intruders from his mysteries (ci ri9 a^co? ^ Xpcorcavos tf 
'ETTiKOvpciOs rJKei KarajcTKinro^ rStv Spyttav, ^evycrcu), leads off with the 

formula <^ l^w XpioTiavoik/^ and the congregation makes response : 

^(/<5 of the Times, — The Peregrinus gives more than one picture of 
life in the second century. The preliminary gathering at Elis; the 
abundant reference to men and monuments at Olympia ; Peregrinus 
in the storm at sea ; the visit of his physician ; and all the details 
of his early life, no matter how many are fictitious as applied to 
this particular man — bring the life of his contemporaries before 
us, and the modern visitor to Olympia, while making his rounds and 
repeopling the deserted Altis with ghosts from antiquity, will see 
Proteus drinking from the marble exedra of Herodes Atticus, or, 
pale with fear of his approaching death, as he goes forth to Har- 
pina, or again reincarnated from the vulture, standing in shining 
white in the Echo Colonnade ; or Lucian himself walking among 
the forest of statues enjoying the " best of all the Olympic festivals 
that he had ever attended," admiring, too, artist-atheist that he was, 
the Zeus temple with its sculptures and the great statue, or the 
Hermes of Praxiteles — Hermes who had served him often in so 
many roles. 

Date. — This letter must have been written shortly after the self- 
burning of Peregrinus. This probably took place in 169 a.d. Eu- 
sebius, to be sure (see above), puts it at the 236th Olympiad, i.e. 
165 A.D.* But Croiset^ has shown that it was inore probably at the 
next celebration of the games, in 169 a.d., which seems best to tally 
with such facts as we can date. Lucian himself tells us, § 35, that 
he had been present three times before. It is probable that the 

1 The Philopatris is undoubtedly spurious, being much later. 
3 The popular cry against the Christians was afpc roi>t dSiovs. See Gilder- 
sleeve on Just. Mart Apol. A 4, 32. 

' See also Nissen, Rh. M. 43 (1888). « Pp. 17-20, and p. 73. 


removal of his family from Syria and the trip recounted in Alexan- 
der Pseudomantis (Introd. p. xii) and his final voyage across the 
Aegean in the same vessel with Peregrinus (see Peregr, 43) took 
place in 164. This would seem to make possible the date 165. 
But Lucian refers to this voyage as something in the past {vaXm)^ 
and what we know of his career will hardly allow us to believe 
that he could have been at Olympia more than twice before the year 
165 A.D. Moreover, his animus against the Cynics in this piece 
would lead us to prefer the later date, allowing more time between 
it and the Duilot/ues of the Dead, for example, or the Menipjyus, in 
which the Cynics are treated with great respect. One additional 
point may perhaps be raised which confuses rather than helps to 
make clear. Lucian refers to the announcement of the intended 
suicide four years in advance as something of which he now learns 
for the first time on the eve of the cremation. If he had been 
present four years before in 165 he would have heard of it then. 
This, however, may best suit the incognito of the speaker in the 
scene at Elis. It is much more likely that Lucian made a special 
point of being present as a reporter. 

Fugitivi. — As the Piscator is a sequel to the Vitarum Auctio, the 
Vera Historia to Quomodo Historia Conscribenda sit, so in the Fugi- 
tivi^ we have a sequel to the Peregrinns, written probably in the 
following year. The success of the Piscator as a sequel may have 
suggested this series also. But there is a fundamental difference. 
The Fugitivi is again a personal attack upon a living Cynic under 
the pseudonym of Cantharus. It was doubtless written as a retort to 
maledictions that the Peregrimis had called forth, and takes the form 
of a pamphlet directed against an individual ; ^ while the Piscator 
was an apologia, and a general attack on all charlatan philosophers. 

Lucian grew more and more bitter against shams. While we feel 
doubtful about the truth of all the accusations directly launched or 
made by innuendo against Peregrinus and the unfortunate Cantha- 
rus, we are also convinced that the pictures are fairly typical. The 
amiable praises of Aulus Gellius are too uncritical, and the white- 
wash of Wieland and Bernays will crack off in patches and leave 

> See below on § 37. « But see Hirz^l, Der pialog, II, 308. 


us at best but a sorry figure — a morality mummer, a harlequin 

Lucian, in fine, has given us in this pamphlet a vivid picture of life 
in the second century. We can see and hear the Cynics, squalid and 
barking. As we read, the sacred Altis of Olympia with its temples, 
statues, marble exedra and echo colonnade, the athletes and the 
thronging crowds gossiping, wrangling, gaping after novelty, come 
before our eyes. Ko longer are we walking among the deserted 
ruins of to-day, and the Kronos hill looks down once more upon a 
scene peopled with real human beings, living their life for good and 
ill. But we have turned on too strong a light upon our author. 
His attitude as a vokvfuaijs ^ has warped his judgment. His hatred of 
charlatans is controlled by no saving faith in nobility of character. 
He can no more appreciate the good in a genuine Cynic than in a 
Stoic.^ A fanatic is a fraud. His mocking laughter at the close of 
the Peregrinus goes echoing down the ruined colonnade at Olympia 
as if amongst the ruins of character, human and divine. His satire 
taints the Alpheus itself with gall so bitter that Arethusa's fount 
turns brackish,' though escaping pure from the encompassing brine 
of the Sicilian sea. 

1 Cf . Pise. 20. 

^ Cf. Hermot. sub fin. and see Introd. p. xviii. 

' See D. Mar, supra, p. 174. 


1 AovKLavos KpovC(f c5 irparr^iv, 'O KaKoSaificjv 
Tlepeypli/os rj 0I5 avro^ €)(aip^v 6i/ofid^o)i/ iavTov llpoyreifs 

aVTO 817 iK€LVO TO TOV ^Op/flpiKOV Ilp(DT€(OS €Wa$€P ' aTTai^Ta 

yap 80^175 ci'C/ca yevo/ievos koX /ivpCas rpoiras rpa7r6fi€vo^ 
6 TO, Tekevrala ravra koI irvp cycVcro • roaovro} apa rol epajTL 
rfj^ ho^s €LX€To. Kal vvv iK^tvo^ aTrrfi/OpaKayraC croc 6 fieX- 
riaro^ Kara top *E/x7rc8oKX€a, nap* ocroi/ o fiev Kav 8caXad€ti^ 
ineipadri e/x)8aXcoi/ iavrov ct5 rov9 Kparrjpa^j 6 8c yci/i'a8a5 
OVT09 Ti7^' TTokvavdpomorrarqv tS)v *^X\7)vikS)v wavrfyvpewv 
10 rqpija-a^y irvpav mi fieyiaTrjv mjaas iv€7njhr}a'€i/ iwl roaov- 
T<ov fiapTvpojv Kal Xoyov^ rivas vnkp tovtov elwcjv wpo^ rovs 

1. KpovC^: a friend of Lucian other- 35 (q.v.), x<^^^<'' i'^ us^- The Cynic 

wise unknown, but probably a Platonic *^ greeting" was in the Scotch sense! 

philosopher, as the complimentary use Atoyfyris 6 k^p toU KaXov/jJyois "EX- 

of the Platonic formula c0 xpirrtiv^ Xi^n olfjufitip. Cf. Bernays, op. cit., 

ratherthan the Epicurean xa^iv, would p. 96. — &irnv6pdK<rrai : has been car- 

seem to indicate. Cf. Bemays, Lu- bonized. So used of Empedocles, I>. 

dan und die Kyniker, pp. 3 and 88. — Mort. 20, 4, inn^pdpdKtacew a^aU Kptiirt- 

c^ irpdTTfiv : for the relative merits of <np. And the river-god Xanthus, 2>. 

the greetings xa^p^t^ c0 irpdrreip, and 3far. 11, 1, exclaims: Jam cAarred/rovn 

{rYialptip cf . Laps, in Sal. , especially § 4, head to foot and all of a boil ! dXX' din^v- 

where Plato's letters are appealed to for BpdKWfxai SXot . . . koI ^ita. — xard t6v 

the use of ei^ wpdrrtip. Cf. also in the 'E|Lirf8oKX4a: see note on F. /T. B 21. — 

letter to the Platonic Nigrinus, § 1, Aov- irap' So-ov : {only) with this slight differ- 

Kiap^ ^typlptfi ed wpdrrttp. In the four ence that; i.e. nisi quod. Cf. Hist. 

iwurroXal Kpovtica/, however, and in the Conscr. 18 6p$s, 6fwiot ovrot ixflpifi^ irap 

letter of Odysseus to Calypso, V. 11. B 6aop ijAp QovKvUd-Oi ovrot Si 'Hpod&np a 




2 EXXiyi/a^ ov wpo woWojp rffiepcji/ tov ToX/iTJfiaToS' TroXXa 
roiwv hoKO) fioL opav ae yeXcjirra iirl ry Kopv^^rj tov yepov- 
ro^y /laXXoi/ 8e koI aKovw fiocjvTos old ae elKo<; fioavj c3 ri/s 

15 d^ScXrcp ta?, c3 r^? So^oKoirla^y ciS tcjj/ aWcDV d \eyeiv ctoJ^a- 
li€v nepl avTCJt/. aif fikv ovv iroppa} ravra koX fiaKp^ da'<f>a" 
Xearepov, iym 8e wapd to nvp avro, kol ere wporepoi/ ip ttoXXoi 
ttXtj^ci twv aKpoarcJi/ ehrov aura, ivusiv fikv d^dop,4vo}Vj ocrot 
idavfia^ov rrfv dirovoiav tov yipovro^ • ^aav hi Tti/C5 ot Kat 

20 ainoX iyeXcDV in avTtf. aXX* okiyov Seti/ vtto tcju Kvplkcjv 
iy(o col Sueo'nda'd'qu mo'ir^p 6 ^AKTaiatv vno tS^v kvvS>v rj 6 

3 dvG^io^ avTov 6 IIci/^cv? vtto tcjv Mati/aSo>i/. t) 8c iraaa tov 
TrpdyfiaTos SuaaKevfj rotaSc ^v • tov fikv TroiriTJ)v olcda otos 
T€ Tjv KoX rjXiKa iTpay(oSeL trap* oXou tov fiCov vnep tov Xo<f>o^ 

25 KXia KOL TOV AlaxvXov. iycj 8' iirel ra^j^tcrra els vrfv HXlv 

fiA\a iti^Kei: also Scytha 11, Indort. 10, 
and de Salt. 4 (see Sbdt. ad loc); but 
in Hist. Conacr. 45 tr. in so far as. — 
oi irp6 'voXXAv ^(MpAv rov roX|&^|&aT«>s : 
not many days bt^ore the final venture. 
This use of irph is extensive in late writ- 
ers, especially with numerals, e.g. infra 
§ 44 irp6 ivv4a ijfxepQv (compare Lat. 
ante novem dies = novem die- 
bus ante with 6\lyoy irpb ro^uv, 
Thuc. 2, 8, which becomes irpb 6\lyov 
To&rtaw). Cf. l)u Mesnil, Grammatica, 
quam Lucianus secutus est, ratio (1807), 
p. 31, and L. & S. s.v. 

2. Kop^tn : drivelling stupidity. Lu- 
cian is fond of this unsavory metaphor. 
— M rf^ dpcXripCflis «rrX. : oh, what for- 
tuity ! oh, what hunger and thirst after 
n)t')riety ! oh, — all the rest, of the usual 
ezdamations 1 — vjt |&cv o^v kt\.'. for 
omission of verb see Schmid, I, 423. — 
irapd ri irOp tt^T6 : in Vie full glare of 
the fire itself; for the scene see §37, 

The prep, may shift from the meaning 
during (as in §§ 3 and 14) Ui at the 
moment o/ (as in Deni. 469, 20 iropA rot- 
ovTov Kcupdv). — In irp^Tcpov ktX. : from 
this it is inferred that Lucian was him- 
self the unnamed speaker in § 7 fif. — 
So-ot: instead of simple relative pron. 
See Schmid, I, 281. — Suo-n A tfOt|v . . . 
inrb r&v kvvAv : from these words may 
have been patched together the amiable 
account of Luciairs death that Suidas 
repeats; see Introd. p. xiv. Suidas's 
words are : reXevT^trai 8i aOrbr \6yot 
inrb Kvvtav, iwcl icard rrji iXriBelas iX&rrrf' 
<T€v, ell yiip rbr Ilepeyplvov filop koM- 
wrerai tov XpurriapifffMUj Kal a&rby /9Xa- 
<r<f>ri/jjeT rbv Xpurrbp 6 Ta/ifilapot. St6 koI 
TTJi XiJrTT;$ TToiviLS ApKodirai ip rtp irap6vTi 
d4S(aK€v ' iv 8^ r{p fjJWovri Kkiipovhfjuot roO 
aUavlov irvpds fjxrd ^arapov yerfyrertu. 

3. irpdYi&aros : editt. generally give 
dpdfMTos. Cf. infra §37. See App. — 
cls Ti|v *HXiv : until the end of § 31 the 



a<f>iK6ii'r)Vy 8ta rov yv/ii/ao'LOV dj/LOjp iinjKovov aifia Kvvlkov 
rii/o^ fieydk-g kol Tpa\€.ia T'jj <^(av^ ra cruvTJdrj ravra kol ck 
rpioSov rfjj/ aperrjv linfioioiicvov koX anaatv aira^airXoi^ Xot- 
SopovfievoVy €LTa KareXrj^ei/ aural t) fiof) €9 rov Upwrea' Kal 
30 CD5 ai/ OLOS T€ CO, TTCcpacro/iai (Tol aina iKelva aTrofivrffiovcva'aL 
(OS lk4y€To. oif Se yv<x}puZ^ SiyXaS-^ TroXXaKt^ avrol^ Trapa- 

4 (rra? fioaxn. Uparrea yap tc9, €(f)r)^ k€v6So^ov roXfia \4yeiVy 
(o yrj Kal ijXte Kal irorafiol Kal doKarra /cat irarp^c *Hpa- 
KXet^, Uporrea top iv %vpia Sc^eWa, top Tjj TrarptSt avepra 

35 TTCi^aKicrxt Xta raXai/ra, roi/ aTro r^9 'Fcjfiauop TrdXew? ck^Xtj- 
depTay TOP Tov HXtov ifncrriiioT^poPj top avrw aprayoipiaa- 
crdai Tif *OXu/x7rt^ Svpdfiepop; aXX' ori, 8ta rrvpo^ i^dyeip 
TOV piov hiiyp(i}K€P iavTOPy €t9 KepoSo^iap tlp€S tovto dpa- 
if>€pova'LP. ov yap *Hpa/cX'^9 ovTa}<s; ov yap 'Acr/cXijTrto^ 

40 K^pavpw; ov yap tcl TeXevraia *E/i7rc8oKXi75 €t9 tov^ Kpa- 
rfjpa^ ; 

5 *ns 8c ravra ctTrei' 6 ^eayepyjs — tovto yap 6 K€Kpaycj^ 
eKeipo^; iKaXetTo — rjpofirjp tlpol tcjp TrapeoTiorcjp tl fiovXe- 
rat TO irepl tov irvpo<; rj tl ^HpaKXrj^ Kal 'E/i7rc8oKXi75 npo<; 

45 TOP Uparrea. o he, Ovk ct9 fiaKpdp, €<f>riy Kavaet iavrop 6 

scene is laid at Elis. — 8id tov yvi&vo- Oeta and was received into immor- 

orCov: see in Pans. 6, 23 a description of tality in Olympus amidst peals of thun- 

the gymnasium in Elis for the training der. He was the patron saint of the 

of athletes preliminary to the Olympic Cynics, and one of them, Symp, 10, 

games. — Avidiv : see App. — rpaxct^r^ more pious than polite, drinks the 

^itq: see Introd. 23(a). — aira(airX6s: bride^s health in the name 'HpaicX^ot/f 

cf. Vit. Auct. 11. — a^d Ixftva us IX^- dpxvy^ov. — 'A(rKXT)iri^ : see above, 

7€To : his remarks verbatim. D. Deor. 13. The common text adds xal 

4. ci^f . . . rf 'OXv|&ir((p: the fa- Ai6»vaos^ but Dionysus did not perish 

mous statue by Phidias. Cf. § 6 and by a thunderbolt ; his baptism of fire 

see representation on coins of Elis in was prenatal. See App. 
Gardner's Types o/GreeA; Coins, PI. XV, 5. Bia^^vris: see In i rod. to Peregrr. 

18, 19. — 'HpaKXfys : Heracles, frenzied p. 20*2. — t( Po^iXcrai : what is tfie inean- 

with pain from the poisoned shirt of ingoff Cf. Lat. quid sibi vult (haec 

Nessus, immolated himself on Mount res)? — O^k els i&aKpdv : cf. 6Wm. 1. — 



UpcjTeifs *OXv/x7rta(n. Ilai^, €<f>r}Vy rj rivo^ €i/€Ka ; ctra o fikv 
CTTCt/oaro Xeycti', €)8da 8c 6 Kvviko^j cdotc afirj^avov Jjv aXXov 
OLKOv^iv. iinJKovov ovv ra XotTra iiravrXovvTo^ airrov kol 
Oavfiaard^ nva^ irrrepfioXas Stcftdi/rog Kara tov IlpayreoDS' 
50 TOV fikv yap Xivomea rj top SiSdaKoKov avrov * ApTLadevri 
ovoc wapapaKkeiv 7)g tov aurw, aAA. ovoe rov ZtoKparrjv avrov, 
CKaXet Sc roi^ Aia cttI r^i/ a/xiXXai^. 6iTa fievrof, eSo^cv avr^ 
urov5 7r(u9 <f>v\d^aL airroifs Kal ovrw /carearavc roi' Xoyoi'' 

6 Avo yap ravra, c<^i7, 6 )8tb5 apiara hrjfiLOvpyrjfiaTa idedo'aTOy 
65 Toi/ Ata Toi^ *OXv/i7rtoi/ Kal IIpcDTca, TrXaorat 8c Kal TC^fi'trat 

rov /xci/ ^ccSca^^ rov 8c -17 <^v(rt9. aXXa i/vi/ cf avdpdircDV ct9 
Oeoif^ TO ayaXfia tovto oixTJaera^ o^ovfi^vov cttI rov rrvpo^ 
6p(f>avoif^ Tjfia^ KaTokLirov. ravra ^w iroWQ \ZpSni Stc^cX- 
don/ iSaKpve fidka ycXouos Kal ra^ rptj^a? crtXXcro v7ro<^ct- 
60 8d/xci/o9 /xt) Tram; i\K€iVy Kal reXos dir^yov avroi' Xv£oi/ra 

7 fiera^if tcjv Kvvlkcjp rives Trapafivdovfievoi, fierd 8c rovrov 

'OXv|iir(aori : at Olympia, As a mat- 
ter of fact this took place out at Har- 
pina (see § 35), and perhaps we should 
read and translate (see App.) 'OXumiti- 
dci at the Olympic games. — rhv SivMirJa 
. . . 'Avrio^^vi|v . . . £«Kpdn|v: the 
Cynic pedigree. Antistheues founded 
and Diogenes developed the school ; 
Crates, the next successor, is also intro- 
duced in 2). Mort, 11. All roads lead 
to Rome, and such diverse creeds as the 
Cynic and Epicurean were one-sided 
perversions or extensions of the wis- 
dom of Socrates. See Introd. to Vit. 
Auct. and Piac.y p. 90. — oi^tm K«iWiravc 
Kr\. : thus he topped off his harangue. 
Contrast with aor. § 33 (sub fin.) and 
see App. 

6. ToO |uv ^i8(a« fcrX. : this is not 
out of keeping with the **Bee Naples 

and die'* feeling with which Phidias's 
great statue was regarded ; e.g. Dion 
Chrysostomus, Or. 12, 51, says of it 
T<fi yiip 6irn. koX r^y SXoyop 9lp ixTXi^^eu 
to0t6 ye tup ^i^vp ^6aip^ cl ij&paipro Tpo<r- 
(decy ft6pop. Cf . also Friedlander, Sit- 
tengeschichte Roms^ III, 219. — oxoifu- 
vov M rov irvp6f : riding on the {cfiariot 
of) fire. — op^avovc ^fuit Karakvw6v : 
this would recall to a Greek audience 
Plato Phaedo 116 a i^o<^/«cmh wd-rep 
Tarpdt CT€p7fi4pm 5c(i^cy ^p^ivl t^p 
txtvra piop. The self-importance of 
certain Christian commentators must 
needs see a reference to S. John 14, 18, 
but 6 warijp OfxQp UXdrup, PhUops. 16, 
shows how conventional this reference 
had become. — X^t^vra |MTa{i : sotbing 
the while. — irapa|iii6o^|uvoi: note tense. 
Theagenes refused to be comforted. 


aXXo9 €v6ifs OLvaPaLvei. ov irept^fieCva^ Siakvdyjvai to wXrjdos^ 
dXXa ctt' aidoficvoLS Tot5 wporepoi^ iepeCoi^ ctt^cc t(ov cttop- 
hwv Koi TO fiev 7rp<oTov inl ttoXv iydXa koI 817X09 rji/ i/€io- 
66 0€P avTO hp&Vy clra yjp^aTO cSSc ttcjs ' 'Eirrcl 6 KwrapaTo^ 
SeaycvT)^ t€\o^ tS)v fiLapoyrdT(ov avroC Xoywv ra ^HpaKXeirov 
SaKpva iiTOirja'aTOj cyci Kara to evavriov atro tov AT/fioKpiTOv 
ycXftiTog dp^ofiai* kol aZdi^ iyeXa ctti TroXvy oxxTe Koi rffiwi/ 

8 Toifs TroXXou5 cttI to ofioiov iwecwdcaTo, eira linaTpo^a^ 
70 iavTOPy *H rt ya/> aXXo, c<^i7, c3 dpSpe^, ^pr) wouip aKov- 

oirra fikp ovT<a yeXoUop pijceayPy opcopra 8c apSpa^ yipopra^ 
ho^apCov KaTaTTTvoTov €peKa p.opopov\i KvfiiarcjpTa^ ip t£ 
li€(r(0; 0)9 8c ct8€ti7TC olop re to dyakfid core to Kavdrjaor 
fi€POPj aKovaaTe fiov i^ dp)(fjs wapa<f>v\di^aPTO^ rffp ypci/irip 
75 avTov Kal top fiCop iTnTTjpTJa'apTo^ • cvta 8c Trapd t<op ttoXi- 
Tcjp airrov i7rvp0ap6pr}p Kal ols dpdyicq Jjp aKpificj^ eihepat 

9 avTOP. TO yap tt}^ (^vc^io^ tovto nXdafia koI 8riin,ovpyrjp.ay 
6 TOV IIoXv/cXctTov Kapdpy iirel ct5 dphpa^ Tekelp rjp^aTO, 
ip ^ApfiepCa fioixevwp aXov^ /xaXa TroXXa^ TrXiyya^ cXa/Sc 

80 Kal Tckos Kara tov Tcyou9 dXop^epo^ 8t€<^i;yc pa^opZhi rr/p 
TTvyriP fiefivcficpos' clra fietpdKiop ti (opalop hia^deipa^ 

7. &XXof : probably Lucian bimself ; — flSc(T|T( : for mood see Introd. 35 (a), 
see note § 2. — tAv onrovSAv : cf . /^ 11, 9. 6 toO IloXvicXf (tov Kav^v : among 
775 ff'wfvdwv <d$oira oIpop hr alBofUpois U- the various extant copies of this famous 
poiffi. Only, instead of sparkling wine, '^DoryphoiTis^* of Polycleitus, the 
Lucian throws on cold water. — vfi40cv: marble torso in Berlin (see Fr. Wol- 
again Homeric reminiscence, cf. 11. 10, ters, Bausteine . . . der griech-rom, 
10 dpco-remix^rc yei6$€v ix KpaSlris. — rd Plastiky 507) gives a higher idea of the 
'HpaicXiiTov . . . At|)mkpCtov: for the uriginal than even the very perfectly 
conventional contrast see Vit. Auct. 13. preserved statue in the Naples Museum. 
— kaV afOis i^a : and he werU on See discussion of this passage in BlUm- 
laughing afresh. ner^s Arch. Studien, pp. 22, 28. — its 

8. kvwr^l^wi : facing {ua) again. &vSpa« TiXfCv : to come to man* 8 estate. 
He had turned away to laugh. — So{a- — Kard toO t^ovs : down from the 
piov: a litUe grain of glory. Diminu- roof. — ^o^avtSi ktX.i supplicium 
tive of contempt. Cf. Lat. gloriola. deprehensorum in adulterio. — 



rpKr^iKuDV i^ojinjo'aTo napa rtov yoP€(ov tov 7raiSo9 Tremjrcjv 

10 ovr(i}v (17) inl toj/ dpfiocrTriP aTraxSvPOLf* Trj^ *A(rwi5. ravra 

Kal TOL roiavra ido'civ fioi So/coi • tdjXo? yap ere a^Xcurros 

86 ^p Kal ovSeiro) ivreke^ ayoK/ia tjiup iSeSruiLOvpyyjro. d 8e 

TOP narepa eSpace Kal wdpv aKovaai d^iov Kairoi Trdvre^ 

tare Kal diajfcoarc oJ^ aTrcnpi^e top yipopra ovk dpaxr)(6r 

li€POS avTop vtrkp i^rjKOPra erq rjhif yrjpwpra. elra iireiBrj 

TO irpayfia 816^6)8017x0, <f>xryrip eavrov KarahiKoaa^ inXapaTo 

^ aXXore dWrfp dfieCpcop. oTenep Kal ttjp dav/iaoTriP (ro<f>Lap 

tS)p XpioTiapSip i^efiade nepl ttjp UaXaio'TCpriP roi^ iep^vci 

Kal ypafifiarevaip avroJi/ ^vyyepofiepo^. Kal tC yap ; ip fipa- 

^€t TratSa^ avrov? dw€<f>7iP€ 'n'po<f>7Jrr)^ Kal diacapxy)^ koX 

^payo}y€v^ Kal irdpra fiopo^ avro^ aip • Kal tcjp fiCfiXtop rag 

for form see Introd. 19. — riv ap|&o- 
rH\v : governor of the province. This 
Spartan term was used to represent 
various Roman officers, e.g. the Trium- 
virs and the praefecti, as governors 
of dependent provinces. — riit 'Aor(a«: 
the Roman province. 

10. l8cSt||&ioi»pYt|ro : had been fabri- 
cated in detail; cf. below Sie^p&qTo, 
had become mafter of common report. 
Introd. 34 (a). — &XXt)v : sc. yrjp. 

11. XpurriavMv: see Introd. p. xv, 
and Introd. to Peregr. p. 206. — ^|ia- 
6f : he had become an expert in. — Ila- 
Xaurr(vT|v: although Lucian*s Syrian 
birthplace was far north of Palestine, 
yet during his stay in Antioch (Introd. 
p. x) he must certainly have gained 
some knowledge of the Christians. — 
Upcv<ri Kal 7pa|i|&arc{^iv : priests and 
scribes J probably confusing Jews and 
Christians. — {vYyfv6|uvo9: almost tech- 
nical, like (TvveTvai, of a pupil attending 

the discourses of a master or the lec- 
tures of a sophist. — irpo^^in|«: from 
the earlier and more usual classic mean- 
ing interpreter (cf. also Exod. 7, 1) the 
word comes naturally to mean prophel, 
particularly in the LXX and in the New 
Testament (cf. Thayer's N.T. Lex. 
S.V.). That the Christians were much 
exploited by x/x^f^r^M^opoc is illustrated 
by the directions given in The Teach- 
ing of the AposUes (see pp. 7 and 8 ed. 
J. R. Harris, Baltimore 1887): a rpo- 
4>i/n"n^ or dir60-ToXof is to be welcomed 
for the day ; only necessity may detain 
him during the second day ; rpeU Si Olp 
fjtelvff ypevSowpo^t^v^ icrl. — Oiotrdpx^* 
thiasos-leader. The Bleuros was a band 
marching with dancing and singing, 
especially in honor of Dionysus. Some- 
times it was a religious brotherhood. 
The leaders were called 6,pxiJ^uiffTreuy 
and the followers 9(00*6^01 (cf. Fugit.4). 
Lucian seems to be responsible for this 
compound. — {vva7M^^: a good Greek 



06 fiev i^y^lro kol Stecrai^e^ iroXXa^ Se koL avros ivp€ypa<f>€y 

Kal <os dtov avrov iKeivoi yjyovmo koX po/ioderj) ir^pSiVTo koX 

TrpooTaTTjv iireypaif^ovro - top fieyav yovv iKeivoi/ ert crc^ovcrt 

TOP apdpamop top ip r^ IlaXatoTii/jy apaaKoXoTnadeirra, art 

12 KaLprfP Tavnjp Tekerfjp elarjyep is top fiCop. t6t€ hr) Kal 

100 <rvXkr}<f>0€ls iirl tovto) 6 Upoyreifs ipcTreaep els to Beo'iioynj- 

pioPy oirep Kai airro ov fiiKpop avTw d^Cayfia TrepuTroLTjO'e 

irpos TOP €^9 fiiop Kal rffp TepaTeCap Kal ho^oKOiriap &p 

ipiop iTvy^apep. inel 8' oip cSeSero, oi XpiCTLapol crvfi<f>o- 

pap iroiovfiepoi. to Trpay/ia ndpra iKipovp i^apTraxrai Trccpco- 

106 fiepoL avTOP. eZr iwel tovto rjp dSvpaTOP, rj ye aWr) depaireia 

irdcra ov napepycjSy aXXa avp (nrovh^ eyiypeTo- koX eoidep 

fiep €v6ifs ^p opdp irapd t<o heo'iLoyrqpiif TreptfiepopTa ypq,hia 

word (cf. Lys. 12, 43), here transferred took themselves seriously but were 

to the Jewish meaning. — 4(i)7ftro : he 
expounded. Primarily used of verbaX 
interpretation ; cf. ^^iryir"5t. — Suo-d- 
4ci: made clear; or, if written commen- 
tary is meant, annotated. — iroXXds . . . 
(vWYpo^f: many apoci*yphal writings 
did not become canonical, and this 
statement may not be wholly an inven- 
tion of Lucian^s. — vo|ioO^: lawgiver. 
Again a classic word with both a gen- 
eral and a technical meaning. — irpo- 
crrATqv: protector, patron. I)e Soul 
(see Reitz. ad loc.) says: Apud Cy- 
rillum Cat. 6 Petrus et Paullus 
rrfs *EKK\rf<rlai irpoirrdrai. dicuntur. 
See Thayer's N.T. Lex. s.v. irpoaTdns. 
— lirrypd^vTo: see App., and, for mid. 
voice, cf. Scyika 10 iTiyparf/dfuwi irpo~ 
ffrdraty and Fugit. 4 rovvofxa t6 ^fii- 
rtpov hriypdfpotn-aiy also Just. Mart. 
Apol. A 4, 28 ^iKii<ro*pi<ki 6pofjM xal o'X'Q/Aa 
hnypd^yral tiws. — rhv f&fyav : there is 
much to be said for the emendation 
fAdyop (see App.); the ftdyoi not only 

quoted as authorities. Cf. Just. Mart. 
Apol. A 18, 0. — riv &v9p»irov ktX. : the 
man, I mean, who was, etc. The clause 
is explanatory. — dvcurKoXomo^vra : 
crucified. The first meaning is impale^ 
but see Jud. Vocal. 12 where it is used 
of the T cross; see also s.v. ipcurrau- 
pta. — KaivT|v TcXcHjv : new-fangled re- 
ligion; properly mystic rite. Cf. note 
on § 28. — clo^Y<v : the imperfect refers 
to dva<rKo\owiff$4vTaf see App. 

12. irdvra {kCvovv: perhaps sc. xd- 
\uy (rope); cf. Alex. 67 xdrra xdXwp 
Mvow dfv&wiffdai /3ovX6/ucw>t. So Scytha 
11 irdvTa flip Kd\wp Kivtip^ irdvTa, di irpdr^ 
reip Kal \4yetp. The equivalent of the 
English proverb *^ Leave no stone un- 
turned" — irdvra \i&op kipcip — occurs, 
but usually to indicate the precaution 
of turning up stones to look for scor- 
pions, though sometimes in this same 
sense; cf. Fritzsche ad loc. — ^v 6pav: 
tr. there were to be seen. Cf. Germ, es 
war zu sehen, — irapd t^ Ua-^rripi^ : 



XVP^^ rii^ag Kat nathCa 6p<f>apdy oi Se iv reXei avriov koI 
avv^KaJdevhov euhov fi€T airrov Siaif^deipaj/Te^ Toif^ Sccr/xo- 

110 €f>v\aKas' ciTa Sct^i/a Trot/ctXa ctcrcKO/xt^cro kol Xoyot tcpot 
auraii^ Ikeyovro /cat 6 )8cXTtoT09 Ilcpcypci'os — crt yap roSro 

13 cKaXctro — fcaii^og XcjKpdrrf^ irn airrcop (ovofid^ero. kol firfv 
KOLK TQ)v iv ^Aaia noXecov eariv aiv tjkov riv€%, riop Xptorta- 
vciv arekkoin'ayi/ diro rov Koivovy Porf$TJ(ropr€s /cat ^vvayopev- 

115 (Tovre^ KOL TrapafivdrjaoiievoL top dvhpa. dfirj-^^oLvov 8c rt ro 
rd^^o^ CTTtSct/ci'vi/rat, ctrctSai/ tc TotoSroi/ yevrfrau STj/xdcrtoi/ • 
cj' Ppaxel yap d<^€t8ova't wdpT(ov. /cat 817 /cat rol ll€p€ypCv<(> 
TToXXa rorc -^/cc xprjfiara wap* avrSiv inl wpo<f)da'€L tcjv 8c- 
Cfiiov /cat wpocoSop ov /iLKpdv ravrrfp irroirja'aTo • TT^rr^ucaxri 

120 yap avTov9 ot KaKohaC/ioves to ficv oXop dddvaroi iceaOcu 
/cat ^tcikrco'^at tw del ^povov, Trap' o Kat KaTa(f>povova'L rov 
davdrov /cat c/coi/t€9 avrov^ C7rt8t8daa'ti/ ot TroXXot • ineira 8c 
6 vofioderrjs 6 irpioTO^ hreicrev avrov^ ws d8cX<^ot ndvre^ elev 

this use of ira/xi with dat. of places is 
poetic. — x4p^- ^^^ perhaps reflects 
the care of the early church for widows 
and orphans. Cf . Acts 6, 1 . — ol 8« iv W- 
Xci : the {church) officials. See L. & S. s. v. 
for tlie meaning magistrates. — Sio^OcU 
pams : ajter bribing. So Crito (Plato 
CriU) 1) admits that he has ^Hipped'' 
the prison warden. — 8«CirvairoiK(Xa: in 
antithesis to the plain prison fare (cf. 
the sauces, pastry, and blood-puddings, 
7rapeffK€i6aa'To ToixiXa in Symp. 11), but 
also, doubtless, a careless allusion to 
the Christian dydwai, see Thayer's N.T. 
Lex. S.V. — KOiv&s 2MKpdn|s: a new 
(or, a second) Socrates. Justin Mar- 
tyr shocked his church contemporaries 
by his Christian liberality in recogniz- 
ing Socrates and others as proleptic 
Christians (cf. Gildersleeve on Apol A 

46): Kol ol /xerd \6rycv fiidxrarret Xpt- 
CTioLvol elffij Koiv A$eoi ivoijJUrd^ffap^ otov 
iv 'EXXi/tf'i ijAv SbiK/Min/f koX 'HpdirXei- 
roi kqX cl 6fMioi a^ocf, ip fiapfidpoit 8i 
'A/3/Kid/i Kal 'AraWas (Shadrach) jcol 'A^i- 
plas (Abednego) koX "tAuraiiX (Meshach) 
Kol 'HX(af Koi AXXoi toWoL 

13. &ir6 ToO KOivof) : from their com- 
mon fund. Cf. Acts 2, 44; 4, 32; 11, 
20, and Just. Mart. Apol A 14 a Ix^ 
fjxp €li K0i»6» 4*^popT€f Kal jraprl iw/Uptf^ 
KoipupovpTCi. — kw\ irp<N^d<m: on the 
score of. — r6 ^v SXov : in generoL 
— AOdvaroi : see note on Vit. Auct. 5 
and Introd. to Peregr., p. 206. — 6 vofiA- 
(Mn|s 6 irpAros: i.e. Christ (not Moses 
or Saint Paul, as has been suggested ; 
see Reitz. ad loc). The words just 
below, icard rot>t iKelpou pSfiotn^ make 
(his clear, and ddeX^ wdrret eley is 


126 Koifs airapvrjo'wvraij rov 8c di/eo'KoXoina'ixepov eKeivov croi^ir 
OTTji/ avTov TrpoaKwaxTf. /cat Kara roif^ iKeCvov vo/iov^s fitSxTt. 
Kara^povovo'iv ovv aTrdvr(av i^ urr)s Kal Koivd r/yovvrai avev 
rivo<; aKptfiovs ttuttccos rd rotaCra TrapaSc^a/icrot. rv tolvvv 
irapeXdji ri^ ctg avrov^ yorj^ /cat Te)(yirr)<; apdpcjiros Kal Trpa- 

130 y/iacrt ^rjaOai SwdfievoSy avriKa fidXa TrXovcrtos iv /3pa)(€L 

14 iy€V€To tStarrat9 dvdpdjroLS iy\av<M)v. '!r\7)v dXX* 6 Uepeypl- 
vo^ d<f>€C07i VTTO Tov TOT€ rfjs Svpta9 dp^ovTO%^ duSpos i^tXccro- 
<^ta ^aLpovTo^y o<s avvels rrfp dirovoiav avrov /cat ort Scfatr* 
dv diroOav^Lv^ cog So^ap iwl rovTqt dirokiiroi^ d<f>r)Kev avrov 

136 ovSc rfj^ /coXacrecog VTroXafioiP d^iop. 6 Se cts 7171^ oiK^iap 
inapeXOdn/ icaraXa/x)8a^et to ttc/^I tov Trarpt^ov (f>6pov ert <^X€- 
yfialpop Kal ttoXXov^ Toif^ iwapaT€LPOii€Povs rrfp Karqyopiap. 
SnjpTraaro 8c Ta TrXctora t(op Krrjfidrwp napd rfjp dnoSr)iiLap 
avTov Kal fiopoi. im^Xevrropro ol dypol oaop ctg Trci/TC/cat- 

140 8€/ca TokaPTa • 171' yap 17 rrdca ovaCa rpidKOPrd ttov rakdp- 
TiiiP d^ia rjp 6 ycpcjp /caTcXtTTCi', ov^ (oa'7r€p 6 irayyeXoios 

certainly in the spirit of S. Matt. 23, 8. good meaning, but in § 32 uses it in a 

— irapapdvns : transgressing, sc. rods contemptuous reference to Peregrinus 
p6fMVi. So in Aesch. A gam, 50 6 wapa- himself. Cf. Bernays, Lucian und die 
pdt the transgressor is used absolutely. Kyniker, p. 100, note to c. 13. — Koivd : 

— &irapW|<rMVTai : the God of the Jews see above dirb tou koivov. — irCtmcts : 
and the Christians alike was a *' jealous proof; if we had the present tense ira- 
God *' and could not share in any poly- fMdtx^fJi^yoi, pledge would give an easier 
theistic beliefs. The Romans could meaning. 

welcome any new cult to their Pan- 14. frkr\v &XX': see In trod. 24 (a), 

theon, but this monotheism could not — Tfjs KoXdo-fcas : the usual chastise- 

itself tolerate the established poly the- memJt. Note the article ; whether the 

ism. See Introd. p. viii. — rhv &m- prisoner was released or executed, 

orKoXoirur)Uvov ^Kctvov o^^iOTi|v airdv: scourging might be in order under the 

that crucified sophist himself. The Romans. Cf. S. Luke 23, 16 and 22, 

term **8ophi8t,^' which had fallen into with S. Mark 15, 15. — irapd t^jv diro- 

bad odor, was somewhat reinstated in St||&(av : for prep, see note on § 2. — 

honor by the Professors of Rhetoric. old7po(: his rea^e^/ote as distinguished 

Lucian seems generally to give it a from /cTi^Mar a above. — iSa^cp. . .SXiYc: 


€^€ay€vrj^ iXeye Trei/raKtcrj^tXicoi/ • roaovrov yap ovSe rj TrcUra 
riov Uapiavcjp woXt^ neirre <rvv ain^ ra^ yctri/icoo'as irapa- 
Xafiovaa TrpaOeirj av avrot? di/Opcjirois koL /SoatcJiiacL kcX 

146 ^^ ^omrj napacKevrj. aXX* ert ye rj Kwnqyopia koX to ey- 
KXrifia Oepfiop ^v^ koL i(pK€L ovk els fiaKpav etravao'Trja'ea'dai 
Tt5 avTftJ, KoX /laXtOTa 6 hrjfio^ avro^ r/yavdicTeL '^(pTiaTov, 
0)5 i<f>aa'av oi t8di/r€9, yipovra nevdovirre^ ovrot^ acrc/Soi^ 
ctTToXcuXoTa. 6 8c a'o<f>6^ ovros Uporrev^ npos ditavra Tavra 

160 (rKoffaade olop rt i^€vp€ koI ottcd^ tov Kivhvvov 8t€<^vy€- 
napeXdcjv yap €ts rfjv iKK\7)a'iav rS)v Tlapiavcjp — CKO/jLa Sc 
17817 Kal rpCPwpa iripapop tJ/ittci^cto Kal Trrjpap TrapijpTrfTO 
/cat TO ^vXop ip rfj X^V^ ^^ '^^^ 0X09 /laXa rpayiKcis icKcv- 
acTO — TOf,ovTo^ ovp i'n'L<f>ap€LS avrol^ df^eipai e(f>r} rr/p ov- 

166 aiaPy rjp 6 fioKapLTTj^; warrip avT(o KariXnre^ hrifioaiap eli/cu 
Trdaap. tovto oSg rfKovaep 6 StJ/jlo^ ttcVtjtc^ apdpcanoL Kal 
npos 8taro/xa5 kc^^J^otc?, dpcKpayop evdis €Pa <f>i\6cro<f>op^ 
eva ^ikoTrarpiPj ipa AioyeVov? Kal KpdTTjTOS Cji^cjttjp. oi 
8c i')(0pol i7T€<f>Lfi(t}prOy Kap ct tis cTrtx^tpiyo'ccc fiefiprja'daA tov 

see § 4. — tAv noptavAv : Peregrinus is used of antique bronzes: wlmt 6 r^s 

was bom at Pariumon ihe Hellespont. dpxat^i^rof. — r6 {vXov: the (conven- 

— adroit &v6p^iroi« kt\. : men, cattle, tional Heracles) club. In Catapl. 4 the 
and cUl. Cynic is designated as 6 rb ^6\op. — 6 

15. lK6|jLa : he had a crop of long |iaKapCn|s irar/jp : his fatfier of blessed 

hair. The same expression, «coAAuii'^5T7, memory. Cf. D. Meretr. 6, 1, where 

is used {Alex. 11) of the charlatan Alex- the mother says to her daughter : dXXd 

ander, and the Cynic Maximus in the di^ fryi raOra i^ ov riOpifKtv h iMKoplrris 

fourth century could join the Chris- 0-01; irari)p, odx oMa Ihrwi drej^a/irv ; 

tians without laying aside his Cynic's cf. also Philops. 27. — irp^ Siavo|Mbs 

garb. His long hair was not shorn Kcxt|v6Tt« : agape for largesses. — ^- 

until he was made bishop of Constant!- X6irarpiv : patriot. The spurious dxa- 

nople. Cf. Bernays, op. cit., p. 37, and logue with this title, included among 

St. Chrys. Homil. 26 on 1 Cor. 11, 14. Lucian's writings and containing ref- 

— Tpcpctva: the Cynic's old cloak, the erences to the Christian religion, is of 
wallet (^ Tijpo), the Heracles club, and much later date. — <iri^(|M»vTo : were 
the bead constantly recur. Cf. § 24. muzzled. Cf. S. Mark 1, 26 and 4, 39 
— invapdv : rusty; squalid. The noun (rtwira, ire<plfjua<ro, an4 pot^ to Vit. Aud, 



itiO ^^^^^> XlOol^ €v6if<s ifidWeTo. efj/ct oip to Sevrcpov TrXavrf- 
(r6fi€voSj LKava €<^oSia tovs ^pLOTLavoifs ^0}v^ v<j>* wv 8opv- 
<f>opovii€vo^ iv atrao'iv a(f>66voL^ ^i/. koI \p6vov fiep riva 
ovTO)^ ifioaKero' ctra napavofiTJa'as tl koI €9 eKeipov^ — 
O}<f>07] yap TLy ci>9 ol/iai, icrduDv t(op dnoppiJTwp avroi^ — 

105 ovKen Trpo(Ti€ii4po}P avTS>p dwopovfiepo^ iK wakLPCoSia^ dnai' 
T€LP ^€To help Trapa rfj^ TroXetos ra KTi//xaTa, koI ypafifia- 
T€LOP €7rt8ov9 Tf^Cov TavTa KOfiicrao'daL Kekcvcapro^ fiatrikea)^, 
cira rrj<s ttoXccd^ apri7rp€0'fi€V0'afiepri<; ovSep iTrpd^dy)^ dXX* 
ifipjpeip iKeXevadyj ots dira^ Sieypo) /iTjSei^og KaropayKdaap- 

j^J T05. yrptTTj CTTt TOVToi<; dnoSr)iiLa C19 AtyuTrrop Trapa top 
* AyauofiovXoPj Ipairep rfjp davp^axTTrfP dcfcricnp 8ti7crKctro, 
^vpofiepos ii€P rfj^ K€<f>ak7J^ to rjixiavy -^pLOfiepos 8c -tttjXcj) to 
wpocrojTroPy ip 7ro)yX^ 8c t<op TrepiearcjTojp ^fjfKo apa(f>\(op to 
aiSoiop Koi TO aSid<f>opop 87) tovto Kakovfiepop imheiKpij- 

176 fi€PO^, elf a TTaixap koX Traiofiepos pdpdr)KL 615 ra? Tjvyds kol 

18 aXXa TroXXa peapiKwrepa OavfiaTOTroiiop. iKeidep 8c ovtcj 
Trapco'/ccvao'/icVog cVt ^ItoKuip €Trk€va'e Koi dirofids T179 peoj^ 
€vdv^ iXof^SopelTo iracL kol fidkio'Ta t(o fiaaiXel TrpaoTaTOP 

22. — Xt6ois . . . {p^XXfTo: cf. Pise. 1 
pdWe /SdXXe rdv xardparop a<f>d6w)is roit 

16. Ip^oTKfTO : lived in clover. — {o^C- 
Mv tAv &irof>p^Mv : perhaps *•'• meat of- 
fered to idols," see Thayer, N.T. Lex., 
8.V. €lSta\6$vTos, and Smith & Cheetham, 
Diet. Christian Antiq. , s. v. ' * Idolatry ' '; 
perhaps a confusion of Christian with 
Jewish customs. — 7p(&|i|&aTitov iiriSovs : 
handing in a brief- — kcXi ^(ravros pacri- 
XIms: with the Emperor'' s sanction. /3a- 
(TiKek is regularly used of the Roman 
emperors; cf. Gildersleeve on Just. 
Mart. Apol. A 14, 25. — |&t)8cv<^: cf. 
Introd. 39 (e). 

1 7. ' AyoO^PotiXo V : perhaps this same 
man is the one mentioned {Demonax S), 
along with Demetrius and Epictetus, 
as a teacher of Demonax. — 8iT|orKcCTo : 
he went into train' ng in. See note ou 
Vit. Auct. 0, and see A pp. — (vp4|uvof 
. . . tJiuoni: the fool and the philosopher 
go shares. — dSid^pov : a stock term, 
see on Vit. Auct. 21 ; Pise. 35, and cf. 
Gildersleeve, op. cit., B3, 26. — jtalmv 
KaV trat6|uvos : used of the boxing match 
between the Cynic and theclown,5^mp. 
10, 0{X6(ro0o9 diriip yeXorroirotif dvraip^ 
yxvoi KoX iralup xal TaidfiMvot iy rip fidpei. 

18. rfpcM-iXcC: probably Antoninus 
Fius, whom Marcus Aurelius succeeded 


avTov Kat Tifiepayrarov eiSdsj cSot€ dcri^aXoig iroXfia- iKcivtf 

180 yoipy (is etKoSy oKiyov c/ieXe tS>v fiXaarif^ri (11,0)1/ Kal ovk yj^iov 

Trfv <f>L\oao<f>iav vTroSvo/ievov tivol Kokd^eu/ iwl ptjfiauart, koX 

fiaXiara T€)(yy)v tlvol to XoiSopeio'daL TreTToirjfiei/ov. TovT(p 

Sc Kal diro rovrwu rd rfj(; 80^179 rji^dvero - napd yovv toIs 

tSccurac^ /cat wepifiX^Trros ^v iwl rrj dnovoiq,, p^^XP^ ^ ^ '^^ 

185 ttoXlv ItriTerpappivos dvrfp (ro<f>os aTreTrc/xi/rei/ avrov dperpo}^ 

ivTpvf^S}VTa T<o irpdyp^aTLy elnoiP pr) heladai rrjv TroXtv rotov- 

Tov <f>iKoo'6<f)Ov. wkrjv dWd Kal tovto k\€li/ov avTov Kal 8ta 

(TTopaTos ^v aTTaaiVj 6 (f)(X6a'o<f)os Sea rrfv wapprjciav Kal 

rrfv dyav Ikevdepiav i^ekadeCs * Kal Trpocrrj\avv€ Kara rovro 

190 TKo Movacovio) Kal Auui^c Kal 'ETrt/cnjr^ Kal el ns aXXo9 cV 

19 TTcpiOTcurct Tocavry cyo/cro. ovrco 817 iirl rfji/ 'EXX<i8a cX- 

0<ov dpTi pkv 'HXctot9 cXot8o/ocrro, dprt hk rov^ ^EXXiyi/a? 

eireidei/ dvrdpaa'dai. OTrXa 'Pco/xatot9, dpri hk dvhpa 7rat8e(a 

in 161 A.D. From § 20 we learn that Cf. Pise, 19 where his incognito is na/>- 
at least two Olympiads passed before prjiriddris ' AXifSiutyoi, and in § 17 'EXev^- 
the death of Peregrinus, so that even if pUi and Uapptiala are handmaidens of 
we accept 169 and not 165 a.d. for the Ti'iith, who at once declares herself as 
final scene he may have left ItAly be- on Lucian's side. — Movo-Mv((p: C. Ma- 
fore the accession of Marcus Aurelius. sonius Rufus, a Stoic philosopher ban- 
See Introd. 3, and In trod, to Peregr. ished by Nero to Gyaros in 66 a.d. 
p. 206. — T^vi|v . . . iriiroiT||Uvov : had He was afterwards tolerated by Vespa- 
made biUingagate iido a regular profes- sian when the other philosophers were 
sion. — 6 ri|v irdXiv liriTCTpa|i|Uvof : the exiled. — ACmvi : Dion Chrysostomus, 
praefectus urbi at Rome had absorbed banished by Domitian. He returned 
the functions of the praetor urbanus. under Nerva. — "Ewtcrfynfi Epictetns, 
— f tirc^v |iT| 8«Co^ai : a double solecism won over to Stoicism by C. Musonius 
for €lirC)p Srt 06 dttrai. See note on Rufus, was expelled with other phl- 
4>rjfflp 6ti § 23, and for neg. see Introd. losophers by Domitian. 
39 (a). — 8id (rTd|&aro9 tJv Aircuriv : was 19. ImtOfv : saadebat. — &v8pa 
on everybody'' s lips. — Sid t^v wap- kt\. : Herodes Atticos, or Tiberiua 
f>i|(rCav KaV tt|v &7av l^cvOtpCav : these Claudius Atticus Herodes, was a rich 
were the pre-eminent virtues which the Athenian gentleman, a close contem- 
Cynics were wont to arrogate to them- porary of Lucian, famous alike as a 
selves. And it is to be noted that these rhetorician and as a liberal benefactor 
qualities were Lucian's chosen virtues. of his fellow Greeks. Although we 



KoX oi^LCJfiaTL 7rpov')(oirra, Stort Kal ip tols aXXot5 cS cVoojac 

196 rrfv *EXXa8a Kat vScop iTnjyaye ry 'OXv/xTTtijt Kal cTravcrc 
Su/r€i aTToXXv/iLO/ovg tov5 navriyvpLaTd^y KaKots iqyopevev cJs 
KaTa6r}\vvavTa rov^ EXXi^i/a?, Scbr rov? deara^ rtop *OXv/x- 
TTUitJi^ StoKapTepeLV htxlfcjvra^ /cat i^ Ata y€ /cat airoOvTQO'K^i.v 
TToXXovs avTciv VTTO (r^ohpwv tS)v poacjVy at t€(os Sta to 

200 ^7)pov Tov ')(0}pLov iv TToXX^ r<5 7r\.TJd€L in€ir6\a^op ' Kal 
ravra cXcyc wCpcjp tov avrov vSaro?. ds 8c fiiKpov icarc- 
Xcv(rai/ avroi/ inLSpafioirre^ anairre^y rore fiep iirl rbv Aia 

20 KaTa(f>vy(ov 6 yeppaios evpero fir) dwo$aP€2p. C5 8c ttjp c^9 
*OXv/x7rta8a \6yop tipol 8ta Terrdpcjp irtop (rvp0€l^ t(op 8ta 

205 fiecov i^P€yK€ irpo^ roifs ''iSXXriPa^ erraipop vnkp tov to vSwp 
inayayoPTO^ Kal airoXoyiap imkp ttj^ t6t€ <f>xry7J^. 17817 8c 
afieXovfxepo^ v(f>* dirdpTcop Kal /iriKed* ofiouo^ irepipXenTos wp 
— ccoXa yap Jjp dirapTa koX ovhep en Kaipovpyeip iSvpaTO, 
i<f>* 5t(o ckttXtj^ ct Toif^ ipTvy^dpoPTa^ koX davfid^eip Kal npos 

210 avTOP dTTo^SXcTTCci^ TToci/o'ct, ovTTcp cf dp)(ris Spi/ivp Tipa ipa/ra 
ipojp iTvy^ape — to Tekevraiop tovto roX/iij/ia ifiovXevaaTo 
TO Trepl rfjs irvpa^y Kal 8tc8ft>Kc \6yop i<s tovs ^EXXiyvag €v0v^ 

may sometimes be inclined to criticize 
his overlaying of antique monumenU 
\vith marble, and the emphasis laid 
upon beauty of material, yet his bene- 
factions were conspicuous. For his 
various public works see Baedeker^s 
Oreece, pp. 42 and 53, and especially 
Chabert, VAUicismede Lucien^ pp. 25- 
27. The favor of the Roman emperor 
and jealousy of his great wealth raised 
him up enemies, so that he finally re- 
tired from Athens and died (ca. 180 
A.D.) at his villa near Marathon, his 
birthplace. — {jS«»p liH|7a7c r^ 'OXv|&- 
ir(^: considerable remains of this aque- 
duct were excavated at and near Oly m- 

pia ; e.g. a pillar near the waters of the 
spring some two miles away from the 
Altis, the tunnel under Mount Cronius, 
and the Exedra itself with its marble 
rotundas on each side of the semi- 
circular tank. For full description of 
the statues etc. see Frazer's Pauaor- 
nias^ IV, pp. 72 ff. — xaKMs TJ^dptviv: 
see account in Philostratus, Introd. to 
Peregr.j p. 202. — t4»9 : there had been 
other, but insufficient, aqueducts ; see 
Frazer, I.e. — fi^prro: see App. 

20. 4(^vfYKf . . . Iiraivov: he deliv- 
ered a panegyric. — |&i)Ki6*: for o«/itM. 
See Introd. 39 (e). — Kaivovfryctv : work 
up any novelty. Cf. Catapl. 2G tQp 




air 'OXv/xTTuui/ rS)v ifiwpoa'dev 0J5 is tovttlop kovcwv iavrov. 

21 Kal vvv avTCL ravra davfiaTOTroiei, cog <f>aa'i^ fiodpov opvrroiv 
216 Kal ^Xa (TvyKOfiiljcov koX heivrjv riva rtfv Kaprepiav vnio'- 

^vovfi^voS' ^XPV^ ^^9 olficuy fiaXioTa fukv TrepifiepeLP top 
ddvarov koX /X17 SpanereveLv Ik rov fiiov ct 8c koX irdvrcas 
SuypmoTo oi aTraXXaTTCcr^at, /xi) Trvpl /xt/Sc toIs ol'to rfjs 
rpaytohias rovroc9 xprjcdaij aXX' erepov Tiva davdrov rpor 

220 TTOVj fivpuav ovroiVj iXofiepop direXdeip, ct 8c Kal to irvp o5s 
*Hpa/cXctoi/ Tt da-Trd^ercUy ri hrj ttotc ov^l Kara aiyy^p cXo- 
fiepos opos evSephpop ip iK^ip(f> iavrop ipenprjcre fiopos ipa 
TLpd olop SeayepT) tovtop ^LkoKTTJrrfp napakafidp; o 8c ip 
^OXvfJLiria rrjs naprfyvpetos nXridovaris fiopop ovk cttI aKrqprjs 

226 OTmjcei iavTOP^ ovk dpd^ios wp fia top 'H/oa/cXca, ct yc XPV 
Koi Toifs TraTpakoias Kal tovs dOeovs Sucas 8t8oi/at t(op toX- 
fiTj/jidTtoP' /cat Kara tovto wdpv oiffk hpdp avro ioLKePy op 
iXPV^ TraXat C9 top tov ^aXapt8o9 Tavpop ifineaoirra TrjP 
d^Cap dwoT€TLK€paiy aXXa fiTf dna^ ^ai/di/ra wpos tt/p <f>\6ya 

230 ip dKapel Tedpdpai. Kal yap av Kal rd8c ol TToXXot fioi 
Xeyovcrti/, (os ov8ct9 o^irrepos aXXo5 dapdTov Tponos tov 8td 
TTvpos' dpoi^ai yap h^ip fiopop to ord/ia Kal avrt/ca T^dpd- 

22 pai, TO fiipTOi diafia CTrti^octrat^ olpaiy C09 cefipop, ip iepm 
'^((opup Kaiofiepos apdpcDiroSy evda /1178c ddwreLP oaiop tovs 

KoKdtrewp t6 irpbt tafi&rTjra KatvovpySp. — 
h Toimdv : at ike subsequent {one). 

21. SpaircTiiMiv 4k to€ p£ov: iiin- 
away slaves were held in contempt. 
Cf. Plato Crito 62d Arep ap SovXot 4>av- 
X&rarof rpd^€uv. In the sequel to the 
Peregrinus the ApaHrai (see Introd. to 
Peregr.y p. 207) are runagate philoso- 
phers. — SUyv«»o^ ol : see Introd. 40 
and Schmid, I, 228. — ^iXok'Hjttiv : as 
his PhUoctetes. Cf. § 33. For a re- 
habilitation of the character of The- 

agenes see Bernays, op. cit., pp. 13 ff. 

— li^vovo^K: all but. — &Olovs: a stock 
reproach. Cf. Alex. 38, where procla- 
mation is made : et ns &$mt { Xpurrutr 
vbs ^ 'EircKOi^pecof ifKci KardffKowos rQw 
dpyiwp, ipevyh-w. See above, p. 206. — 
Tofi ^oXdptSos ravpov : for the punish- 
ment of its inventor see Phalar. A 12. 

— diroTf TiK^voi : to have paid qff in full, 
and Tedpdvai : to be dead. Cf. Introd. 
34 (a). 

22. ikxfii: cf. Introd. 39 (d).— 


235 aXXov9 airodp^cKOPTa^. aKovere Sc, ol/xai^ o)9 Kal TraXou 
d4\oiv Tt9 h/ho^o% y€V€(rOaL, iirel /car' aXXoi/ rponov ovk el- 
\mf i7nru)(€Li/ tovtov, iveirfyrfo'e rfj^ 'Ex^ecrui? 'A/^rc/xtSo? top 

V€(OV. rOlOVTOV TL KOL aVTOS ivLVOely TOCrOVTO? €/>€t>9 r^5 

23 8d^9 ivrerrfK^v aura>. Kavroi ^tjclp otl virep rwv avdpay- 
240 TToi)/ avTo Spa, (09 Si8a£6i€i/ aurovs davdrov Kwra/j^poveiv koX 

iyKaprepeiv Tot9 Scti/ol?. €yco 8c ifSco)? ai/ ipoC/irfv ovk €Kct- 
i/oi/ dXX' vfia^y €1 Kal tow KaKovpyov% fiovXoio'de av fiadrf 
Ta5 avTov yevecOai rfj^ Kaprepia^ ravTTj? koI Kwra^poveiv 
davdrov koX Kavaeo)^ Kal t<ov toiovtwv Sci/xara^i/. dXX' ovk 

245 Ol/ €V oI8* OTt fiov\7j0€L7)T€. TToi? OVI' 6 IlpcarCV? TOVTO StOr 

Kpivel Kal Toif^ ji^y xpr/aTov^ (0<}>€\TJa'€iy tov^ ^ novqpov^ 

24 ov <f)i\oKLi/8vvoT€pov^ Kol To\fi7)poT€pov^ aiTo^avel ; Kairoi 
hvvaTov iaT<o €5 tovto (iopov^ dTravnjcrecrdai, tov^ irpo^ to 
d^iXijiov oxj/ofiei/ov^ to Trpay/ia. vfia^ 8* ovv avOi^ ^PV' 

250 crofiaL, 8c£atcr^' dv Toif^ irat8a9 v/iiov ^ijXcuTas tov tolovtov 
y€V€cr6aj,; ovk dv eliroLTe. Kavroi tl tovto yjpofirfVy ottov 
/JH78' avTwv Tt9 T(t)i/ /jLaOyyTtov avTov ^lyXcocctcv dp; tov ovv 
SeayevTj tovto /xdXiara atridcrairo dv Tt?, ori raXXa ^rfkwv 
Tavhpo^ ov^ erreraL to) 8i8acrKdXai /cat crvi/oScvct vapd tov 

255 Hpa/cXea, C09 (fyqciVy dinovTiy hvvd/ievo^ iv /Spa^et Trai/cv- 
SaCficDV yeveardai (rvvefiTreawv iirl K€<f>a\riv €9 to mip' ov 
yap iv vijpa Kal fiaKTpo) Kal TpificjvL 6 J'^Xos, dWd Taxna 

M\«»vrit: i.e. Herostratus. See Class. *^ <HM is the most * subjective* of the 

Diet. s.y. — ivrln\K€¥ airf : has been common verbs of saying, and in model 

welded to him. Cf. Soph. Elect. 1311 Greek seldom takes anything but the 

/Aurof ivT^ijK4 /Ml, and Luc. Oall. SO, of a inf. In this stage it is freely combined 

miser, diayfidrvei xal 6fwm ylywou t^ with 5rt.^* Of., per contra, § 18 for 

XP^fJM T<} xP^^f vpwTrrrtiK^i aifTip. elvo^ with inf. — 8i8d{iuv : see Introd. 

23. ^o-lv Sri: exceptions occur 35(a). 

even in classic Greek to the use of the 24. Ka(roi Swariv trrm : and noto, 

infinitive with ^fil : e.g. for Sri Plato granted that it is possible. See App. — 

Oorg. 487 d ; with Js Lys. 7, 10. Cf. irp6s r6 «^^i|iov: in a salutary light, 

Gildersleeve,Just. Mart. ^poZ. AlO, 18: — drov |it|S': see Introd. 39 (d). — 



fi€v acipakri Kat pq,oia /cat iravro^ av euq^ to r€Ao9 0€ /cat to 
K€<l>d\aiov '^(pri ^r/kovp /cat irvpav (rvvdivra Kopfiwi/ (tuklpcov 

260 0)5 &t /jtaXtcrra ^(Xcopcii/ ivaTroTTViyrjvcu T<p /ca7ri/oI- to Tiip 
yap avro ov jiovov 'Hpa/cXeov? /cat 'Acr/cXT^Trtov, dXXa /cat 
Tcii/ tepooi/Xoii/ /cat dphpo<f>6va)Vj ov^ bpdv iariv 6/c KaTaSiKri^ 
avro 7rda')(ovTa^. cSarc a/xeti^oi^ to 8ta tov Kairi/oS* tStoi/ 

25 yap /cat v/xo>)/ ai/ fiovcjv yevoiTO, aXXoi? T€ 6 /lei^ 'HpaKXrj^y 

266 etTrep apa /cat ^Tokp/qfri Tt TOtovToi', vtto vocov avro cSpaxrep 
VTTO TOV KevTavpeiov alfiaTo^y cH^ (f^rjariv tj Tpay<fSia, /caT€- 
aOioiievo^* ovTo^ Se tLvo^ atTta? €i/€K€v e/i/SaXXet <f)ep(op 
iaxrrov ct? to mip; pt) At', oiro)^ ttip KapTepiav imSei^TfTcu 
KaOaTrep oi Bpa^fidve^ • iKeii/oi^ yap avTov rj^iov Seayarq^ 

270 elKal^eii/y aicTrep ovk ivov €ti/at Tivas /cat €v *\vhoZ% jioipovs 
/cat /cci/oSd^ov9 avOptimov^, o/xa>9 S' ovi/ /coi^ iKeCvov^ fiL/jLev- 
cdoi' iKelvoL yap ovk i/jLirrfSSxTLV €t9 to irCp, 019 ^OirqaucpL- 
T09 6 ^Ake^dvSpov KvfiepuTJrq^ ISwn/ Kdkavop /cao/xci/di/ ^rforiVy 

r6 rikot 8€ xal ri Kc^dXoiov: tAe end f^ki^ 
crowned it aU. — o^k(v»v: like Ohrfei- 
gen fur die Feigen; cvKo^mity black- 
guard, was a term elastic enough to 
include Theagenes. Cf . Ar. Veap. 145 
for another case of aim ilia simili- 
bus. In Alez, 47 Epicurus^s books are 
burned M ^6\uy ffVKivwv. — *HpaicXfov« 
kt\. : see § 4. — Upo^Xttv : sacrilege in- 
creased as orthodoxy decayed. 

25. &XX«0s Tc : and besides. Cf. Kal 
dXXcus. — KaTfoH)uS|Mvos : (because he was 
being) corroded, cf. D. Deor. 13, 2. — ol 
Bpax|Ulvc« : in Fugit. 6 Philosophy re- 
lates how she went ^r3£ to the Indians 
and without difficulty persuaded them 
to dismount from their elephants and 
dwell with her, and how that the Brah- 
mans — ydpot 6\o» ol Bpax/J^oLwt — fell 
in line under her command. Lucian 

seems to speak loosely of the Brah- 
mans not as a caste but as a tribe 
or nation. — Anrcp o^k Mv, irrX.: as 
though it were not possible that any fools 
should exist, etc. For ace. abs. see 6. 
1569 ; H. 973 ; Gl. 591; B. 343. — 'Ovti- 
o-UpiTos: see Class. Diet, for account 
of this somewhat versatile character 
— historian. Cynic philosopher, and 
able-bodied mariner. Alexander the 
Gi*eat appointed him dpx^'^v/Sepn^i^ 
on the voyage to India, for which see 
Arrian^s Indica written in pseudo- 
Ionic. In Hist. Conscr, 40 Lucian re- 
lates a conversation between Onesicri- 
tus and Alexander. — KdXavov : an 
Indian gymnosophist in Alexander's 
retinue who, because he had fallen 
ill, stolidly burnt himself in the most 
approved form. See Plut. Alex. 60 




dXX* inev^av vrjcioci^ Trkyjariov irapacTavr^^ aKivrfroi dv€)(ov 

275 Tai TrapomcoiievoLy elr iTrifiavres Kara (r)(rjfia Kaiovrai ov8* 
ocroi/ 6\Cyov iKTpe^iavf^^ r^s Kara/cXicTccD^.i ovto% 8c rt 
/xeya, €t ifiireo'c^v Tedurj^erai (rvvapTrao'del^ vno tov TTvpo^; 
ou8* dir* cXirtSo? /xi) avawr)hrja'€a'dai avrov Koi rf/jLuf^XeKToVy 
el /JLT], oTrep <^acri, firf^^auTJareTou, fiadelav yeveaOcu /cat iv 
fioOpcp rrfv TTvpdv. €icri 8' oX koX /jLerafidWeadai ^aaiv 
avTov KaC Tiva oveCpara Sirfyelo'dfUy ds tov Ato9 ovk iS>vro% 
liiaiv€iv Upov ^(opiov, d,Wd dappeiToi tovtov yc h/eKa* 
iyo) yap SLOfiocaCfiriv dv ^ p/riv firfheva tS>v dewv dyavaicrrj' 
(reip, €t Ilepeyplvo^ /ca/cos KaKOj^ diroddvoi, ov /irfv ovSe 

285 pdhiov avTo) €T dvahvvai ' ol yap crvvovre^ Kvve^ irapop/itoo'L 
/cat crvvwdovcrii/ C5 to irvp /cat vireKKdovci ttjv yvd/irfv ovk 
iS)i/T€^ d7ro8ctXtai/, wv el 8vo ovyKaTacTrducra^ i/iTrecoi ct? 

27 Trjv TTvpdvy tovto [iovop ^dpi,€P dv ipydxraiTO. tJkovov Sk co? 
ovhe Ilparrev^ crt /caXctcrdat d^tot, dWd <I>oti/t/ca /lercoi/o/xacrci/ 

290 iavTov^ ort /cat <I>oti/t^ to *Ii/8t/coi' opveov iTTifiaiveiv irvpd^ 

and Arrian ^nab. 7, 3, who gives the To illustrate the meaning of o^ . . . 

details, adding: wt xaprepSy r4 ivri xal iXxlt , . , fAifj c. inf., Dr. C. W. E. Mil- 

dvUiiToy yviitiri dpdponrlyri 6 re irep iOiXei ler (by letter) cites Thuc. 8, 32, 3 xal 

iieprfdiraffBai. — icard ox^f^ • • • Kara- iXrlBa oCSk rijv iKax^rniv tXxov fAifj irort 

icXC(rt«»9 : cf. Plut. I.e. 4^ f KartKXlBrt 'AOriyaUat^ r^s 0a\d<nrris Kpcrodmav vav^ 

<rx^AMTf, and also FugU. 7 Toi>f yvfivo- Ilt\oirovrfi<ri<aM els Itavlav rapapaXtiy, 

co^wrdi X/7cif ■ d«roiW yovv . , , 8rt hrl they had not even the least expectation 

jTvpdv lijeyUrrriv dvafidrra dy^xorrai Kai6- (i.e. apprehension) that etc. ; and for the 

fupot, o66iy rod <rxi(/uuirot rj rilt xaOiSpas formula with a fut. inf. he compares 

iicrpiwovTes. — Ti6irtf|{fTai: see In trod. Thuc. 2, 101, 1 ol Adiiyatot od vap^av 

18(6). — oiS* dir* IXir(So« (it) jcrX. : then^ raU yawrly dtriaTovvres (cf. dweXirl^opm 

too, it is not past all expectation (appre- and then dx iXwidos) a&rbv yAi {$ecy. 

hensUm) that he will jump out, etc. For For odd', Ms. o^k, see App. 

dx iXwldot in this sense cf. (if we accept 26. xaK^ kokms: cf. S. Matt. 21, 41 

the reading dr rather than ^£), Aesch. and see App. — ol wv6vn« k^vc«: his 

Ag. 908 ff. ehx<*t"'^ ^ ^^* ^t^* TotaOr dog-disciples^ or his Cynic associates 

i\Tl6of ^6071 w€ir€iy 4s t^ fiij Te\€ir^>6po¥. {die Hiiupter der HUnde, Wieland). — 

For fi^ c. inf. after words of fearing o^k JAvrcs diroSciXiav: loonH let him 

see Gulick, Harv. Stud. XII, pp. 328 ff. shoto the white feather. 





\eyer<u 'n'oppoyrdrto yqpoi<i 7rpofi€firfKfo^. dXXa Kal Xoy^ 
woiel Kal xprqafiov^ nvas Stefetcrt TraXatov? 817, <i^ \pemf 
Saifiova vvKTo<f>vkaKa y€V€cr6(u avroVy Kal SrjXo^ ioTi fica/itov 

28 rj^T) iTTiOvfitov Kal ^vaov^ avaarrjo'ea'daL iXirC^cap. Kal fia 
295 Ata ovSci/ diretKo? iv ttoXXoi? rot? di/oifrot? evpeOijar^crdaC 

TLva^ T0V9 zeal reraprauoj/ airr)Wd)(daL Sl avrov ^rjaovra^ 
KoX vvKr<op ivrerv^KevajL t<o haifiovL tw wKTo<f>v\aKL. 01 
KardpaTOL hk ovroi /ladyiral avrov Kal )(pr)(rrtjpLOPy ol/xai, Kal 
aSxrrov inl ry wpq, ii'r)\avrja'ovraiy Start koX Upayrev^ €/c€ti/05 
300 o Aio^y 6 TrpoTrdrcDp rov ovofiaro^, fiatrriKo^ ^v. fiapnipo- 
/xat §€ ^ /i^i/ Kot iep4a^ avrov aTrd^^i^drjiT^crdai fiaariycov ij 
KavrjjpUop Tj Tti/09 Totavnj? reparovpyia^y 17 Kat vfj Ata reXc- 
njv riva in atir^ avoTija'Ccrdaf. wKrepiov Kal hi/jbov^tav inl 

29 ry nvpq,. Seayivrf^ Bi evay^o^^ cu5 ftot Tt9 rS>v eraCp<oi/ 
305 dmjyyeikey Kal XifivWav i^ npo€LprfK€i/aL nepl rovrwv* /cat 

ra imr) yap dne/imifiovevev • 

27. iropp«rrdTfl» ^p«H 9pofi$fift\K^ : 

cf. Xen. ApoL 30 rpofi-^effBai xhppw 
/Aox^p'at, toiU 6e /ar gone in knavery. 

— XP^^v* ^^* ^^* ^^^ A pp. — SaC- 
l&ova wKTO^iiXaKa : a gruardtan angel 
of darkness. — xP^o^W > . • IXvCt^v: 
expecting to have a golden statue set up. 
Cf. Tim. 51, where Timon^s statue is 
to l^ ^t up xfivffmiv . . . vapd r^y 'A^- 
vav iv r% * AKpoir6'\et,. xp^^^i ^ ^^ least 
equivalent to hrlxpvaoi^ gold-plated, 
rather than Kardxpvaoi, gilded^ suits the 
exaggerated tone of these passages. 
Marble as well as bronze was thus 
gilded. Cf. Virgil Eel. 7, 86nuncte 
marmoreum pro tempore feci- 
mus; at tu I . . . aureus esto. 

28. xpn^rHfpiov ical &8vrov: oracle 
and sanctuary. For the mechanism of 
these prosperous dens of thieves see 

Alex. 15 ff., 49, and 53. Peregrinus*s 
hopeswere realized. Athenagora8,^up- 
plicatiopro Christianis 130-131, tells us 
that in Parium, the native place of 
Peregrinus, statues were set up both of 
him and of Alexander the false prophet 
— a well-matched pair in Lucian^s judg- 
ment (see Introd. to Peregr., p. 204). 
Athenagoras adds that the statue of 
Proteus KoX ai)rdr X^rrai xpinMarli'tiy, 

— TtXtT)|v . . . 8^^8ovx(av: cf. Alex. 38 
TtXtT'^p re ydp riva avviaraTai koX 8g,d<W' 
xlo,t KoX l€poif>apTtat irrX. At the cele- 
bration of these mysteries the false 
prophet made the proclamation cited 
above at § 21. 

29. SCPvXXav : so, very solemnly, in 
Ar. Pax 1095 oA ydp rain-* etrt Z(/3vXXa. 

— dXX' Airdrav xrX.: this and the fol- 
lowing (§ 30) parody of the model 





dXX* oTTorav Ilparrev^ KwiKciv o)( dptoro^ airdvroiv 
Zt'f)v6% ipiyhovTTOv riiieifo^ Kara irvp avaKavca^ 
C5 <f>\6ya TnySiycra? iXdy C5 fiaKpov ^OXv/xiroi/, 
817 t6t€ irdvra^ o/io)^, ot apovprf^ Kapirov eSovcty 
pvKTLTToXov Tijiav KeXofiai rjpaia ii€yi,(jTOv 
(Tvvdpovov *H^aUrT(p koX 'HpaicX^i avaKTi, 

ravra fikv ©caycVrj? Si/SvXXtj? atcqKodvat, <\>7)a'iv. eyco hk 
BaKiSo? auToJ ^priiTiiov vwep rovrwv ipS)* (fyqarl 8c 6 BdKi9 
315 ovra)9 cr<^o8pa €v iireLTrdvy 

dXX' oTTorai/ Kvi^i/co? iroXv(ujn;/xo9 C9 <^X<yya'7roXXi^i/ 
TrqhrjcriQ 80^9 vtt* ipivvi Ovfiov opivdeL^^ 
817 TOT€ TOV9 dXXov9 Kvi/aXa>7r€Ka9, ot ol etrovraLy 
/jLLfieio'daL ^prf ttot/ioi/ a7roi)(oiJL€i/OLo \vkolo, 
09 8c /cc 8ciXo9 ceil/ (t>€VYij fievo^ ^ll<f>aLaToiOy 
Xdecaip /SaXccii/ rovroi/ rd^^a TrdvTa% *A^atov9> 
659 ft'^ \jnj)(po^ ia}v depfirjyopieiv CTTi^^ctp^ 
^pvcTio (ra^d/xci/09 mjprfv fidka TroXXd 8ai/ci^cioi/, 
CI/ KaXar9 ndrpcucrti/ ej^wi/ Tpt9 tto/tc rdXai/ra. 


oracle have the regulation Epic phras- 
ing mixed with the Tragic, and are 
reminiscent also of Ar. Eq. 197 fit.; 
e.g. of. the first verse with Eq. 107 and 
V. 4 with Eq. 190 etc. See also Ar. 
Aves 983 and 985. Lucian also mocks 
the pious Pausanias. For the ortho- 
dox belief in the Sibyls etc. cf. Pans. 
10, 12, 1-5, and esp. 9, 17, 5 for an 
oracle of Bacis beginning dXX' 6ir&ra» 
Ti0op€^s 'Afjuplovl re Z-ZiOtfi re . . . and 
the similar injunction kuI r&re dij ire- 

30. BdiciSo« : Bacis and his doubles 
(personified from fid^w) rivalled in Boe- 
otia even the Sibyls. They are often 
referred to, e.g. Hdt. 8, 20. For the ef- 

fect of the oracle on the religious Nicias 
see the passage from Ar. Eq., esp. 121 fif. 
See also the whole scene Ar.Aves 960 fit. 
The parody on the Sibyl parody is natu- 
rally most evident in the first part. — 
iroXv^w|ios: with double meaning, i.e. 
famous and of many aliases. — kwo- 
X^^Ktts : i.e. foxiness crossed with 
Cynic squalor. — i^xP^*: frigid. To 
contrast with dtpfitfyopieip translate the 

That he may not, cold stiff that he Is, try 
speeches inflaming. 

— <v KoXaCs ndrpQuiTiv : from the time 
of its increased prosperity under Au- 
gustus, Patras may well have been so 
described. Cf. Faus. 7, 17, 2-6 with 



325 ri vfiiv ^oKeiy av^pe^ ; apa <f>av\6T€po^ ^(pTjcr/xoXoyo^ oBcucts 
rrj^ Si/SvXXtjs eu/aL; cSotc c3pa roi? davfiaxrrol^ tovtol^ o/iir 
XijTai? Tov npa>TC(U9 irepLCKOTrelv ivda iaxrroifs i^aepcoaovci • 
TovTO yap TT/v Kavaiv KoKovai, 

31 Tavr' cittoi/to? avefiorfo'aj/ oi irepieoToyre^ anavre^- ^HSij 
330 Kaiiadoicav a^ioi tov irvpo^. /cat o /i€i/ Karcfirf yeXcop^ 

"NccTTopa 8* ovK ekadev taj^i;/' roi/ Seayarq^ dXX* w? rfKovae 
T^9 fiorj^ij riK€.v evdv^ /cat dvafia^ iKeKpdyei koX fivpia Kaxd 
Stc^l^ct ircpi rov KaTafiefirjKoro^ • ov ydp olSa o(rTt9 6 /SeX- 
TtcTTo? e/ccii/o? €/caX€tTO. cyci 8c a<f>€l^ avrov ^Lapprjyvviier 
336 i^oi' dir-geiv oijfoiievo^ tov9 idXrirds ' 17817 ydp ol *EXXai/o8iK(u 
cXeyoi^o €ti/at €i/ r^ nXc^pta>. ravra jiev cot rd iv *HXt8t. 

32 iwel he €19 rfiv 'OXv/iirtai/ d^iKOfieda^ /iccrro? ^i' o oTrtcr^o- 
80/xos ToJi/ Karqyopovvroiv Tlpajreca^ rj iiraivovvrtov rrjv irpo- 
aipeaiv avrov y axrrc Kai ct? )(€Lpa<; ovtcjv ^\0op oi ttoWol- 

340 dxP^ ^''7 frapekdcjv avro^ 6 Tlparrev^ fivpio) tgJ irXTJOei irapa- 
irefiirofievos Karotriv tov tS>v fcrjpvKaip dyioi/o^ \6yov^ Tivd^ 

Frazer*8 notes ad loc. — Iv0a iavrovs 
itacp^<rov(ri : where they are to aerify 

31. &{ioi : sc. drret. Cf. § 30 above, 
TO* J OavfjMffToUy for the plural. — N<- 
<rropa ktX. : cf. II. 14, 1. — IxtKpdYCi : 
from the in tensive perfect K^Kpaya, Gil- 
dersleeve, 8.C.G. 229; hence parallel 
with the Impf. rJKty and dte^ifei. — 6 fiik- 
TMrro« : Lucian, if himself the speaker 
(see on § 2 and § 7) may have hoped 
to strengthen his case by seeming to ad- 
duce independent testimony. — 'EXXa- 
voSCkou: cf. Faus. 6, 23, 2 tirri 6i iy 
rf yvfitfaaltfi koKo^iuvov XlkiBpiov. iv Si 
a&rf avfipdWovffty ol^EWavoSUai a&roiis. 
Also see Frazer on Pans. 6, 0, 4 and 5. 
— Iv'^HXtSt: see §3. 

92. 'OXv|iirCav: for description of 

Olympia and the excavations see Pans. 
5, 7 to 6, 21 with Frazer^s notes and 
Baedeker^s Greece.— oinv96Bo^at: this 
back chamber at the west end of the 
Zeus temple was open and furnished 
with a long stone bench, and was of 
the same size as the pronaos, which, 
however, was closed with doors. See 
Frazer's Pausanias^ III, pp. 408 and 
405. The opisthodomus made a con- 
venient place for addressing a crowd. 
Herodotus is represented by Lucian, 
Herod. 1, as reading from there his his- 
tory to the assembled Greeks, and in 
Fuglt. 7 the Cynics fill the place with 
their barking: ds . . . /So^s rbvAwiffMo- 
ftov ifijr\'^ff<a<nv {f\a.KTodirres. — |&vpC^ rf 
•vX^i : with no end of a crowd. — ica- 
rdiTiv ToO . . . d'yAvos: after the contest 



SL€^7J\d€ irepl iauTov top fiiov re w? ifiuo /cat Toif^ klp8vvov^ 
OV9 CKti'Swcvcrc hirfyov/jLevo^ koi ocra Trpay/Ltara <^iXocro<^ia9 
€P€Ka vncfieLpe. ra fiep ovp eifyq/jiepa ttoXXcL ^p- iy(o 8c 

346 oXiyoii/ ifKovcra vtto ttXtjOov^ tS>p irepLecrTCJTcop* clra ^ofiy)- 
^€15 /i'^ avprpifievjqp ip roaavrrj Tupfijjj iirei /cat iroXXov? 
TovTO 7rao";(orra? idpcDPy aTnjXdop fiaKpa \aipeip <f)pd(ra^ 
daparcoPTi o"o<^tcrr^ top iTTiTa^iop top iavTov irpo TekevTrj^ 

33 hu^iopTi, ttXtjp to yc toctovtop CTnj/covcra- ei^i; yap fiov- 

350 Xccr^at ^pvo'to )8ta> \pvarjp Kopwvr^p itridtlpai • ^(prjpcu yap 
TOP *Hpa/cXcta>9 /ScjStco/cora *Hpa/cXcuu5 airodapeip /cat ai^a- 
lii^drjpai tS aidipi. /cat <o<f)€\rja'aLy e(f)7)y fioyXofiau tov^ 
dpdpwnov^ Sct^as avrot? oi/ ;(pi) Tpoirop dapoTov KaTa<f>po' 
pelp- ndpTa^ ovp Set /u-ot rov? apdpdirov^ ^tXo/cnfra^ yci^c- 

365 cr^at. ot fL€i/ ovi/ dporfTOTepoL t(op dpdpamcjp ihaKpvop /cat 
ifiotop • S^^ov Totg ^EXXTjcrti/, ot Sc dphpcohearepoL CKeKpdye- 
(rap- TcXct ra ScSoy/icVa, v<^' cSi' 6 npeafivTr)^ ov ixeTpito^ 
idopvfiTJdrj iXirC^wp ndpTa^ i^eadaL avTov /cat /i'^ Trpoiycrc- 
cr^at TO) irvpt, dXXa aKOPTa Brj Kade^eip ip T(o )8ta>, to hk 

360 TcXct ra ScSoy/xcVa Trai^v aSd/CTjToi/ avroJ Trpocirecop d^pidp 

of the heralds. Cf. Symp. 20 where 
the physician arrives after the boxing- 
match, hr€i<r^\0€¥ 6 larpin o^ iroXt) Karb- 
Tiv Tov dyQpot : and Plato Gorg. 447 a 
uaes KarSiriv in the same sense, Kar&iriv 
iopTTfs the day after the fair. Hence 
Fritzsche^s lacuna is unnecessary, and 
the tr. ** behind" is wrong. — t»v ict|- 
p^KMv &.yAvo% : triaX-conte^ of the her- 
alds. Explained by Paus. 5, 22, 1 leffTi 
8i fitafibt iv rj 'AXrei . . . a"aXirt7icTa?f W 
iiptarriKdaip a^f Kal rois Kilipv^iif dywvl- 
^€0-0tu Kad4<rryiK€. Cf . also Men. 7 w<rir€p 
ydp ol ipavXoi tQv iv roX^ dywri. Kffp^Kuv 
(like the inferior otms among the heralds 
in the contests) irirpox^tf n xal 4<r<i0^f 

i<p$4yy€To. — <os ^pCw : hoio he had lived 
(2d aor . ) . — i&axpd x^Cpciv ^pdo-as : bid- 
ding a long farewell. In Gall. 2 the horse 
of Achilles bids a long good-bye to neigh- 
ing and betakes himself to hexameters: 
fjMKpii xa^pciy <f>pixrai r<p XP^I*^^1^^^^ fari^- 
K€¥ ip fUfffp r(p ToXifUfi did\ey6/ievos (tii 
8\a l^y//<fiSiav. — OavarwvTi: see App. 

33. Xpw^ PC<P xpvorfjv KOp^vi|v: a 
golden tip on a golden span (i.e. pitp, 
span of life ; ^ty, span of a 6oio), a pun- 
ning citation of /^ 4, 1 1 1 ; see Fritzsche 
ad loc. — dva)fcix0^vai rf alMpi: see 
§ 30. — TAfi rd Sc8o7|Uva : go on with 
your programm el — &ko vra S^ : against 
his will, of course. — rh Si TAci : Levi 



en fiaWov eirotT/crc, Kairoi 'ffhrj veKpLKOJ^ rrfv ^poav i^ovri^ 

34 /cat VT) AUl Kol worpc/icti', wcrrc /careTravcre tov Xoyov^ iyo) 

8c, €i/ca^€i9, ol/iaiy w(o^ iyeXtop* ovSe yap iX^elv a^iov Jjv 

ovTOi Svcrcporra Tyj% 80^9 avOpcDWoi/ virkp a-rravra^y ocrot t^ 

365 aur^ IIoii/^ eXavi/oi/rai. 7rap€7rc/x7rcro 8c o/aco? vtto TroXXcii/ 

ical ip€(f>op€lro vfj^ 80^9 dwofiXeTrcjv €5 to irX^^o? r£i/ ^av- 

fiatfivrdiVy ovK ciScu^ o adXto? ort Kal Tot9 ctti toi/ aravpov 

dvayofievoL^ i) vtro tov 8rjfiCov c;(o/xci/oi9 ttoXXo) 7rXctbv9 

36 errovrax- Kal 817 ra /ici/ *OXv/x7ria tcXo9 cT^c, /caXXtcrra 

370 'OXv/xiruiDi' y€v6fi€va &v cyco cI8oi/, rerpaKi^ tJStj 6pS>v. cyct> 

8c — ov yap 9jv eimoprjarai 6)(TJiiaTo^ a/xa iroXXwi/ i^i6vT<ov 

— aKcjp vTrekeLTTOfirjp, o 8c act di/a)8aXXd/xci/o9 vvKra ro re- 

Xevralov npoeiprJK^i imh^i^ao'dai rrfv Kavciv Kai /ic tS>v 

eraipoiv Tti'09 irapaXafiovro^ wepl fietra^ vvicras i^avaard^ 

376 dir^eiv €vdv T179 ^ApirLvrj^y iuda ^v i) TTvpd, ard^LOi irdi^c9 

OVTOI, eiKoariv dno T179 *OXv/x7rtd9 Kara toi/ iTnToBpo/iov diriov- 

T(ov irpos eco. Kal inel Td^iara d<^i/co/xcda, KaTaXa/ifidvofiev 

TTvpdv vemjO'iievTjv iv fiodpc^ ocov €9 opyvidv to fiddo^. 8a- 

8C9 ^arap Ta iroXXd Kal 7rapc)8c)8vcrro t(ov <f>pvydva}Vy (09 di^a- 

380 ^^^^V Ta^^iora. /cat C7rct8'^ 17 cekTJprf dvereWep — €8ct yap 

KdK€virqv dedxraaOoL to koKKlotov tovto ipyop — TrpoeiCLV 

compares Prom. 2 rd KartXr^are. See 
App. — icaCroi : see Introd. 27. 

34. 8var4p«»ra: desperately in love 
with. — rf Air^ Iloiv^ IXaiivovreu : are 
driven by this self -same Pest (i.e. love 
of notoriety). For Iloti^ personified 
see Roscher, Lex. der griech. u. rom. 
Mythologies s.v. "Koroibos." — 4vf^o- 
ptCro : was taking his fill of. 

35. TtrpdKut tj8T| 6p«v: see Introd. 
p. xii, and Introd. to Peregr. p. 206. 
— c^irep1)o'cu ox^itaros: to find a con- 
veyance. — &KMV ^ircXcvird|ii)v : / kept 

getting left behind against my will. — 
lirtSfCtfiur^eu Ti|v icaOoav: to give his 
(r^i') cremation show. See App. — rijf 
*Apir(vi|s: some two and a half miles 
east of Olympfa, where Pausanias saw 
considerable remains, especially altars 
(cf. end of § 27). See Pans. 6, 21, 8 
with Frazer^s notes. — linrdSpo|iov : for 
ground plan see Frazer^s Pausanias^ 
IV, p.83.— 4v P60p^: see App. 

36. '9) o^^vT| : in Fugit. 1 Apollo ques- 
tions Zeus about the death of Peregii- 
nus, »4<llnp: ^ 2eXi^i^ 7Ap iffuv dcifyeiro 


e/c6ti/o9 iarK€vaaiiei/o^ €? tov act rpoirov koX ^v avr^ ra 
Tekrj riov Kvi/cSi/, Kal /laXicrra 6 yevvdhas 6 c/c Tlarpciv 
SaSa €)(0)Vy ov <^ai)Xo9 hevrepaytoviOTTJ^ • eS^So<^dp€t §€ Kal 

385 6 Ilparrevs. Kat npocekOovre^ aXXo? dXXa;(d^€i' avrjijfav ro 
TTvp [leyioTov are aTro S^Scoi' /cat <f>pvydp(av' o Se, /cat /xot 
TTctio; '1781^ 7rp6a'€)(€ tov vovvy aTTodc/ievo^ ttji^ injpav kol to 
Tpifiiiviov /cat TO 'Hpa/cXetoi/ iKelvo poirakov Ibn; cv oOovq 
pyTTcacg d/cpt)8o>s* €tTa lyrct Xt/Sai/cordi/, oJ? iTTifioKoi ifrl to 

390 'JTvp, /cat di/aSdi^o9 Tti/09 iirifiaKi re /cat cTttci/ €9 7171' fieairjii'. 
fipCav anofikeTrcDv — Kat yap /cat tovto t&v irpo^ ttjv rpa- 
y^tai^ ^v Tj fieayififipCa — Aat/xoi/€9 firfTp^oi /cat iraTpiaoi^ 
hi^ao'de /xc €v/x€i'€t9. ravra ctTrcui' lirrjhrfo'ev €9 to TrOp, ov 
/X171/ iwparo ye, aWd 7r€pua')(€0ri vno rfjs <^Xoyo9 7roXX^9 

396 7jpfi€vri<:. 

37 A5^t9 6p(o yektovToi crc, cS /caXc Kpdi/te, ttji/ KaTacrTpo<f>7fp 
TOV 8pd/jtaT09« cyco 8c rov9 prr]Tp(^ov% fiep SaCfiova^ €7rt- 
fiocifxepov ftd Toi/ At* ov a<f>68pa 'ffridfLTiv, ot€ Se /cat ^0^9 

a^^ iiapaxirai Kai6fieyoif\4yovira. — Ist^v Kvvikov PaKTiiplap, riP KaraOifUvoi rjXaro 

&cl rpdirov : in his usual guise. See 4s r6 «-0p, raXdvrov Kaxeipot hrplaroy xal 

§ 15. — t4 r{Ki\ r»v KwAv : tJie Dog- ^x*' Z"*^" '''^ KetiiiJXiOi' rovro «ra2 SeUywrip 

dignitaries (note the following icat /ttd- cJs TryeaTai toD KaXvdwWoi/ r6 d^p/ta ica2 

Xitf-ra); for rd rAiy, magistrates^ au- Qji^aloi rd <}<rTa roD Fi/pvdpov jca2 Me/i^i- 

tAortties, const, with masc. partic. , of. rat r^f 'lo-idos rot^s irXoicd^vs. — Jhm^i<r|| 

Thuc. 4, 15 lldo^ep . . . rd r A17 «rara/3dp- dKpiP«*s : consummalely dirty. The 

ras ^< r6 cTparSveiop ^ovXeOtiv. — 6 Ik C}^nic in full dress had much in com- 

IlarpAv: i.e. Theagenes. See § SO. — mon with the Laconomaniacs ; cf. Ar. 

oi ^afiXos ScvrcpaYMvurHis : no bad sec- Aves 1282 iKbfuap^ irclpuvj ippthnap^ i<rio- 

OTvd fiddle. I'eregrinus had the title Kpdrofpj \ i<rKVTa\io<f>6povp. — '9) |Mo-i||i- 

rOle. — Tifv iHjpav . . . ^voXov: these pp(a: for the South as region of the 

souvenirs of their cremated saint were dead in Indian literature see Introd. to 

carefully preserved by the Cynics and Peregr. p. 200, note 2. — iiHjSi|o^v . . . 

sold as high-priced relics, if we may be- i«»pdro . . . v«pu<rx^Oii . . . i{p|Uvi|s : note 

lieve Lucian Indoct. 14 where Peregri- the picturesque shift in the tenses, 

nus^s staff fetches about $1,000 as a 37. rifv Karoorrpo^v roO Spditarot : 

precious relic, like a ^ Apiece of the see on §3, andcf. ^^ex. 60 roiovrorAot 

true cross *^: dXXot ns rijp Upiaricai tov riji 'AXe^dpdpov rpaytpSlas «ccU airrii tov 



warp(oov^ ifreKaXecraTOy di/afiprfO'del^ rmv irepl rov <f>6vov 

400 eiprjiJievcDv ovSe /carcj^cti/ iqSvvdfArjp rov ycXcora. oi KvvlkoI 
he TrepLCToivTe^ rrfv wpav ovk ihaKpvov jiiv, cnainy 8c ive- 
SeLKvvi/To Xvrrqv tlvol cU to uvp opwpresy oixP^ ^V airoiri/tyct? 
in avrot?, 'Attwd/xci/, ^f}p*l^ c5 fidraioi • ov yap lySv to dea/xa 
(iirrqiiivov yipoma opdy KvUrq^ di/airifiTrXaficpov^ iroinqpa^. 

405 Tj 7r€pLfjL€V€T€ €(TT dv ypa<l>€v^ Tt9 in€kd(ov d7r€lKda"Q Vfld^ 
olov% Tov% iv T(o heafioyrrfpia) eraipov^ r^ Scu/cparci irapa- 
ypdffiova'ip ; iKeluoi fjikv ovv rfyavdicrovv koI iKoihopovmo 
fioLy iuLOi 8c /cat iirl ra? fiaKTripias JI^ol^' ^Tra iireihrf 'qireC- 
Xr/cra ^vapirdcra^ Tii/ds ifjifiakeiv ct? to irvp, ci? ai/ inotvTO 

41Q Toi oioacTKaAa), eiravcavTo /cat ctpTjinji/ T^yoi/. cyo) oc CTra- 
i^twi/ TTOt/ctXa, 0} €ratpc, Trpo? e/xavroi/ ivevoovv^ to <f>iX68o^ov 
olov TL icTLv dva\oyL^6fJi€PO<;y oJ? p^ovo^ ovto^ 6 epo)^ d<^v/CT05 
/cat rot? Trai'v ^av/xacrrot9 cli'at So/covcrti/, ov^ ottcu? €Keivq} 
Tdvhpl /cat TaXXa c/xttXt^/cto)? /cat diTov€vonqii€v<t)^ /Sc/Stoi/cort 

4J5 /cat ov/c dva^LO)^ tov irvpo^. ctra ivervy^avov ttoWols diriov- 
aiv (05 dtdcraivTo /cat aurot- (oovto ydp en /caraXiyi/iccr^at 
IfilivTa avTov • /cat yap /cat rdSc r^ npoTepaiq, StcScSoro, (U9 

Tai^6y dpdfULTOi ^ icaTa<rT/>o0i). — ircpl 
ToO ^vov : see § 10 ff. — diroirviYcCt : 
choked with indignation. — KvUn\'9 . . . 
irovi|p«lt : in Fugit. 1 Zeus complains of 
the odious smell from the roasting Pere- 
grin us : ToXX^y T^y A.t)biaLv fiifimfifiai dm- 
(Tx^A^yos t6t€ inr6 Kvlffift iron^pas, and he 
asserts that he would have perished if 
he had not taken refuge amidst the 
frankincense and aromatic odors of 
Araby the blest. Even to think of U^ 
he adds, almost nauseates me, dXXd Kal 
iniv tXlyov diu> vavriav xnrofiprfffOtls a&riji, 
— Ypci^c^ : painter. BlUmner {Ar- 
chaeol. Stud, zu Luc, p. 82 note) refers 
to this as a purely imaginary painting. 

But we must conclude that such scenes 
were painted even then. — rf 2t»Kp&- 
Tfi: cf. the scenes in Plato's Phaedo 
and Crito. — iirl rds PaicTT|p(at j{av: 
made a start for their sticks. The Hera- 
cles club is always in evidence. Cf. 
Symp. 19 Karoi<T€iP oOroG t4>fl r^v fiain"^- 
plav he *(2 fetch him a blow^ he said, with 
his clvJb. See also on Vit. Auct. 7, — 
«t &v : for opt. see In trod. 35 (&). 

38. oix^»9: let alone. See GMT. 

39. dmoOoav: i.e. leaving Olympia 
for Harpina. Cf. i^idrruv, § 35, used 
of the general exodus of spectators to 
their homes. See App. — 8i€848oto : 



irpo^ avUr)(OVTa rov rfkiov aavaxrdiievo^ — cScrircp d/xcXci /cat 
TOV9 BpaxfJ^OLvd<; <l>aai TTotcti/ — iirifirjo'erai Tf\% irvpa^, aire- 

420 aTp€<f}ov 8' ow Toif^ TToXXov? avT(ov Xeycjp rj^ rertKio'dai ro 
€pyoVy ot9 117) KoX rovT avTO ir^piairovhaoTov Tjvy Kav avrov 
iSeti/ Tov ronop Kai n Xeu/rai/oi/ KaTaXa/ifidpeLp rov Trupo^. 
€i/0a 877, (1) eraipey fivpCa irpdyfiaTa et^ov aTracrt htrfyovfjie- 
vo^ Kot dvaKpivovai koX aKpifio)^ iK7n)vdavop.ivoi^. €t fikv 

425 ovv iBoLfiC Tiva \apUvTaj i/rtXa ai^ (acir^p croi .ra Trpa^devra 
Stiyyov/xTji/, irpo9 8c tov9 )8Xa/ca9 /cal 7rpo9 n7i^ aKpoaaiv 
Ktyrjvora^ iTpay(p8ovv tl frap* ifiavrovy o59 €7r€t8i7 du7J(f>07) 
fi€v 7) irvpdy ivefioKe 8c ^ipoiv iavrov 6 Uporrevf;^ (reicr/xov 
irporepop fieydXov yepofievov (tvv p/vicqdii^ r^9 7^9^ yw/^ 

430 dvairrdfievos iK fidcrj^ rfj^ <^Xoyo9 ol)(olto €9 roi/ ovpavov 

dvdpoiTTivoi^ fieydXifi ry <f)(i}py \eywv ^'iXiirop yavy fiaCvo) 8* 

€9 "OXvfiTrop" eKeivoi p,kv ovv iTedrjir^crav koX vpoaetcvvovv 

v7ro<f)pLTTOPT€^ Kol dv€Kpiv6v fie TTOTepov 7rpo9 id) 'q irpo^ 

vcriia<; ev€)(uevq o yxnjf eyo) 0€ to eireKuov aTr€Kpivafi7)v 

436 <*vTo^?- aTreKuojv 0€ C9 riyi/ Travrjyvpiv eiretrrqv rivi ttoKkd 
dphpl Koi vri TOV At* d^ioirUmf to irpocomov cVt roJ irarymvL 
/cat T^ XotTT^ (refivoTTjTLy Td T€ aXXa hnjyoviieva) irepl tov 
npcuTca)9 /cat (09 ftcra to KavdyjvaL dedaaLTO avTOv iv XevKy 

wwrd had been passed round. — «p6s dvC- 
oX^^^**^ ^^ i{Xiov: 80 in Men. 7 and 
K. H. A 30, but in Thuc. 2, 9 the article 
isomitted. — xaC n X«(^avov: same relic. 
See § 36. — nvd x<4>^vtc^: flOTTie man 
of taste. — i|nXd . . . rd irpaxO^vra: the 
bald facts. — {Tpa^^Sovv n irap' 4|iav- 
rod: /^d toorA; in a little stage-setting 
of my oum. — otto-iAoO : not a very ab- 
normal occurrence in that locality. Cf . 
T. H. B 43 woWdKit kt\. — y^ : as ap- 
propriate a bird is selected for Pere- 
grinuB as the eagle (cf. Anthol, Lib. 3, 

Tit. 32, 3) that soared from Plato's 

tomb — it, too, speaking Greek fluently 

— or the dove that flew up from the fire 

at Polycarp's martyrdom. See Introd. 

to Peregr.y p. 205. — dv0p«nrCv«)s : cf. 

GaXl. 2 dfOpuirlywt iXdXrfirey 6 dXtKrpviby. 

See App. — IXiirov ^av, fialvm S'ls''OXv|i- 

irov : 

1 've abandoned the earth, to Olympas 1 

Scan as anapaests. See Crusius, Bur- 
stands Jahresher. 1901, p. 249. 

40. XfvK^ : contrast with ^mntfay 


iadrJTL fiLKpov e/nrpoo'dev /cat twv dTroXiirot wepmaTovvra 

440 <l><uSpov iv ry €nTa<f)civcp aroq, Korivta t€ ioTefifievov ' etr* 

ifrl TTctcrt irpocidiiK^ rov yvira, Sto/xia;/x€i^o9 Jj fir/p avro^ 

icDpaKevai avairrdfLei/ov Ik ttj9 nvpa^, ov iyto fiiKpov ifinpo- 

aOev a<f>rJKa nerea'dau Karayekiapra twp avorjroiv /cat /SXaxt- 

41 /cci>i/ rov rpoirov. ivvo^i ro Xotiroi^ ota €t/co9 eir' avra> yevij- 

446 cecdcuy iroCa^ /lev ov /xeXtrra? hnaTrja-eo'O at iirX rov ronovy 

riva<; 8c rerrtya? ov/c CTracrccr^at, riva^ Se Koptova^ ovk eirt- 

wnjcrea'daL Kaddnep iirl rov *Ho"toSov Td(f>oVy /cat ra rotavra. 

et/cd^a9 ft€i/ yap napd t€ *HXcuui/ avrtov irapd re rS>p aXXoii^ 

*EXX7^i/a>i/, ot? /cat iireoTaKKivcu. cXcyci/, airrlKa /laXa olSa 

450 iroXXa? dvaoTTjaofJiiva^. <\>aa\ hk Tracrat? cr^eSoi^ Tat9 ci'ScJ- 

^ot9 TToXccrti' C7rt<rToXa9 StaTTC/xi/rat avroi/ hiadjjKa^ tlpcl^ /cat 

irapati/ecr6t9 /cat vofiov^' /cat Ttya9 cttI rovrijti Trpecrfievra^ 

T(ov eroLpoiv i^eLpoTOPrjae veKpayycXov^ /cat veprepoSpofjiov^ 


§ 36. — ^oiSpdv : part of the same con- both could speak dpBpwrlifm, see § 39. 

trast. In life the Cynics were axvOpia- Bat see App. 

ToL Cf. Vit. Auci. 7. — <v rj lirra- 41. iMXCrrofi: thebee wasa ^'divina 

^Avf o-To$ : the foundations, one bestia.** Bees busied themselves with 

hundred yards in length, of this beau- the child Plato, and Pausanias 0, 23, 2 

tiful *^ Echo Colonnade ^^ still remain. relates of Pindar that, falling asleep at 

Pausanias (5, 21, 7) explains the name: midday, lUKwirai aAri} Ka$€68om irpoa-e- 

fio-j^am 6i di'dpl hrrdKit inrb Trjt "^x^^* jrirovrb re xal lirXflur<roy wpbt rd x^^V ^ov 

•if tfxavii . . . diroSldoTai. Like the famous xripoO. — Kop^vous : again Lucian makes 

*' Painted Porch ** in Athens, this also merry over Pausanias and his courteous 

was called TIoikCKti, because there were crow (see Pans. 9, 38, 3 and 4) that dis- 

iirl tQv Tolx^y yfHupal rb dpxcuop. Pos- covered to the Orchomenians the tomb 

sibly these may have existed only in the of Hesiod. — IXc^v: see App. — dira- 

earlier stoa. See Frazer^s Pausanias o^(ro|Alvas: see §27. — hnvrokM: a 

ad loc. — KOT(vf : evidently the vulture common device. Tooke, ad loc., com- 

had returned with one of the Olympic pares those sent out by the martyr 

wreaths of wild olive in its beak. — Saint Ignatius. — vfKpafflXovt: meMen- 

KOToyiXAvra: in mockery of. ThePere- gers from the dead. Cf. ^{<£77eXo». — 

grinus-vulture could laugh as easily as vcpT€poSpd|Aovs : couriers of the under- 

the Pythagoras-rooster (see Gall. 14 world. Cf. rffiepoSpSfjun. For parallels 

rl fura^it fyAcurav, u d\€Krpv<ay;) since from Indian literature see Introd. to 



456 TovTO TcXo9 Tov KaKoSaifiopo^ npcuTODS iy€V€TOy avhpo^y 
w Ppa)(€i Xoyy irepikafi^lpy irpo^ d\T]0eiav pAv ovSewcoTTore 
anofiXoffai^o^y iirl 8d^ 8c /cai toI Trapa tgJj' iroXXa>i/ inaCvo} 
airavra v^ttovto^ ao, koL irpd^avro^^ <o^ koX ci? "rrvp aKiadaij 
OT€ prjS* diroXav€ti/ riov iiraivoiv c/xcXXci/ avaUrdyfTos avriov 

400 y^^opevo^. tv en aroi 'rrpocrSLriy7j(Tdp€vo<: iravcopaiy (U5 
^XV^ ^'^^ TToXv yeXav iKeipa pkv yap Trdkai olcrda evdif^ 
aKOvara^ pov ore rJK(ov diro Xvpias Sirfyovprfv d^ diro Tp(oar 
8o5 (Tv/xTrXcvcrai/xt avr<j) koi ttjv T€ aWrjv rrfv iv r^ irXal 
Tpv<f>r)v Kol TO peipoKiov TO wpatovj o eTrcicrc KvviXjeiVj co9 

465 c;(ot Tivd KoX avTO? *AX/ct)8ta8i7i/, Kal ci^ cinrapa^^cny /xci/ 
7^5 in;icT09 €1/ peco) T(o dytovL yv6<f>ov KaTafidvTo^ koi Kvpa 
irappeyede^ iyeipaino^ < 8>c kcukvoi, perd t(ov ywai- 

44 KO)^, 6 davpaoTO^ kol OavdTov KpeiTTCDV elpcu hoKtov. dXXa 
pLKpov Trpo Ty]% TcXcvT^?, irpo ivvia (r)(€h6v ttov TfpepSjVy 

470 ttXcIoi^, oT/xat, rov LKavov ip(f>aya>v rfpece T€ t^9 pvkto^ koI 
id\(o 7rvp€T(o paKa cr<^o8p6). TavTa Se /xot 6 'A\€^av8po^ 
6 laTpo^ SiTiyTJa'aTo peTaKXrfdei^ co5 emcrKOTrfjceLep airrov 
€<fyrj ow KaToKafieiv avrov xapal icvXiopevov koI top <f)\oypop 

Peregr.^ p. 200, note 2. Lucian in this 
letter seems to have the Hindus much 
in mind, cf. §§ 25 and 36. 

42. To{)ro 'HXos . . . htivm : cf . Plato 
Pfuiedo ad fin. ^ rtXevr^ . . . lyivero. — 
«« . . . aXi<r6ai : see Introd. 20. 

43. KvvCt*^^: ^ ^^'^ Cynic; so Ori- 
gen uses ^ETtKovpi^u. Cf. MrfSl^u) and 
'EXXijW^cu. — «f . . . *AXKiPidSi)v : that 
he too might have an Alcibiades^ i.e. as 
well as Socrates, see § 12. — jinrapa- 
X^Ct) F^v • • • KMK^iOi: see A pp. — Jv 
fiiirf rf dY^vi: see App. — ^v6<^v . . . 
fyf(pavTO«: as the text stands yy64>Qv 
should, perhaps, be rendered "cloud- 
burst^'; a black cloud could not kick 

up a tremendous sea ! To fill up the 
lacuna indicated we might read roO 
v-vei^/Aaros, a^6$ d)i. Cf. Char. § 3 and 
§ 7 x^iM<*"' d<f>¥<M> Kal yv6«pos ifAreadfv . . . 
xtpi^pe^lftv^ and see App. — (a^^ 8)« 
KMK^Oi |MTd r&v yvvaKK&v: while fie 
joined in their women* 8 shrieking with 
the best of them; i.e. ai>r6t in contrast 
to yv¥alK€i. See App. for K^aidoi. 

44. dXXd : in contrast to iKcipa ird- 
Xai, § 43. — JfM^a'Y^v : the compound 
denotes greediness or haste like iitr- 
vivia. — idXtt : so used in Symp, 20, 
where a man is seized with brain fever: 
<f>p€vlTibi iaKiaKhra. — |MTaicXT|0fls «f 
IvuTKoiHjo^icv : called in to see him 


ov <}>€povra Kal xfruxpop alrovpra irdw ip(tmKia%j avrov ok firj 

475 hovpaLy KaiToi ctTTCti/ €<f>7] TTfio^ avTov ol? €t irdvTOi^ davdrov 

Seoiro^ ij/ccti/ avrov eirX ra^ 6vpa% avrd/xaroi/, cS<rT€ icaXci? 

^€11/ iireardaL p/fi^ev tov irvpo^ heo/ievov • top 8* av <l>dpai, • 

*AXX* ov)( ofioUt)^ ci/Sof 09 6 TpoTTo^ yivovT av iraci kolvos cSi/. 

46 TaOra /xci/ 6 "AXcifai^Spo?. cyco 8c ovS* avro? irpo ttoXXoIi/ 

480 Tjfjiepciv eQov avrov iyKe\pi(riJi€voVy ci? dnohaKpijcreie t<j) 8pt- 

/x€i <^ap/xa/c^. 6p^9 ; ov irain; tov5 a/x/SXvcSrroi^a? o Atoico^ 

7rapa8e)(€Tai. o/ioiov (o^ et Tt9 ctti aravpov dvafiTjcrecOax 

fi^Waiv TO iv T(o SatcniXca TrpoanrraLO'fia Oepanevoi. tC crot 

8oK€r 6 AjjfjLOKpLTo^y ct TavTa €l8c ,* KaT* d^iav ycXacrat av 

485 cttI t<j) dvSpi; Kairoi nodev tl)(€v av €K€2vo^ tocovtov 

y4\(i/ra ; <tv 8* ovvy (o <^tXoTTj9, yeXa Kal avrd?, Kal p^oKioTa 

OTTorav T(ov aWcov aKov-g^ dav/Jial^ovTwv avrov. 

(professionally). — ^vxp^v: BC.iror6yor 45. I^xixpto'ii'vov : (voith his eyes) 

vdotp. — IpftiTiKAs: coaxingly, lit. ^Mike oZ! plastered up (sc. toi^A co%riui7i). — 

a lover. ' * — a^iv 8i : see App . — ^\\ SoO- rf 8pi|MC ^opfidx y : from the pungent 

vtu: see Introd. 39(a); perhaps justify unguent. — iv rf ScucriX^ : sc. roG wo- 

/iij by the prohibition in the doctor^s 86t, in his toe^ as is shown by vfAtr- 

thought. — {JKiiv tk{n^¥ . . . a'br6yMrov: TTauFfM. Cf. irpocirraiir at Vit. Auct, 21 

here he is coine of his own motion. and note. 



The extant Mss. of Lucian are numerous. Of these the collections in 
Frorence, Rome, and Paris are the richest. It is not yet ^ possible to make 
out a stemma of the Lucian Mss. and to trace back their descent through 
at least two ' lines to an archetype as yet undiscovered. And the individ- 
ual Mss. themselves are often self-contradictory if we take them as contin- 
uous. Several of the best, though cited respectively as single codices, are 
really composite both as to date and material. This fact makes a strict 
chronological list impracticable, if not impossible, for the present. In the 
resulting uncertainty conjectural emendation is unusually tempting, and 
sometimes unavoidable. 

The chief Mss. cited in these notes are * — 

1. B. Codex Vindobonensis. Of vellum and disgracefully mutilated. 
Nineteen dialogues are missing at the beginning. The Peregrinus 
has been cut out of the middle. It was written early in the tenth 

1 For an account of Lucian Mss. see Paul Vogt, De Luciani libellorum prlstino 
ordine qiuiestiones, Marpurgi 1889. H. Graven, Florentiner LuJcianhandschriften 
(Nachrichten von der K. Gesellschaft der Wissenschaften zu G5ttnigen, Philolog.- 
bistor. Klasse, 1896, S. 341-866). R. FOrster, Zur Gbrlitzer Lvkianhandachrift, 
Rhein. Mus. XLIX (1894), 167 ff. Chabert, VAtticisme de Lucien, p. 77 ff., 
catalogues the more important Mss. according to their present homes. 

* See Christ, Griech. Lit.*, 1905, p. 779. The expected edition of Lucian 
Scholia (by Graven-Rabe) should throw light upon the question. 

* Fritzsche, II, p. ix, and III, pp. xvii, xviii, suggested a tentative division into 
two families. See also Chabert, op. cit., p. 80. 

* The order here given is combined from Christ (i.e. B, E, 21, T, 0) and Sbdt. 
who (vol. Ill, p. iv) rates % T, n, 4^ as holding **primum in codicibus lo- 
cum ; " next B and *, and Mut. as good though badly preserved. A (used con- 
stantly in the earlier volumes) he now recognizes as full of errors. For his earlier 
view see vol. I, p. vii. In vol. II, p. vi, he gives this order : B, 3C, T, * (antiqua 
man us), 4^, Mut., Q. 



century and contains scholia. Of our selections it contains only Char,, 
D, Deor,., D. Mar., D. Alort. 

2. E. Codex IIakleianus Oxoniensis 5694 or Wittiancs (Vogt). Of 

vellum. There remain 134 leaves of the original 504. Fritzsche 
claims that Q may go back to this. It contains none of our selec- 

3. 2l' Vaticanus 87. Well preserved. Apparently of fourteenth (or fif- 

teenth) century. It is put by some, next after F, at the head of the 
Vatican Mss. of Lucian. There are no scholia. It contains all of the 
pieces here edited, including the Peregrinus. It also contains (in addi- 
tion to the works of Philostratus and parts of the Greek Anthology) 
the anonymous dialogue, written in imitation of Lucian's Necyomantia 
(see In trod., p. xx, note 1), Ti/uui/xW 17 irtpl rtav kot avrov iraBrffiaTiay. 

4. r. Vaticanus 90. It is one of the very best. Folia (of vellum) 5-173, 

176-253, are of the eleventh or twelfth century; folia (of paper) 1-4, 
174, 175, 254-353, of the fifteenth century. It is mutilated at the 
end and there are scholia to fol. 28-29, 108-138, 330-353. Of our 
selections it contains: in the ancient parts, Somn., D, Deor,, Char,, 
Vit, Auct., Pise, F. //., and Peregr,; in the parts of later date, 2). Deor, 
(again), D. Mar., D. Mori. 

5. O. The Venetian codex Marc i anus 434. Like F it is in two parts, but 

both are of vellum. Fol. 1-268 apparently of the twelfth century; 
fol. 269-447 of the fifteenth century. First collated by Sommerbrodt. 
In the first (twelfth century) part are contained all of our selections 
except Peregr., the other part includes Peregr.; see below. 

6. 4^. Marcianus 436. It is a chartaceus of the fourteenth century, and 

all by the same hand. Incomplete, but contains of the pieces here 
edited Somn., Vit. Auct., Pise, D. Deor., D. Mori., and No. 15 of D. 

7. *. Codex Florentinus s. Laurentianus. The best of the Floren- 

tine Mss. of Lucian. It is written in four hands; the earliest Vogt 
ascribes to the tenth century. (Fr. ascribes the Ms. to the twelfth 
century.) It is partly on vellum and partly on paper. Very complete, 
containing most of Lucian's w^orks. Of our selections Somn., Vit. Auct., 
Pise, (in part), and D. Mort. are written in the first hand, but Char., 
D. Deor., D. Mar., and Peregr. are lacking. 

8. Mut. Codex Mutinensis. This Modena Ms. is of vellum. It is of the 

tenth century ; mutilated at beginning and end. It contains all of our 
selections except Peregr. 


9. A. Codex Gorlicensib. The order of the pieces is nearly the same as 

in the Paris codex C, which this codex resembles so closely that we 
cannot claim for it an independent value. Schmid {Bursians Jahresber. 
108, p. 238) calls it « worthless," but cf. Sorof Vindiciae Luc,j Halle 
1898, for a partial defense. It contains all of our selections except 
.Peregr. Sbdt. had formerly relied greatly upon A, but in Vol. Ill 
says it is partly good and partly mendosissimus. 

10. Ups. Codex Upsalensis. Of the twelfth century. It is much used 
by Sbdt. for Somn. and for those parts of D. Deor.y D. Mar., and />. 
Mort, which it contains. 

11. 12, 13. P, C, M. Of these three Paris Mss., P is very ancient but yields 

us only six dialogues of D. Mort. 

C (No. 3011) is of the twelfth century and is written in several 
hands. Almost complete, but Peregr., as usual, is missing. Somn., 
V.H., Vit. Auct.y Pise, D. Deor., D. Mar., D. Mort., are in the earlier 

M (No. 2954) is in two parts, i.e. fol. 184-335 of the twelfth century ; 
fol. 1-183 of the fourteenth century. It contains all, including Peregr, 
This latter and V. H. are in the younger part ; the rest of our selec- 
tions are in the older. 

14. Urb. CoDKx Urbinas 121, at Rome. It was collated by Sbdt. in 1886 
and used for Char. It is very similar to SI- 

15. F. GuELFERBYTANUs PRIMUS. This Wolfcnbtlttel Codex of the four- 
teenth century (Jacobitz, thirteenth century) contains all of our selec- 
tions (including Peregr.) except Char., Vit. Auct., and Pise. 

For the Peregrinus (in addition to those above mentioned which contain 
it) the following are especially used by Levi.^ 

Vy Pa LATIN us 73 (not to be confused with P above = Paris 690). Of 
this I^vi says: Codex inter omnes opusculum de quo nunc 
agimus continentes praestantissimus videtur. 

Pj. PalatInus 174. 

Vj. Vatican u 8 89. First collated by Levi. He designates T (Vatican 
90) as Vp and a (Vatican 87) as Vj. 

^ Luciani Samoaatenaia libellua qui inscrihitur repl rijs Utfieyplpov reXevr^t. Re- 
censuit Lionello Levi, quinque Vaticanae Bibliothecae codic^ma unoque Marciano 
nunc primum inapecto. Berolini apud Weidmannos 1892. See below, Crit. 
Notes to Peregr. 


Y. Marciancs 435. This Venetian Ms., collated by Levi for the first time, 
is regarded by Fr. and Sbdt. as derived from O. 

As the Peregrinus was either left out or cut out of many Mss. to satisfy 
Christian prejudices, Levi makes especial use of F, Vj(= F, Vat. 90), 
Vj (= 21, Vat. 87), Vg (= Vat. 89), V^ (Palat. 73), P, (Palat. 174), 
n (Marc. 434), Y (Marc. 435), M (Paris 2954). In V^ and in P^ he also 
denotes first, second, and third hand by adding I, II, III, respectively. 


Editio Princeps. Luciani Samosntensis Opera omnia. Florentiae, sine 

typographo, 1496. Fol. 
Aldina prima. Luciani Opera, Icones Philostrati, etc. Venice 1503. 
Aldina secunda. Luciani Dialogi et alia multa Opera. Imagines PkUostrati. 

Eiusdem Ueroica. Eiusdem Vitae Sophistarumf etc. Venice 1522. 

Many later editions are based on this, including the Paris edition of 

1616, which in turn the edition of Reitz followed (see Fr., T, p. xiii). 
Bourdelotius. Luciani Samosatensis Philosopki Opera omnia quae exstant. 

Cum Latina doctisa, virorum interpretatione. Paris 1615. Fol. 

For other editions from 1516 to 1743 see Reitz, I, pp. 65 if. (espe- 
cially Erasmus and Thomas More, 1516, and Melanchthon, 1527). See 
also Introd., p. xxi. 

Ilemsterhuis-Reitz. AOTKIANOT SAM02ATE0S AHANTA. Luciani Samo- 
satensis Opera. Cum nova versione Tiber. Ilemsterhusii et lo. Matthiae 
Gesneri, Graecis scholibt, ac notis omnium proximae editionis Commentator 
rum additutf etc. Amsterdam 1743. 4to, 3 vols. The first (one sixth) 
part only by Herasterhuis. 

Luciani Samosatensis Opera Graece et Latine ad editionem Tiberii Hem- 

sterhusii et loannis Frederici Reitzii accurate expressa cum varietate lee- 
tionis et annotationibus. Biponti (ZweibrUcken) 1789. Reference is 
made in tlie present work to this 1789 edition as "Reitz." This dif- 
fers from the edition of 1743, apart from the form, in substituting an 
index in place of the lexicon and in adding the variants (taken from 
the Paris Mss.) published in the French translation by M. Belin de 

Lehmann. Luciani Opera Gr. et Lat. post T. Hemsterh. et I. Fr. Reitzium 
denuo castig. c. var. lect., scholiis Gr.y adnotatt. et indd. ed. L Thph. Lehr 
mann. Leipzig 1822-1831. 8vo, 9 vols. 


Jacobitz. Lucianus ex recensione Caroli Jacohitz. Leipzig 1836-1841. 8vo, 
4 vols. Vol. IV contains Scholia and Index Graecus. 

Luciani Samosatensis Opera ex recognitione Caroli Jacobitz* Teubner 

text. Leipzig. 3 vols. 1896-1897. Used as basis of the present 

Dindorf. Luciani Opera ex recensione Guilelmi Dindorjii graece et latine cum 
indicibus. Paris 1840 (Didot). 

Luciani Samosatensis Opera ed, GuU, Dindorf, Leipzig 1850-1858. 

3 vols. (Tauchnitz edit.) 

In the Didot edit, of HerodotuSy pp. xlii-xlvii under Dindorf*s Com- 

mentatio de dialecto Herodoti, see § 22 De dialecto lonica Luciani. 

Bekker. Lucianus Gr, ab 1mm, Bekkero recognitus, Leipzig 1853. 8vo, 

2 vols. 

Fritzsche. Lucianus Samosatensis Franciscus Fritzschius recensuit, Rostock 
1860-1882. 3 vols, (not completed). Contains prolegomena and crit- 
ical notes. 

Sommerbrodt. Lucianus recogn, Julius Sommerhrotlt, Berlin 1886-1899. 

3 vols, (not completed). With various readings and "Adnotatio 

AusgeirOhlte Schriften des Lucian : ei^kldrt von J, Sommerbrodt. Berlin 

1872-1878. 3 vols. Contains an admirable introduction, pp. xi-xxxii. 

Jacobitz. Ausgewdhlte Schrijien des Lucian: erkldrt von K, Jacobitz. Leipzig 

Levi. Luciani Samosatensis Lihellus qui inscribitur irtpi t^s IlcpcypiVov rcAcv- 

T^s. Recens, Lionello Levi. Berlin 1892. 

Apart from the critical editions, the annotated edition of Sommerbrodt 
and the following editions with English notes have by repeated use with 
classes furnished many suggestions to the present editor : 

Williams, C. R. Selections from Lucian. Boston 1882. 

Jerram, C. S. Luciani Vera Historia. Revised edit. Oxford 1892. Edited 

for schools with slightly abridged text. Contains an excellent and 

suggestive introduction. 

242 selp:ctions from lucian 


For other translations, previous to 1789, in Latin, German, French, 
English, Italian, and Spanish, see Reitz. I, pp. Ixvi-Ixix and Ixzv, Ixxvi. 
E.g. by Erasmus and Thomas More, Paris 1514 (repeated at Basel, 1517 
and 1521) and by Erasmus, Strasburg 1519. 

For still fuller description see Graesse's Dictionnaire Biblioffraphiqtie, 


See the Hemsterhuis-Reitz, Lehmann, and Dindorf (Didot) editions 


Lucians von Samosata sdmmtlicke Werke, Aus dent griechischen iibersetzt 
und mit Anmerkungen und Erlauterungen versehen von C. M. Wieland. 
Leipzig 1788-1789. 8vo, 6 parts. Although more of a paraphrase 
than a translation, it is justly praised. <^In qua totus vivit spi- 
ratque Lucianus" (Reitz.). 

Lucian's Werke iibersetzt von August Pauly, Stuttgart 1827-1832. Often 
useless in more doubtful passages. 

Bernays in Lucian und die Kyniker, Berlin 1879, translates the Pere- 


Des (Euvres de Lucien trad, par Nicolas Perrot Sr. Dablanrourt. Paris 
1654. 4to, 2 vols. Known as " la Belle infid^le." The English ver- 
sion by Spence (London 1684) seems to have been based on this. 

(Euvres de Ltunen, traduites du grec (^par J, N, Belin de Ballu), Paris 
1788-1789. 4to, 6 vols. A "portrait^' of Lucian is given in Vol. I, 
and in the preface an interesting criticism of previous translators, 
especially of the French translators. In lieu of expurgating, the trans- 
lator resorts to Latin. This version is not mentioned by Reitz until the 
end of his (1 789-1 79S) edition, vol. X, p. 123, where the variants taken 
from the Paris Mss. by M. Belin de Ballu are given as an appendix. 

Croiset gives translations (passim) in his Essai sur la vie et les (Euvres 
de Lucien. Paris 1882. 


The Works of Lucian j translated by Thomas Francklin, sometime Greek Profes- 
sor in the University of Cambridge. Loudon 1780. 4to, 2 vols. This 


is, as Reitz calls it, <*ver8io excellens." It contains a vignette of 
Lucian of Samosata from the Greek, with the comments of Wieland and 
others. William Tooke, London 1820. 4to, 2 vols. Quaint, often 
vigorous, but often exceedingly far from both the style and the mean- 
ing of the author. His serious defence of Lucian in his notes is often 
as amusing as is Lucian himself. 

Among more modern translations : 

Selections from Lucian. Translated by Emily James Smith. New York 
1892. This racy translation contains, amongst others, three of Lucian*s 
little read but good pieces: the Cataplus, Asinus, and Toxaris. 

Translations from Lucian, by Augusta M. C. Davidson. London 1904. 
Includes the Hermotimus, 


For conveniencer of reference some of the more important works bearing 
especially upon Lucian are here given. 
For Lucian's Greek, see p. xxx. 

1. Whole books and larger treatises specifically upon Lucian. 

Croiset ; La Vie et les (Euvres de Lucien, 1882, 396 pp. 

Gildersleeve : Lucian (in Essays and Studies, 1890, pp. 299-351). 

Schmid : Der Atticismus, 1887, I, pp. 216-432. 

Sommerbrodt: Allgemeine Einleitung, in his Ausgewdhlte Schrijlen des 
Lucian, 1872, pp. xi-xlii. This includes a bibliography and a 
discussion of the genuine and spurious writings of Lucian. 

Bolderman : Studia Lucianea (Leyden dissertation, 1893). Includes, 
pp. 136-139, a bibliography; and, pp. 132-135, a Tabula Chrono- 
logica. It is easier to disagree in certain details with this chrono- 
logical arrangement than it is to offer a completely satisfactory 

Christ: Griechische Literaturgeschichte,* 1905, pp. 767-779. 

Bernays : Lucian und die Kyniker, 1879. 

Hirzel : Der Dialog, 1895, TI, pp. 269-334.^ 

Chabert: VAtticisme de Lucien, 1897, 241 pp. 

^ Compare Hirzel, I, p. 327, with the reference to Cyrano de Bergerac, supra, 
p. xxiii. 


Martha: Les Moralistes sous V empire romain,^ 1873; esp. pp. 333— 384, 

"'Le Scepticisme religieux et philosophique. Lucien." 
Collins : Lucian,^ 1897. 

2. The following have reference to Lucian*8 place as a writer or to his 

Norden: Die Antike Kunstprosa, 1898 (passim^). 

Friedlander : Sittengeschichte Roma, 1873 (passim). 

Sandys: A History of Classical Scholarship, 1903. 

Saintsbury : History of Criticism, 1900-1904. 

Mahaffy: The Greek World under Roman Sway, 1890. 

Milne : A History of Egypt under Roman Rule, 1898. 

Butcher: Harvard Studies on Greek Subjects, 1904. See pp.244 ff., 
»* Greek Literary Criticism," for a short analysis of Lucian as 
pamphleteer and artist. 

Dill: Roman Society from Nero to Marcus Aurelius, 1904, esp. Bk. I, 
c. 2, " The World of the Satirist " ; Bk. II, c. 2, " The Philosophic 
Missionary"; Bk. IV, c. 1, "Superstition"; c. 2, "Belief in Im- 
mortality " ; c. 6, " The Religion of Mithra." 

3. Select ^ dissertations. 

Brambs, Citate und Reminiscenzen bei Lucian, 1888; BlQmner, see 
above, pp. 4, 160, 169, 232 ; Bruns, Lucians philosophische Schriften, Rh. 
Mus. 1888; Burmeister, De locis quibusdam Luciani, 1845; Dee, De ratione, 
quae est inter Asinum pseudolucianeum Apuleique Metamorphoseon libros, 1891 ; 
Du Mesnil, Grammatica, quam Lucianus in suis scriptis secutus est, ratio, 1867 ; 
Forster, see above, p. xx, and see also App. A ; P'ritzsche, various disserta- 
tions, 1852-1867; Gildersleeve, see above, pp. zxx, xxxix; Graven, see 
above, App. A ; Hartman, Studia critica in Luciani opera, 1877 ; Hasse, see 
above, p. xxxv; Heinrich, Lukian und Horaz, 1885; Heller, see above, 
p. xxxix ; Helm, see above, p. xiii and pp. 89, 93 ; Herwerden, Plutarchea et 
Lucianea, 1877 ; Hofmann, Kritische Untersuchungen zu Lucian, 1894 ; 
Jacob, Characteristik Lucians von Samosata, 1832; Joost, De Luciano ffnXo- 
fii/p(p, 1883, and Beobaphtungen iiber den Partikelgebrauch Lucians, 1895; 

1 On p. 394 will be found a very unfavorable judgment of Lucian. 

^ It would be impracticable to give here a complete list of the dissertations 
upon Lucian, or even of the many which have been repeatedly consulted by the 
present editor. For some of the more important previous to 1893 see Bolder- 
man, pp. 136-139; for many more recent see Bursians Jahresber., 1901, pp. 234- 


Kersten, Wielands Verhaltnis zu Lucian, 1900; Kock, Lukian und die Komo- 
die, Rh. Mus., 1888 ; Ktlhn, see above, p. 55 ; Margadant, see above, p. 88 ; 
Milden, see above, p. xxxvii; Nil^n, Adnotationes Lucianeae, Nordisk Tid- 
skrift, IX, 1889-1890, pp. 241-306, and Luciani Codex Mutinensis, Upsala, 
1888 ; Passow, Lucian und die Geschichte^ 1854 ; Penick, see above, pp. xvi, 
xxxviii ; Rein, Sprichworter und sprichworlliche Redensarten bei Lucian, 1894 ; 
Rentsch, see above, pp. xx, xxvii, and 188 ; Richard, Ueber die Lykinosdia- 
loge des Lukian, 1886 ; Rohde, Der griechische Roman und seine Vorlaufer\ 
1899 ; Oscar Schmidt, Metapher und Gleichnis in den Schriflen Lutians, 1897, 
and Lukians Satiren gegen den Glauben seiner Zeit, 1900 ; Schulze, Quae 
ratio intercedat inter Lucianum et comicos Graecorum poetas, 1883; Schu- 
macher, see above, p. xx; Sorof, Vindiciae Lucianeae, 1898; Thimine, 
Quaestiones Lucianeae, 1884 ; Vahlen, Lucianus de Cynicis, 1882 ; Vogt, see 
App. A; Wissowa, Gesckichte des zweiten Jahrhunderts, 1853; Ziegeler, De 
Luciano poetarvm iudice, 1872, and Studien zn Lucian, 1879. 

Amongst emendations contributed to the text the following may be men- 
tioned especially : Cobet in Variae Lectioncs, 1 854 ; Headlam, various con- 
jectures in Journal of Philology, 1895; Madvig in Adversaria critica ad 
scriptores graecos, 1871 ; Schwidop, Specirnina observationuvi Lucianearum, 
1848-1872 ; Sommerbrodt, Lucianea, 1872. For others see Bursians Jahres- 
her,, 1901, I.e. 


The text followed is that of Jacobitz, Teubner edition, 1896, and the 
changes adopted in these selections are given first. Minor and obvious 
changes in accents, breathing, punctuation, etc., are not noted. Besides 
the letters indicating the Mss. (see above) the following abbreviations are 
used: Jac, the text of the Teubner edition; Sbdt., Sommerbrodt; Fr., 
Fritzsche ; Reitz., Reitz-Hemsterhuis edition ; Cob., Cobet ; Dind., Din- 
dorf; Lehm., Lehmann ; Bek., Bekker. //an'. 5^irf. XII, Allinson, ** Luci- 
anea" in Harvard Studies in ClasMcal Philology, vol. XII, pp. 181-190. 

For special abbreviations for Mss. of Peregrinus, see below. 


Title : Fr. (on Peregr. init.), following Thomas and Hemsterhuis, admits only 
T€f3l ToO irmrylov: See Remacly's strictures on the double titles of Lucian's works, 
Observat. in Hermotiinum, pp. 1-16. 

2. SCSoo-Kc : Sbdt. ^lHckqv (from ^) on account of iibdiofjuai § 10 ; he retains, 
however, Vit. Aujct. 3, both dt5d^c*y and BiH^onai. Fr. (and see Veitch Gr. Verbs) 


confines the confusion to fut. and aor.: ^^Praesenti tempore Lucianus 
nusquam dixit Sidd^KOfuu, pro StSd^xw, sed idem habet didd^oftai pro 
SiSd^uf, raro idiSa^dnrir pro idlSa^a.*^ Lncian, moreoyer, would probably fol- 
low Ar. Nvb. 877, dfjJXei SlSturKe, which he certainly had in mind. — lx«»v 8c(b6s : 
Sbdt. with ^ r 31 * Ups. for tvx<J'»' 5e{ta». — AWirXarrov : the simple verb lirXoTrei' 
(cf. Ar. Nub. 879) suggests Av KT\aTTO¥ despite the close repetition of dv. The 
compound, however, may mean moulding into new shapes. — fUcdrot: Uartman, 
for dKbrnoi retained by Sbdt. in text though he gives Weichmann^s ioiKbrai in 
adn, orit. I, ii, p. ix. Cf. Pise, 88. 

3. IviT^Sciof : Sbdt. with six Mss. for iTirriMa. Cf. Dr. Otto Wilhelm, Der 
Sprachgebrauch de» Lucians hinaichUich der sogenannten Adjectiva dreier Endun- 
gen avf -of , p. 40. 

4. &iraXit«»v : the variants in the Mss. , dpdk<>^u)v A Q F <t» C, dpapM^tav 3(, point 
to this; cf. Peregr, 6 dvrjrfop ainbv \{>l^ovra, Reitz. and Jac. dvo\o\6^wv. — A^yo- 
v«Mm|o^don|s : for vulg. dyayoxttiiraijuiinii^ which is perhaps due to XoiiopfiiirafUrtii 
in next line. Cf. o ik dyamxT-^as § 8. dvaxTtiaafUtniii in A T Ups. <& {having re- 
vived me or getting me back safe) is less suited to the meaning of XoibopnicaiUvrit, 
— ri|v o'KvrdXtiv: Steigerthal for r^v vOxra SKrip. Sbdt. accepts and adds del 
before ippowvt cf. Lucianeay p. 160. 

6. Totv: Sbdt. (with Cob. and Dind.) emends to toTp. But see Chabert, 
p. 102 : Le duel feminin rd apparait une seule foiSj et encore dans la b&uche du 
pedant Lexiphane (4), qui croit /aire une atticisme, ^expression roup x^P^*^ 
semble Hre proverbiale. . . . Pour les cas droits, on trouve t(^, mhne avec x^^f^- 
Sbdt. (vol. Ill, 1890) in Bis Ace. 2 (one of the seven passages cited by Chabert) 
now retains rdip x'fiotp. — xal ydp KaC : C04'9l<i> (in rasura), cf . Lexiph. 18. Jac. 
Kal ydp. For Lucian*s combinations with koI cf. Chabert, p. 151. — xal a^xH^^P^ '• 
Schwarz omits koI, which is tempting, as a^xJ^Tfpd would then head a list of two 
pairs arranged chiastically. 

7. otKodcv: Fr., on account of oUtla, reads n7fTp6$€P citing Tox. 51. 

8. o^^iiATot : vulg. cdfiaToty cf . Fr. In § 6, <& has eQfM for ffxvt*^' — 84S{iis : 
Jac. y4poto. Sbdt. has Heff in text, but 86^€is adn. crit. p. x. — ird|«,iroXXa : Sbdt. 
with AOi^rC {rdfiwo\a Ups. <&) for Jac. vdprodep. — ydp liSi) |Mv tt)v |&v%i|v: 
Sbdt. with six Mss. for Jac. ydp /mv t^p ftp^fiTip ^iri. 

9. cl«, &fl r&v irpoCxovra Woirr^o'wv : Sbdt. tls d€l rhp ktX. , cf . Lucianea^ 
p. 106. Fr. transposes, ctj, rhp d«i rpovxopra. With this cf. Plato Apol. 37 c 
SovKe^pra ry del KtiBurrafAipy dpxv* Sbdt. Ausgew. Schrift. Luk.y ad loc., cites 
many passages where eh del means ^^fur alle Zeiten^ d.i. dein games Leben 
lang.^^ But the sense here desired, if not required, is on each and every occa- 
sion crouching down to, etc. Moreover, the expression is reminiscent of Aesch. 
Prom. 958 dCnrre rhp Kparovvr del (construed by Paley as if in the order here sug- 
gested by Fr.) and of Prom. 981 inroTT-ffffaeip re toi>j piovt OeoOs. The adv., used 
emphatically at the head of the clause, may be construed both with {nroim/ivffiap 
and BepaTeOup. For similar separation of the adverb see Char. 12 end, and Dem. 


de Cor. 263 Xa7(i» plov fjyit Stdi^s jco2 rpiiuav koL dci TXifyi^eo-^at TpoaSoKUP. If 
Lucian had this passage from Demosthenes in mind (as may be inferred from 
his quoting this proverb in the next line) he did not write ck dtl. Finally, there 
would thus be a rhetorical balance : ipydrrfs . . . eft, inrowT'^fftap . . . BepaTtdup^ 
fwy . . . UP. See Uarv. Stvd. XII, 181. — c( ixci: Sbdt. with % for vulg. ^xoi. 

10. 6mp o'oi: with six of the best Mss. ; Fr. and Sbdt. <roi 6Ttp. Vulg. ffrep <rov. 

11. PovXcvo^|uv6« Ti : Sbdt. dpri for n. — k&v irov : Cob. (Sbdt.) toi. 

12. {| Tovt ^CXovs : Sbdt. for i koI Toi>t 0^vf. fj is retained from r and Kal 
omitted with Ups. — tiSaifiovCtovrft xal a4: vulg. without xal. Sbdt.*8 chiastic 
arrangement is tempting : Savtid^prit ct r^f dvpdfuus tup \6yup xal t6p Taripa r^f 
c^iraidfas t^ZauMpil^opm. Fr. transposes and reads e^dai/uoWfoi^ef rhp Taripa ktX. 
— dhrcuSCot : 4^ and Hemsterhuis by conjecture for t^orpUat. — yiyvovrvil rtvcs : 
Sbdt. with six Mss. for npes ylypoprai. — t|v, ^ir«»t : Sbdt. for rfp ; dXX' dfun : &irun 
with seven Mss. For omission of dXX* see Fr. ad loc. 

13. vv To^: Halm for a^o6t. For the article cf. Dem. de Cor. 306 rcSr 
To<ra&rtap kcU roto&rwp AyaOQp. 

14. irXify^ <i6v« oiic oXCYOt : Sbdt. with Mss. for xXiryds odir 6X/7at e^^. — 
IWirpic : for <rvp4irpu. i(THB.)Tpi€P ; Mirpve C and vulg. ; lir^e Sbdt. 

15. \6r\ . . . l8(KCurci«] : with Sbdt. and Schwarz. — vvdvrcpov : for {nrmrTi- 
pwp. See Sbdt. adn. crit. I, ii, xi. Cf. also Aesch. Prom. 135 6xv Trepwrtp. 
To support vulg. cf . Hist. Conscr. 8 : fTTwy inrvwripup dp/ia. — 4intvo : O ^ 91 F <fr. 

16. i4|v aM|v lo^a : for vulg. rijp iff$^a. Cf. Sbdt. — &XXd fiot : see Sbdt. 
Vulg. dXX' ^f(o<. — IScUwfv a^f IkcCvt) : with 91 only, for 4Mkpv€p airr<p ixelprip. 
The accusative seems to bring confusion into the passage, and may have slipped 
in from iaOilTa iKelptip above. — Ifiol Somtv : Sbdt. with Mss. for ipoL Soxti. 

17. Kal 7ryi|pwc6Tf»v : Sbdt. omits if Sri with seven Mss. — ical rd Iv tq im- 
Tp^^ oIkC^: ^. Jac. has KaUffBau if varpifa oUia. Sbdt. reads TvpKoXd. See 
Ilarv. Stud. XII, 182. — 4v iroM|i^ xal |idxt|: Sbdt. with 91; Jac. ^i' ro\4fup. 

18. irp^ rd i|TTt*: for Tpbf rifp Tfrru. Cf. Sbdt., adn. crU. 


1. irap4xoi|&i koX a^kdt: Sbdt. with four Mss. for Kal a^df irapixoifu. — 
XdXov: Brod. and Mss. dXXoi^. — &|jiPXv6tt«»: Sbdt. ex codd.; Jac. dfi^v^rrwp. 

2. «*t : see Fr. To avoid inserting this (Js, inferring Mjati or dpayKd^n from 
KwXt^ci, perhaps read ffx^^V or (rxoXafws for KtoMffti. The Latin and Greek par- 
allels usually cited are questionable: nego easily suggests the affirmative, and 
in Soph. O.T. 236-24 1 from dravSQ we either understand (see Earle ad loc.) 
addd with taSeip^ or, better, tr. dxavSCa as in Ar. Ran. 369, I forbid. 

3. {| ^n|XdTfpot : for {nf/riXSrtpos j, see Fr. — ^avXdv Ti : Sbdt. with 91 Urb. 
for ^auXoi^ 5. 

4. 6p^ Smn; Fr. Sbdt. ex codd. for dp^s^ tus; If vulg. is retained write 
6p$t; xwf; 


5. olKoSo|UKf^ : Sbdt. with 91 T Urb. for oUodofiTtriK^t. — d<F^aXA« ^dp : Mas. ; 
Jac. with A omits ydp. 

6. tymyt : for fycb odw, also ^pov ye for fpov fu and tI dd ; for rl Sal ; Sbdt. ex 
codd. — kXi)6cC9 Tit : for Jac. KXifffels. Unless rip^, two lines above, is masc., rlt 
seems necessary ; and it could easily have been lost here. — l|jiirto^texi : A 3C 
for iTiTeaoOaa. — oix ol8^ 6frtn roi) oddJiiaTot: AOFC for o^k dlS* 9tov kijHj- 

7. o(v8cpKlo^raT6v o'i: Sbdt. adds 9t, — yvy^^vwiffli Mss. tor yiyvfhaKjii in the 
Homeric citation. — irapcuco^o-at : for dicoiJo-af, see Fr. 

8. t(« t &p*: Fr. restored from Homer for rls ydp. 

10. XAP. ^o-lv o^Tot : % Urb. omit. — r6 irop6|ufov a^6 : O 91 Urb. T for 
r6 iropOfuiop adr6t. 

11. 4t 6p$«* KaraycX^ Y^* ^''' Sbdt. ex codd. for St^ at 6p$t, KaToyeXi. 

12. &iro^vfCv: Dind. for Avo^aipcip. — Iv roit &XXoit: Fr. Sbdt. ex codd. 
for <r^v Toh dXXotf. — fy^ . . . 4ir(^ : Fr. Sbdt. for el . . . IwTJei, — |fc^ roirrov : Fr. 
Sbdt. ex codd. for toGtop /a^. — kiXc^is : with four of the best Mss. for 9 Acts. — 
Xpvo^vouAv : with 91 Urb. for xp^^^o^^^' See Ham. Stud. XII, 184. Cf. the 
compounds vKewyroda^ Xo70TO(/a, Ktafup8<»roUa. In the Reitz. edition the vulg. 
XpvtroTOiQp was considered corrupta, the cure suggested being xp^^x^wv. 
But xp(^oxo/a was in use, while we do not find the compounds of x^^*^ ^^^ 
ToUta but xaXirov/yy^s and xaXicoup7/a, and, per contra, while we find xp^^f^ovpy&s we 
do not find xP^^^^P^^- 

14. vap^Sctt: omit^aij with AOSirC — KX«9oOf yt¥V\,KA% koX* i Cob. for 
KXctf^oOj yeppiKijt xaf, cf. Fr. ad loc. 

15. 8iarp(pi)v : cf. Icar. 16 ; Sbdt. with 9[Urb. r^p^riv. — ft^voiai and &Yvoia: 
for dpoiai etc. See Sbdt. adn. crit. p. lix. 

16. IkcCv^ : Sbdt. ex codd. for iKelvop, — ro^y : Sbdt. ex codd. for ro^ov. — 
KcCo^roi : Sbdt. emends to Te<reirai, but see Uarv. Stud. XII, 184. 

17. clt : A O r C for ^s. — 6 &eXiot : A O 9[ Urb. T omit 6. Sbdt. retains 6 here 
and in § 14. Fr. reads a^bs Si o^Sk (from Mss.) dciTn^ei (by conjecture). 

19. at (Uv Tivfs : Fr. Sbdt. ex codd. for ripis tUv. — &XX«v : omit avrai with 
B 21 Urb. 

20. 9,^rhy (Uv : for rhp fjjp. See Fr. and Sbdt. Lucianea 169. 

22. ia^n : with 2C T for elfft. — lirao^is : Lehm. by conjecture for liroo-xoi' of 
all Mss. Hermes, not Charon, is unmistakably referred to, as xardyeiw and dwd^ 
yeip (not dirdyeip^ which Fr. adopts) of the context prove ; for a similar confu- 
sion cf . note on § 24, peKpoarokCav. See Harv. Stud. XII, 184. 

24. at|iaTt: An2(Urb. T have 6p6fMTi. — clt: with Mss. for ^f. — Mvd|ii)v: 
Sbdt. with four Mss. omits 64. — lirvrvfiPta: for iicaT6fipai. Editt. omit or bracket 
as a gloss fiaaiXeit . . . pAxo.t' {rpdyfrnra being changed into repl by Sbdt.) ; this 
ignores the climax of the dialogue. ixarSfApai is the only intrusive element, and 
if we may substitute iTir^fipia or possibly {al) iiriT^tiJ^m (sc. xoaOi ^^ Harv. Stud. 



XII, 186, we have the fitting r^sam^ — retaining, of courae, M^xAt* which is a clear 
allusion to § 24 and strangely omitted by Fritzsche. The suggestion for this pro- 
posed emendation is found in the Reitz-Hemsterhuis commentary: quum 
hecatombae in hoc dialogo nusquam memoratae sint, Hem- 
sterhusius voce ^irar6/4^i, pro qua Solan us rO/ifioi exspectarat, vel 
maxime offensus est. Sbdt.^s ingenious change of the abbreviation of 
Tpdy/wra to Tcpl is the only excuse for mutilating the Ms. reading, but Lucian 
in two other passages (see notes on text) uses the phrase of Aristophanes, omit- 
ting, as he does here, the irtpL 


1. &vfViViKpoiko : dTOvci^irparro Mut. ; dToivvcirpoOro 91 (or direycicpo&ro, see Sbdt. 
vol. II, p. 213 but cf. p. 317. Note : % has also in next line iiw/i<rafuv for ivepoi/fffa' 
fuy). Although the plpf. is suggested by riXtovy the clause below, ry d* . , . ir^rff- 
jrei, suggests the imperfect here. The double compound &irtvv€KpC» is in accord 
¥rith Lucian^s style (e.g. TfiovTc^opfiQ D. Mort. 27; cf. also Chabert^s list, p. 123 ff.) 
and explains the divergent readings. Plutarch (2, 702 b) uses iyvtKpoOfioi. 

2. in|vo|iaxCcit : Sbdt. by conjecture for vav/MxiaSj from V. H, A 42. 

3. |y^o8d|jit|To : Gtindel for dvipKo^irro (PhUologisch-histor. Beitrdge, Leip- 
zig, 1897). — ^i&tv Kal o-trCov {| 7^ : Q ^T for ij yii Kcd inrlop, 

4. a^Av : Sbdt. for aintav. 

5. 4ir^vr«*v: Rohde and others by conjecture (see Sbdt.) for hraiwo6rrtap. 
Perhaps irivhrrtav^ cf. D. Mar, 5, 1, which passage, however, equally supports 

6. irpoo'a'yoptvofUvMv : %, Sbdt. for TpwrayoptvofUvni, 

10. o^Tot S^ : Mss. Jac. with % ovrof hii, — iroXvv XP^^^ ^ ^^ Sbdt. adn. 
crit. Mss. have hrl trdXbv xf^^^- 

11. aM| ^ ir6Xi«: T, Dind. for avri; ii ir6Xit. — 4v afrott: 3C. Mut. OF 
omit ^i'. 

12. Avo^ctc : dta^amt (Rohde*8 conjecture, accepted by Sbdt.) does not suit 
e/ /i^ d^aiTo irrX. below and d^a^cf of T^ might point to d^a^if. Cf. Piac. 16 17 
d^jpd ik KoX d^a^i^ rb xP>^/mi ^ dX^etd ivxiv. Plato^S dra^^t oiicia (Phaedr, 
247) lends support to text. rec. — |A4inf|v : ^ Mut. omit fxovo'' 1^^^ of other Mss. 

13. 8«8cKa^poi clo'C : for accent see Chandler, Greek Accent 525. 
15. mo-a {| fiXi) : QTMut. 

17. No|iav : n 9[ r A for rovfuir, — nir&t : Sbdt. omits koI. Cf. koB* airrbv of 
r. — i^'afroi): ^'a^oG Mss. 

20. lYYrypa|a|Uvoi : omits iy-. So J. J. Hartman, claiming that ^7- would 
be prefixed only if reference were made to interpolation by others. — Mpa : Cob. 
and Sbdt. emend to ii&pup. 

22. 6 &Y*^^ ^ *^' ct^yrott rd Oavoroiroaa : 0. Jac. 6 dy^p rd ira^' a^oit Oara- 
To6aM, — oi T(9f TOi o9Xa : O % Mut. 


25. iroXvv xp^vov: O^Mut. omit ixl, see § 10. — liri|MivA«: T, Sbdt. for ^i- 
¥&s, — lfM»T09 Kol &|jit|x<tv(af : various Mss. omit articles. — fra^^x\v: Top^v % 
corr. ex ritirfv r, so Sbdt. But see Schmid I, 231. 

26. oi troX^ : O r A Mut. add od. 

27. Tiiv hipav : Sbdt. yfhh Bek. and others emend to bfUT4pav, but see § 47 
rd M^pi T^f iripai yiji. 

30. irlrpaif xal rpaxAo't : Sbdt. ex codd. for T^pcut r^ax^^'i* 

31. Sid irdvTtfv ^v : OTA Mut. add Ijv. 

32. lirooT^f : 21 T Mut. ; tlx^v A, Jac. — rots ovf Cpois n : 21 Mut. — 'Yirvow : J. J. 
Hartman and Lehmann for'Tryoi'. 

36. lirtX^To: valg. {nred^^aro. Sbdt., from Mut., (nrcX^^aro, also de Soul by 
conjecture. — kn\ (cvC^ : Cob. declares dat. a solecism and emends to M ^4pia, 
OTA ^€Pia, Mut. ^€vUu. — M, va«v : 21 V Mut. omit t'^v, Cf . § 47 Ari wii/i' iroreX- 

41. irapa8o£6raTov • ^^dp: QMut. omit 7dp. 

42. Iirfo-Kdirovv : Sbdt. ex codd. for dir«rir6iroi;v. — lircio^M |u: with OF. 
c^o-^X^^ fjue Mut. Sbdt. ; vulg. omits /ac. 

43. KaraO^vTfs: Cob. conjectures Ka$4vT€s. — oi ^^(ms: 21 FA Mut. omit 
oi), but the comic gravity of the context seems to demand the negative. 

44. Ix^^: Sbdt. ex codd. for IxBvs. — <rwfirf^^Kco'av : 021 Mut.; vulg. ffuwe- 


46. KaPoXofkra : with 2t A Mut. only one p. — r aM^v : Dind. Bek. Sbdt. 
from T€ ra&rrfp, 

47. |urd raOra: 21 Mut. (F in rasura), Reitz. Sbdt.; vulg. fxer a^d, 


1. Ix€i: ^21F for^xot. 

2. AFOPASTHS : cf. Menand. ^dvtov 2. Fr. has wmrriis here and in ff. 

3. ^pc 8Vj : with ^, and see Sbdt. addend, vol. I, pt. ii, p. 283. 

4. Wotrtpa : Sbdt. for ri<raapa. 

5. Kttl dXXov 6pc6|icvov xal &XXov : the Mss. omit one Kai or the other ; the 
context seems to require both. — rairra : Sbdt. vol. I, pt. ii, p. 283 ; rdbe Mss. 

6. wotos: Dind.; inroio^ Mss. — 4|jii|rvx4^v: 4'<l> and Fr. — al|ia: ii omitted 
with 0*2(F. 

9. .d'ye S^, . . . iiv: Fr. for dye, . . . i)i' 3^. — Ijv 8i 1x00^1701 vt\ Sbdt. Fr. for 
riv fjMffT ly oi Si. 

1 1. dv T|f : with ^ O F for edp ^i. — o-icvToS^ilnfis : ^ 2t F. (tkvtoSc^P^ Jac. 

12. diravraxdOcv : Fr. for TavraxMtv. Alliterating anaphora of dirdrrtav and 
drao'i. — kyii ^dp : Sbdt. ex codd. for iyCi 64. — IXap^v : Sbdt. reads 4>\vap6p. But 
it is contrasted with t6 cKvBpioirbv (used in § 7 of Diogenes). Cf. Xen. Mem. 2, 
7, 12 dvrl a-KvdpurQr IXapol. 

X3. «privO«v : revOtiv 0, q 64 T^yt ^pi« wev^QOvri *", 


14. Xhfm 8^: *3l. — w€piXop««ovTa : see Fr. But Tepix<^P^oPTa {rotate) of 
three Mss. is favored by Auax. 6 ; and cf. ircpixc6/»7<ra, rotation, used almost as 
a technical term. — (rvvSia4<p^|uvo« : combined from 4^, 5iaip€p6fUPos with ffvfi- 
</>ep6tuvos written above. So the scholiast, who takes it, however, as meaning 
irvvdiafiax^t^^f' Cf. Harv. Stud. XII, 180. Helm, Neue Jakrb. 1002, p. 195, dia- 
^pSfievos^ ffVfi4>efAfuyos. — r( S^ (bis): ex codd. for tI Sal. — fUvovoav: ex codd.; 
/uifowriv Jac. 

17. 8ii)|idpTavov : Fr. and Sbdt. here assume a lacuna. — roiko: the tL pre- 
ceding toGto is omitted by Oi'SlCr*. — AvupfjoSai: Sbdt. addend, el corrig., 
vol. I, pt. II, p. 283, reads dwipe^e<rtfat. — tC U: ex codd., see § 14, 

18. papaC : see Chandler, Greek Accent 897. 

. 19. SvcnrcploTtpot : ex codd. ; dffe^arepos Jac. 

20. o-KVToS^ih^ : » r ^• 

21. ^ rt : ^ r 4>. — Ka( : Sbdt. (see addend, et corrig.) for kSLw. 

22. rih4: ex codd. — ^dnpov: 0<i> for o rp&repop. Sbdt. adds Av. — irp^ 
Aids : omit rod with Mss. — lpM|icu, c( : Cob. See Fr. 

23. t6kov X^i^croi, X^i^crai : second X^erai is omitted in O "I^ 91 C F <i> A. 

24. Kararo{fvo'« : Cob. ; dTOTo^eiVw Mss. 

25. irp^ Aids : see on § 22. — rov OcpClovTos : six of the best Mss. add \6yov, 
Compai*e also Symp. 23 deplj^pra \lrfov, but here 6 depll^tav is personified. 

26. iroXXoi) : Keitz. for voM. — rC 8^: ex codd. , cf . § 14. — 5vos 8^ oi ycXao^rb- 
K&v : Fr. and Dind. assume a lacuna, and Fr. assumes another after rXm^^uvov, 
This retards the paronomasia in 6voi . . . 6iniai<t>hpa. — rAv ttxoo-iv : Cob. for ttKoaip, 

27. WoppfovflTiv: Sbdt.*s emendation to (nr€Kp4owiy (based on A, inrtpp4ovffiy) 
is tempting. — rl$i: Mss., see above. 


1. ^^v dvTiva: Fr. ex codd. for 6mpa {ffiQr. 

2. Koi8^ Ikoittov toOv iirrdKis 8(icaios: Bek. ex codd., but see Fr. The inter- 
vening o-e and aiVr6v seem to exclude the neut. dUatop of several Mss. — tva icaC: 
n ^ A. If the reading Iv d.p kcU is retained see GMT. 335, — AiniXdrrcTo : the 
Kol following is omitted by five of the best Mss. and marked xal in A. 

4. 'Ai8tiv: with five Mss. for AlStavia. 

5. irouCrt : Sbdt. and Fr. change to subjv. with 91 T Urb. 

6. tKorrov : some Mss. and Jac. have nom. 

7. IvavTi^TaTOv 8^ otv : Fr. ; yovv Mss. 

9. diroXoY^^trOoi : Sbdt with one Ms. ; the others have aor. 

10. 8iKdtc<Hku : Fr., with Mss. ; A B C and Jac. omit. 

12. $k^: Fr. adds 4. — o-miOpMirAv : Sbdt. brackets ; 4^ B C A omit. — xpvo-a: 
r <i> A. — lirl tr68a : Cob. for ^2 r6das. 

13. irXt|v &XX* : five Mss. — toOto ydp : Fr. and six Mss. add ydp. — tiiv 
KdorpAov T^v &ir& Tofi o^^pATos '. Mss. ; Jac. inserts a comma after Kbaynov, in 


that case see Introd. 30 ; see Fr. for omission of second ri^y. — rmrvoiat : Sbdt. 
ex codd. 

15. 0*01 ^ Ti &v SoK^ : Sbdt. ex codd. ; other codd. and Jac. o-oi Ar i'. 

16. avrai : Sbdt. ex codd. ; Jac. a^al. — y^ F^^^ •' ^^^ ^^- ^^^^ y^Pt ^^^^ 
omit fjUav. Sbdt. reads ydp nwa. 

17. &XX*: Sbdt. ex codd. — &v ^c a-Avox: so Fr. from 4^ B A and coustmes wt 
above as prep., but tat is probably final and the speaker's thought is so deflected 
by the intermediate words that the verb merges with the conditional clause as 
if for ctft . . . ffiiffufuy or cCjaeu 8vtnii$(afuyj ih,¥ (r(aj<u 8vtnii$Qfuw. 

19. fXarrov: Mss., Sbdt.; Jac. iXdrrwK 

20. t6 tomvtASh: vulg. adds el^, and three Mss. have y^poty a gloss in 
either case. — ^iX6 : of the best Mss. two have </>i\ov and five 0cXw. The Aris- 
tophanes passage (Vesp. 77) might seem to justify here also the etymological 
abstraction ^iXo-, though by stress of composition two of Lucian's three exam- 
ples lose the final vowel, while in Aristophanes all but one begin with ^hXo-, 

21. i4|v Bt6y : Sbdt. from U V. tv e€v Jac. — Ka( : Sbdt. from O r <f» for icAr. 

22. Kan|YOfW(o^v Somf : from Mss., see Sbdt. iranfyo^^oi Ar doxj, Jac. — 
S(ia|v; o^, «• nXi&rMv: from six Mss. for Slxriw covj Z UXdrwp; — Ivrtv : Fr. 
Sbdt. omit with five Mss. 

23. 6p$t ; o% |a4vov : with O (though without interrogation), and inferred from 
(6p$ or) 6pa <rt fiJbvop of T ^ Urb. 4». For 6^$s ; as exclamatory question cf . OalL 
18 ; Vit. Auct. 4 ; Pise, 40. 

24. &|Uivov ydp : n r <i>. Apurrop ydp Jac. Five of best Mss. omit. 

25. Tott Airoo'K^vTovo'i : O F, and see Fr. 

26. Ayopc^i : four Mss. Siayopeiti vulg. For KaxOs -tiyhpevop cf. §29 and §37. 
— i^u(o^: n^Urb. r. irto&aris vulg. Perhaps 4ro6ffris? — &v Ti: with ^^ 
Urb. CA. dp Tipa vulg. — iv^ rh vhv 5vo|ia: Sbdt. [^6]; cf. §33 t6p Ala 

27. &XX' : Sbdt. from Mss. — Wxara : Cob. and Mss. ; oXcxt^ra Jac. 

28. Kal ^v^a: Sbdt. (vol. I, pt. ii, p. 283) from 9lUrb.O.— Airarra: Sbdt. 
and Fr. have [dTapra], 

29. {| ovTOt : with 4" 91 Urb. B C A. ^ a^^f ovrot vulg. ; cUrUMraMr^i : Dind. ; 
alTidff€<reai Jac. and Schmid. — icoXd : [icaXd] Jac. and Sbdt. B C A omit. 

31. AXXd . . . irpdYitarot ^ufUvovc Ka( : with Fr. ^ 9t Urb. C A omit dXXd 
. . . rrpdyparot. O F <& M offer iipufjJpovi kolL Jac. omits iifnepjivovi kcU. 

32. irpoofirouiTo : Brod. by conjecture, fufxetro Jac. Seven of the best 
Mss. have hroietro, cf. infra § M 6 t6p 'A^urroriXrfp Tpociroto^fuvos. 

33. &9 aloxpdv : Sbdt. with four Mss. for cJt koI aUrxp^p, 

34. Xa^Mfiv : Epic form, cf . also Aesop FaJb. 4. \ayQp Fr. Sbdt. In Hist. 
Conscr. 50, however, Sbdt. retains XaytaoU (sic) for \ay(foii, cf. 8ymp. 88 \ayfa 
(Xa7wa Jac.). — xal r6v dxparov oi ^povrtt : Sbdt. omits with A and four of 
the best Mss. — Si)XaS)| Karairr^wt : omitting 7eX^( and Kal with six of the 
best Mss. 


35. &v o^K oX(7«»v : Sbdt. from Mas. for dir6 xoXXwr. — o^cmi ical |&oWj : Fr. 
by conjecture from Kal liJbvyi of 4^. Sbdt. has auax^ pMmi, 

37. o-KCki^v: vulg. inserts here yj tI ydp Ay elretp l^x^ifu, although omitted by 
hve of the eight best Mss. and by A. See Fr. — ^do-xovo-t : vulg. adds koI exvSpia- 
wol elffi, although omitted by the six Mss. just cited. 

38. vdvTCi : Sbdt. ex codd. ; rd wdvra vulg. 

39. T^|v nTcp«»rrf|v : Madvig by conjecture for vulg. rijv ye TpfJlfTiiy. 

42. poTpv86v : vulg. adds iefuw dUfjw, probably a gloss and omitted by Cob. 
with A only, [ifffwd SUvip] Sbdt. 

45. ol ^tnipfrai : three Mss. omit ol. [ol] Sbdt. , but cf . rj 'Upeia § 21 . — |&^pov : 
with 4" 9( Urb. B C A ; see Fr. Vulg. adds xal fjLaxa.iplSu>v OvTiKbv. — ^lA. 2v, 
••'AX'^iCk : six of best Mss. omit the 3^ after c^, 

46. t6 iropaXapdvTCk |if6^ javrof) : with Fr. (except iavrov from H). — ^tX6- 
o-o^v : Sbdt. from four Mss. ; <t>iKoao4>ias vulg. — Woxpirg ^tXoo-o^Ccis : six 
Mss. omit one or both of these words. — t$ OoXXf <rTC^6|Mvof : with Q F <f> ; vulg. 
prefixes 6. 

48. t6 S< tC : Mss. give rovrl or omit. Sbdt. emends to 1^6, — iroXXoO : 
31 Urb. ; toU vulg. 

51. |&i| dirotrpCorn : 4^3(BCA. tJf /a^ dworplffff, vulg. [olf] Sbdt. addend, et 
corrig, vol. I, pt. ii, p. 283. — &^ttvoi ^dp ovroC 7c : from Mas., see Sbdt. 

52. rd vafn|YyfX|Uva : 31 Urb. — Srodv ; ^ dir6 : Cob. and others. — voiiio-^- 
|M0a: 04^31 Urb. P. Jac. assigns to Elenchus 'Air6 . . . dpx^'' (Sbdt. assigns to 
Elenchus Uoi di . . . dpx'^f) and the remainder to Parrhesiades, but Parrhesiades 
(i.e. Lucian), not Elenchus (as in Fr.), must be the last to speak, and the self- 
interrogation is more dramatic than to assign these words to. Elenchus. Cf. 
Char. 3 where Hermes meditatively asks ap* o0y 6 KauKcuroi iTirijdeioi kt\. ; and then 
answers himself, and Fritzsche's apposite citation from Jlermot. 48 (ATK. Elcy. 
iwl ripa 5^ a^iay TrpGnov $\OoifJL€y ; ij tovto fxiv o^iv diolffei; dp^dfievoi 54 kt\.) 
seems conclusive against his own arrangement. — ot8' : vulg. has oUd ye. 
* 31 Urb. BCAomit7€. 


4. Kal lvy&o-a% : 4^ A omit as if a mere repetition of iyapfx6<ras. 


1. ImOlrfi: 31 OF etc., see Fr. els hrldeffip Cob., Fr., and Sbdt. iridiiffeiy 
Jac. and vulg. 

2. IdoTicrOcki : for Idaacdai Sbdt. from Schwidop. Idffoffdai vulg. 

1. Xm : should we not read lu ? Allinson. 

1. Iri 8|UiVfv : 31, Fr. Sbdt. for vulg. hrifuipew. — dtl . . . dvd7Ki) : $ei , , . 
dpdyK'o vulg. Jac. Fr. Sii , , . dvdyKfj % Sbdt. 




2. mtfvTi: see Fr. [xiiwri] Jaxj. — -Jjv: Fr. ex codd. for ^/iijr. 

3. PaOiv ihrvov: Herwerden adds vtvow with AM. 

4. ^Ti r6 9tfljkiv airovs Ka\ AvoXX^vcu &v l|ioi» vp^ovo-ri : see Fr. for T. 11. 
and cf. Jebb ad Soph. Anlig. 720, also Sbdt. auppl. led. vol. I, pt. ii, p. 275. 


1. ^iroi : Fr. from SI for iwov. — (^ 84) ovt vofi 1% tIjs : Sbdt. ex codd. for tov 

2. Irc(vv|v ofv: ^QA omit o?!'. Sbdt. [o0i']. 

3. {wava.|&(Ywo^ : on vulg. i^vvavklq, fdyrvao see Fr. 

3. oiScv Sciv&v |&)| ird9||f : see Fr. COF read o^Siv Seipbv 06 fi^. — voi'fyrm: 

Fr. Sbdt. ex codd. ; idaa Jac. 


2. Iinoniv : Fr. conjectures hr-^Sriffeify citing Hdt. 1, 24. 


1. OET. dRpiP«s AircLVTo. 6 ^dp 'Axplo-iot : from % Q has dxptpOt. GET. 

dxayra. 6 7(ip. Vulg. and Jac. aKpi^m iwama. BET. 6 'Axplffios. Sbdt. has 

dKpifiQs, GET. 6 7d/> 'AxpUrios. 


2. M Kardirrpov: omit roG with Q. 


1. olo^a : Schmid would read oldas as above. 



2. &voXdpoi|ii: Jac. and editt. add interrogation, see Fr. — vX^vdXX* kt\,i 
Sbdt. brackets all from t\^p dXX* to end. See vol. I, pt. 11, p. xliii. 


1. €l 8i oUvn: vulg. add ^v with 03(r B Ai". See Sbdt. adn. crU., vol. I, 
pt. II, p. xliii. 

2. 5vTis . . . voXXd: Bm-es- xoXXd irrX. Jac. Sbdt. reads dXXd for iroXXd. — 

IrnXvC^ci: see Fr. iXwl^^ei Jac. — do-ilivoOvTi : del Bavhm, Jac.; see Sbdt. adn, 

crU., vol. I, pt; II, p. xliv. 

2. xP^^v ' ^^ codd. Fr. Sbdt. 


1. vpoo-UvBoi . . . ixdv : 9( (except xal). See Fr. ad loc. oi xdrv SedUifai rhv 
ddvoTov SoKdp Jac. 




2. mv6j^t\v : if ivalfitiv is retained from F A tr. I hope I may prosper. Per- 
haps read 6¥atiaiv dv. — ftp6% rd vop6|Mta : Sbdt. ex codd. ; xp^ wopdfjJa Jac. 

3. 6voSov : Sbdt. ex codd. ; otov 91 ; Hmra T 4" A n and Jac. — o^v^ a^$ 
|UXf i : OTA; icoi>dey6f kt\. P ; 4^ 4» omit 

3. dwoXairo^is : Fr. emends to dxAaviras. This is unnecessary ; tr. the fol- 
lowing St&ri (Sbdt. emends to 6ti) because, 


Some of the Mss. in the critical edition of Levi are indicated differently from 
above, i.e. 

F Guelfybertanus primos Pi I Palat. 73 prima manus 

Vi Vatic. 90 (r above) Pi II ** »* secunda manus 

V| I ** "prima manus Pi III ** ** tertia manus 

Vi II " ** secunda manus Va Vatic. 87 (91 above) 

Vi III *» *» tertia manus Pj Palat. 174 

Pi Palat. 73 (not the same Vs Vatic. 80 

as P above) Marc. 434 T Marc. 436 

3. vpd^i&aTOs: all Mss. Spdfxaros Jac., see Levi, p. 14. — dvUiv: Sbdt. Mss. 
give aindv. Jac. has aXi^cui^, an inappropriate word. If Levies objection (vide 
ad loc.) to iividtv is well taken, read 6uibv and cf. Ar. Ach. 845, Allinson. 

4. t6v a^f dvTCi7«»v(oxur9(u : Vi Pi P2 U T. rbv dirrayiaviff€iff$ai xal a&rf F and 
vulg. — 'Ao'icXiiiri^ : Mss. add xal At^ytwof. See Levi, pp. 15 f. 

5. *OXv|&v(a«a: cf. Pans. 5, 20, 2; 6, 1, 1 ; 6, 4, 5; and Hdt. 6, 103 uses the 
sing. dat. of *0\vfjarids. — IU»KpdTi|v: Pi. Vulg. Zwirpdriy. '^Zwicpdriyy accusa- 
tive tantum non semper usus est Lucianus," Levi. — RaWnuvf: Levi 
with all Mss. Jac. and vulg. Karhrav<rc. 

7. Up<(oit: Fr. reads lepocr, cf. II. 21, 775 Upoi&i. — aino^ : Bek. and Fr. for 

10. &XX0TC &XXi)v : Vi Pi Vs Ps Q T. Transposed in F and editt. 

11. xal airdt: VjPg and previously, by conjecture, Cob.; Jac. has a^dt xal. 
— iirrypd^vTo : Fr. Cf. Scytha 10 iiriypwpov Mss. — rdv pi^av . . . p(ov: erased 
in Vg. — rdv |&fyav: Gresner's yuiyov is tempting, but seems to make (LvOfHoirop 
superfluous. See Keitz. — rairniv : F T and editt. ; other Mss. raOra. Perhaps 
ra&T'jii in this way, i.e. by death on the cross. Levi irrav$a, i.e. in Palestine. — 
cUHI^fv: Levi **cum libris fere omnibus scribendum.*' Vulg. ctoi^a7ei'. 

12. Sio^OcCpavTis : Vi Pi Va Ps Q T and, by conjecture, Lehm. Fr. Sia^ti" 
porrtt F and editt. 

13. rd rdxos: Mss., vulg. TdBos VaPa and Levi. — dXX^wv, liriiSdv: Levi, 
see pp. 16-17, assumes a lacuna after dWi^XuK — IkcSvov o-o^ioi4|v adrdv: QT 


omit ixeivop. Pi Q have at^r^r. Other Mas. and editt. have adr&p, Fr. conjec- 
tures dvT aL(n(av, 

15. Iv TQ x»p\ i)v : F omits ^v, see Levi, p. 16. — Sko%i with T for SKtat. 

16. AvoiTctv ^rro 8c€v : Vi y2 Pi Ps T. In Yulg. iLwavretv has third place. 

17. 8it|o-iciSTo : Vi Pi M for vulg. $ti^irirro. 

18. T^x^^y '^^^ ' Jjevi with all Mss. Fr. Jac. etc. omit nvd, 

19. €i»p<TO : y 1 n T. Other Mss. and Tulg. tvpe t6. 

20. vfAt avrdv : Fr. for Tp6s a&r6v. 

21. 8cSv : Fr. by conjecture. Mss. 5ei. 

24. SwckT^v Ion* : witli most Mss. Levi with Pi II reads Svtnrbi^ ^<rrai, urging 
(see p. 11) that the itiiv. is redundant with Svvardy. — aWiv lt\\^muv: Fr. for 
a&rov ^yXt60-eicv. — &v |&dvMV : Levi with Vi Vj Pi Pj Q T. Vulg. has dv in second 

25. o^K Mv : see Levi for the conjecture, from various readings, of or xaipd^. 
— K&v IrcCvov«: Sbdt, following Fr., emends to xdy *Ip5o6s, — o^8* dv* IXviSot: 
Fr. conjectured o^' for o^k of the Mss. o^k seems bald, but is, perhaps, rein- 
forced by od KaT i\wl5ot of Vj. 

26. RttK^t Ktuc&t: the Mss. give only the one or the other of these words. 
Fr. retains both. See Fr. for citation of parallels, and Thayer ^s N.T. Lex. s.v. 

27. xptAv: with Levi for xP^Cip etpai. Bek. conjectures xp^^t^ cfiy. 

28. kv voXXott: Viy2P0T, Fr. by conjecture, for ip roh ToXXo?f. — v%trri^ 
oMrfoi : y 1 Yi T, Cob. previously by conjecture, for ffr'ttawBai. 

32. iavroi) : Vi Vs P O T for alrrov. — 0avarAvTi : Cobet*s conjecture for ^aw- 
TiQvTi, now confirmed by Pj. — t6v Imrd^Mv t6v iavroO: AUinson conjectures 
second rbv, F T have rbv iimd^iov airov, other Mss. and editt have rbp ixird- 
4>vfiv ioMTov, Levi transposes to attributive position, rbv iavrw irird^iop. 

33. ImiqidYco^v : Pi, Dind., for iKCKpdyeurap, — t& Si TiXit : 64 from Pi II for 
del or di/j of the other Mss. TAec Fr.^s conjecture for reXcijr of all Mss. 

34. Ixof^^i^ • Herwerden makes the ingenious but unnecessary emendation 
iXxo/jiipoit, The apparent zeugma with the verb of motion, ^irovroi, is sufficiently 
accounted for by drayo/iims. The late-comera, moreover, are still arriving. One 
would like to add ^di^. Cf. Plato Rep. 430 s vtKpoin wapd r^ Sri/jUtf KtifUpovs, 

35. imScCfoo^oi : Fritzsche*s preference for the future (accepted by Levi) 
and the change it vOicra r^p rtKevralap seem unnecessary if we may construe dpa- 
Pa\\6ft£P09 absolutely, and tr. hs had at hut appointed a night for his show. — 
Iv fMptf : Fr. ; a certain emendation for ip fidOei of all Mss. Fr. cites § 25 (end). 
Add Char. 22 p6$pop ripd 6pi6^aPT€t, 

36. &vlTfXXtv : the impf . (of most Mss.) gives good sense, if not better than 
the aorist of Yt accepted by Levi. — roih^ tAv vp^: Pi II, ViVt^ Fr. by con- 
jecture, for toOto t6 Tp6t. 

37. yipovra: Mss. except F, which has y€p6pTu>p, the more picturesque read- 
ing — adopted by editt 


39. &inoOo^v : Levi accepts the easier hnowip from Pi III. It is, perhaps, 
like the difference between kin and her in German. In § 36 dr^feip and diri^K- 
rufp are more natural. — iwi.f4^rerak: with Vi Pi (Levi) and O (Sbdt., Lucianea, 
p. 126) for hri^iivwdaLi of other Mas. — &v6pttMr(vM« : Fr. for dyOpwrlpji of the 
Mas. In the passage cited by Fr., however, GalL 2, the common reading is dpBpta- 
Tuc&t. — &WKpivdv |u : F and the editt. add \^o¥T€s, the other Mss. omit. 

40. KaraYiXttvra: Mss.; F KaTaycXCjw ra, Fr., quem vide for discussion, 
emends to KarayiXtara^ and Levi accepts: ^^optime Fritzschius.^* But we 
require the active force, ^^ deriding.*' One might feel that the future partic. 
would be better when said of the vulture, and so be tempted to write with F 
KaraytKCay rd ru)y, provided the construction with ace. followed by m in Eur. 
Bacch, 286 is sufficient support. 

41. Iir^flrca^ai : conjectured by Wytteubach for vulg. iirayay^irdai. See 
Levi, p. 13. — XXrytv : with all Mss. Editt. change to tXtyoK 

42. dX<cr6ai : Vi Pi Pj. iXdaBai Yj. dWeffSai F and editt. 

43. 4(Ktt»v . . . 8ii|7oi|&i)v : ViVs VgOT. di-qyovfUpov F. ^kov . . . Sii^ovfidvov 
Pi and editt. — rivd xal a^^s: Vi Pi Vs Vs T Pi. rtpd in third place F and 
editt. — IviTOpaxi^til |Uv: FVsPiOT. iin,TapaxB€i'niu9 ViPiVs, Bek. and Fr. 
by conjecture. IriTafiaxBtit /jJv, other editt. — A^Avt : F Vi Pi II Vg T Vs Pj. 
dy<infi Pi I. d7WM with AlyaUft superscribed M. Alyal(p all editt. With Alyalv 
the compound iKTopdrru would have suited better than iTirapdrru, — fyt Cpavros 
... Si KttK^i : the Mss. have iytipavros iKiincvt, Ps adds S4. A lacima is gener- 
ally assumed. Some word like TP€t&fAaT09 or x^^M^^^^ is needed (see notes on 
text), S4 is necessary to correspond with fi4py and Ktax^i is suggested by the 
optative above. Perhaps read iyeipawros rou iryed/Aaror, a&rbs 5^ Kxaicdoi. The let- 
ters from -ANT02 to ATTOZ could drop out easily, and, Si then seeming wrong, 
d€KiaKvoi might have been changed to ixtiKve. See Harv. Stud. XII, 190. 

44. ck^T^v tk : V2 Psf Pi*- by conjecture in Quaeat. Lucian, Other Mss. and 
Jac. iavT^y. Fr. edits a^^f 54. 

45. &|ipXvdlTT0VTaf : Levi with Vg Ps : ^^ dfxfiXvthma quinquies, d/u^Xvt^irci; 
numquam a Luciano usurpatum comperimus.** Other Mss. and all 
editt. have dfjifiXvunrovvrat.' — ht\ t$ dvSpC: Fr. adds interrogation. From Ps 
Levi also inserts od at beginning of clause where Pi II has <r^. — ^^X'^ &^ > ^^'^ 
(see p. 12) inserts dv. Boldermann, op. cit., p. 144, would omit koItoi . . . 
y4\taTa ; — &ko^ : Levi with Vi Pi Vj Ps Vg T. dKoC^yt F and editt. 


[References are made as foUowi : To the General Introdaetion, pp. i-zlU, by Roman 
namerals ; to the remainder of book by Arabic numerals (1, 2, 3, etc) for pages, the number 
of the line (e^. 1. 100) is added for the text, and the left and right columns of the notes to the 
text are designated by (a) and (6) respectively.] 

A^dircu, 216 CL' 
ASiA^poir, 113 6,2106. 
&SvTev, 226 a. 
6M,yarot, 216 6. 
&ecot, 222 6. 

'AXt|6^ 'I<rrop£a, 53-87. 
'AXic^, 123-158. 
&XX«v, with |&4vo« or the 

superlative, 173 6. 
A|iv|u&vv|, 176 D. Mar. 6. 
&v, irregular use of, xl. 
'Avcucftov, 150 1. 624. 
&vd)ivi|oat) 96 a. 
Avoo^avpA, 215 6. 
&(u>t, double meaning, 

'Air^XXttv, D. Deor. 7. 
"AptMs vdyos, 150 1. 622. 
'ApUv, 66 a; see 178. 
apiuKrr^ff, 214 a. 
'Ao-KXiimctov, 150 1. 622. 
'A(rKXi)irt6f , 163, D.Deor. 


BdKit, 227. 

Poo-iXf^, Emperor, 219 

a, 6. 
B£mv IlpaUrit, 88-122. 
Bpckx|fcav«t, 224 a, see 204. 

TaX^wi, 175 D. Mar. 5. 
TvC^ttv, 117 a. 

Ypa^c^, painleTy 232 a. 
7pa^4, paiiUin{7, 147 6. 
7pc4i| 6Ppc«K, 70 a. 

S«a|ftov«t, 200 note 2, 231 

1. 392. 
8dicT«Xos (rofi iroS6s), 

236 6. 
ScSvos, TO«, 126. 
S<ivdTi|s, of Demosthenes, 

140 a. 
8€X^tv«t, 178 D. Mar. 8 ; 

186 I. 37. 
ScvrtpaYttioo^s, 231 a. 
AiKraSov &vTpov, 187 a. 
Aury^vovs IlpaUris, 92. 
A»pCs, 180 D. Mar. 12. 

linr^p«Mri«, 107 a. 
'EXXavoSCKOi, 228 a. 
Iv, with genitive, 172 a. 
*EvdXioi AidXo^os 169- 

EvilWiOir, 1-17. 

i£i)Yi|ri)s, 215 a. 
'EirtKo^pctot, 206. 
lirlo'Kovos, 137 a. 
liruTKOiroOvTis, 24 a. 
ivurroXaC, 79 1. 478, 234 6. 
iirin^l&Pui, 52 6. 
•Epjifis, 191 D. Jfori. 4, 

192 D. MoH. 5, 194 

D. 3for«. 18. 
•^p«»«, 105 D. Deor. 19. 

<2 oCS &ri, etc., xxxviii. 
<2 Tpdrrf tv, 209 a. 
l^v (h\,, 172 6. 
Ii^, 99 b, 194 6. 

Zli^vpof , 64 6, 185 D. Mar. 

'HXiot, 166 D. Deor. 25. 
'HpoKXfjs, 147 a, 155 1. 

725,211 a, 224 a. 
IS^aio-Tos, 161 2>. Deor. 7. 

0av|fcaToiroi6t) 15 6. 
Oitos, 8 6. 
0ip(l«v, 6, 1156. 
©<Ti«, 180 jD. Mar. 12. 
ecAv AidXoYOi, 159-168. 
0iao^PXT|S) 214 6. 

tSid&nis, 29 a, 104 I. 171, 

122 a, cf. 129 6. 
l«ir68po|ios, 230 6. 

Ka(irip, zxxvii. 

KCkCrot, for xaCvip, xxxvii, 

70 6, 166 a, 230 a. 
Kardmv A^Avof , 228 6. 
RCkR^t KCucAs, 225 6. 
Kcpofuucds, 131 a. . 
KcpaT(vi|ti 6^ 115 6. 
K^ppcpof, 195 D. MorL 21. 
Kt^dXoiov, 224 a. 
icf|ro«, 57 1. 1, 182 a. 



KiPmr&9, 1805. 
EX£0ff , 199 a. 
KXcteii, 40 a ff., 199 1. 

23 ff. 
KoiW|, T|, xxx-xxxiv. 
KpoKoSciXCniS) 115 a. 
KVKfd&v, 107 a. 
K«icX«i|r, 171 2>. Mar. 2. 

XdpVat, 180 &. 
Xtl^ravov, relic, 233 a. 
XoYiK^t -ll, 114 6. 

lidTOi, 215 a. 

|iAKapCTi)s, 218 &. 

Mcucdpttv, W^os, 61 a, 62 
1. 104, 80 1. 486. 

MMinrot, 194-196 D. 
Mort. 18, 21, 22. 

|ft«<n)|iPpCa, 231 b. 

^ii, see Negatives; causal, 
xli ; for o*, xl ; &ti |&4, 
xli; relative, xli; par- 
ticipial, xli; with infin. , 
225 a. 

M(vM«, 198 D. MoH, 30. 

Motpa, 42 6, 198 1. 19 S. 

vfKpdyyfXos, 200 note 2, 

234 6. 
NtKpiRol AidXiryoi, 188- 

vf pTf po$p6|i.os, 200 note 2, 

234 6. 
Ni|fn|(8cs,1822>.irar. 14; 

186 1. 37. 
vo|ioOln|f, 215 a, 2166. 
N4to«, 185 jD. Mar. 15. 
wKTo^vXat, 226 a. 

{fva^M, 24 6, 194 a ; see 

{waY^'^v 21^ &• 

Wi<re6So|ios, 228 b. 
Sri fi^, except, lib. 
oi for I&4, xl. 
o^K otS^ 6vm9 (^9iV, ^VOi, 

Svov, etc.),xxxviii,32&. 
OuTi«, 171 a. 
ovTot, in direct address, 

95 a. 

vaiSaY«ry4«, 109 a. 
IXaXcuo^Cwi, 214 a. 
navdnt), 175 D. Jfar. 5. 
vdw, with article, 116 a. 
vapav^|lPa|fte^ 114 6. 
naf>fn|o-i48^s, 102 6, 135 

1.284, 1681. 782,2206. 
•nuppiio-Ca, 39 1. 297, 220a. 
Tapv<^ckC, 16 a. 
ncXoflTYiK^v, r6, 150 a, 

154 6. 
Iltpryptvof , 200-236. 
ircpiifYtraC, 26 a, 77 a ; 
« also see f/ivayA. 
inptMiHi, 27 a, 6, 133 6. 
irlrpa, 171 6. 
nXo^wv, 192ff . D. Mort. 5. 
noiR(Xi|, {|, 131 1. 191, 

134 1. 241; cf. 234 a. 
IlMrciSdv, 171-174 D. 

Mar. 2 and 3 ; 178 D. 

Mar. 8. 
vp4, with gen. in time 

relations, 210 a. 
vpoaCpfots, 94 6, 102 a, 

105 6, 138 6. 
vpoiSpCa, 13 a. 
irpoi|Y|Uva, 114 a. 
vp6K«>iro«, 184 a. 
irpoXaXu&C, xvii, 1,86,716. 
vp6vao«, 136 a. 
TpoorrdTTis, 215 a. 
irpo^^JTT|s, 214 6. 
mippixV^^v, 146 6. 

SCPvXXo, 226 6. 
aoXouctvifrds, 116 6. 
<ro<^urH|f, 217 a. 
o^KporA, 15 a. 
o^|iPa|fca, 114 6. 
Svpos, 136 a, see Syrian. 
<rc»p<(n|s, 116 6. 
S^lirrparos, 198 D. Mort. 

rd 'HXi|, 231 a. 
rCIIoo^iSAv, 117 6. 
r6 T^i, 229 6. 
TpCrwv, 176, 182 D. Mar. 

6 and 14 ; 186 1. 38, 187 


^Spo^opCOf 101 a ; cf . 

176 6. 
iiro-, in compounds, 8 a. 

4»i)|iC, with Sri, 223 a. 
^tXdirarpif, 218 6. 
^otvi{, 225 1. 290. 
-^pA, 139 a. 

XaCpciv, 79 6, 209 a, 229 6. 
X^piiv, 97 a, 197 6. 
Xdp«ir, 18-52; 191 and 

196 D. 3for<. 4 and 22. 
X<ftp^viOi icXC|iaKts, 31 a, 

see 22. 
XPno^pMv, 226 a. 
XptcTTiavoC, 206, 214 a; 

see English Index. 

^vxA, 1191. 463, 120 a. 
i|rvxotro|&v6f, 21. 

£, omission of, 9 6, 16 6, 
124 a; w, with gen., 
210 a. 

MS, for Arr«, xxxvii, 47 a. 


Abednego, 210 6. 

AbonuteichoB, xii. 

Academics, viii, xix 
note 1, 00, 91, 120 6. 

— confused with Scep- 
tics, 68 b, 91, 121 a, 
162 a. 

Academy, xiii, 152 a. 

Acheron, Lake of, 31 6. 

Acropolis, 150 a, 152 
1. 661. 

Active, for middle voice, 

Adjectives, as relative 
clauses, xxxvii. 

Aesop, cited or sug- 
gested, 128 6, 143 6, 
146 a. 

Alexander the False 
Prophet, ix, xii, xix, 
xxvi, 198 a, 200, 204, 
206,218 a, 2266. 

Alexander the Great, 
XXX, xxxi, 224 b. 

Altis, 208, 221. 

Amymone, 176, 178 a. 

Anaphora, 14 6. 

Anaxagoras, 91, 92, 98 a. 

Anaximander, 956. 

Anaximenes, 98 6. 

Andromeda, 181 a. 

Antimachus, cited by 
Lucian, 83 1. 571. 

Antioch, x, xii, 214 a. 

Antonines, Age of the, 
viii, 190. 

Aorist, dramatic, 126 6. 
— , ingressive, 32 6. 

— of liquid verbs, xxxv. 
Apis, 40 6. 
Aqueduct, 221 a. 
Arabian Nights^ 55, 82 a. 
Aretbusa, 173, 174, 208. 
Arion, 81 6, 178 a, 179 6. 
Aristippus, 67 6, 91, 

104 6, 105 a, 112 a. 

Aristophanes, reminis- 
cence of, 10 6, 26 6, 
30 6, 42 11. 340, 341, 
52 6, 62 a, 123 a, 125 a, 
146 a, 149 a, 158 a, 
171a6fF., 227a6. • 

— , Clouds of, 88. 

— contrasted with Lu- 
cian, 159, 160. 

— referred to as a 
model, 140 1. 391. 

Aristotle, 119 a 6, 128 
1. 112, 135 6, 156 6. 

Ark, of DanaS, of Deu- 
calion, of Moses, of 
Noah, 1806. 

Art, attitude towards, 3. 

— , works of, imitated, 
4, 160, 164 6, 166 6, 
169, 181 6, 184 a, 
232 a. 

Article, with explanatory 
accusative, xxxviii, 
36 a, 40 6, 50 a. 

— used in quoting, 
177 6, 229 6. 


Article, neuter adjective 

and, xxxvi. 
Asyndeton, 81 a. 
Atharvaveda, see Vedic 

Literature; 64 a, 200 

note 2. 
Atomic Theory, 106 6. 
Atticisms, 109 a. 
Atticists, xxiv, xxxiii, 

xxxv note 1. 
Atticizing and Atticism, 

XV, xxxiii, xxxiv, 127 6. 
Atticus, Herodes, viii, x, 

xxxiii, 202-3, 206, 

220 6. 
Augment, xxxv. 
Aurelius, Marcus, viii, 

ix, xii, xxiv, 219 6. 

Babbitt, Orammar, pas- 

Bacis, 227 a. 

Ballot, 137 6. 

Bai^o, Song of the, 162 6, 
cf. vii. 

Banquets, 145 a, 149 6. 

— , places of honor, 
163 6. 

Barham, Lay of SL Dun- 
Stan {Ingoldaby Leg- 
ends) , xix, xxviii, 82 6. 

Bees, 234 6. 

Bias, Oil, xxvii. 

Boats, 27 6. 

Boileau, xxiv, 56, 71 6. 




Boupfaonia, 199 a. 
Brachylogy, 6 a, 37 b. 
Brahman, 204, 224 a. 
Bucep?uUa, 86 a. 

Celtic language, xi. 
Celtic literature, 66. 
Cerameicus, 131 a 6. 
Cerberus, xiv, 89, 101 6, 
1101. 269, 196 6. 

— identified with Ya- 
maha dog, 196 a. 

Cervantes, xxiii, xzvii, 

Charon, tH, 18-62, 189, 

191 f., 196 f. 
Charon's stairs, 22, 31 a, 
Christianity, viii, 20. 
— , Lucian's attitude 

towards, xiv, xt, 66, 

99 a, 212 6. 
Christians, 201. 

— mentioned by Ln- 
cian, 206-206. 

Chrysippus, 90, 91 note 2, 
113a-119, 116 6, 117 6, 
123 1. 4, 128 1. 112, 
136 a. 

Cohimbarla, 48 6. 

Common Dialect, xxix, 


Common Greek, xvi, 
xxix, XXX ; see Koir/f. 

Cremation, 48 6, 230 6. 

Cronius, 200. 

Cross, the, 2166, 236 1. 482. 

Crucifixion, 216 6, 217 a. 

Cynicism, Lucian's atti- 
tude towards, xiii, 19, 
91, 212 a. 

Cynics, viii, xiii, xiv, xix 
note 1, 90, 91, 101 6, 
102 a 6, 201-208. 

— , dress of the, 123 a. 

Cyrano de Bergerac, 

xxiii, xxix, 66. 
Cyrenaic, 90, 91. 

Dana^, 180 a. 

Danaides, 178 a. 

Dance of Death, 188. 

Democritus, 91, 106 a, 
112 a, 2361. 484. 

Demosthenes, reminis- 
cence from, 14 11. 138- 

Dialogue, the Satiric, 
xiii, xxix, 3. 

Dialogus, xi, 138 a, 140 
1. 406. 

Diogenes the Cynic, 92, 
100 a 6, 101 6, 103 a, 
106 a, 123 1. 8, 136 6, 
139 6, 212 a. 

Dipylon, 48 a, 1316. 

Discobolus, 11a. 

Dolphins, 81 a, 178 a, 
186 6. 

Draughts, game of, 107 6. 

Dual, XXXV, 29 a. 

Durer, Albrecht, xx. 

Echo Colonnade, 206, 

234 a. 
Editions, 240-241. 
Elis, 210 1. 26-228 1. 386. 
Empedocles, 70 6, 91, 

124 6,209 6. 
— , four elements, 97 6. 
Empusa, 86 6. 
Encomium Moriae^ xxi. 
EpictetUB, 220 6. 
Epicureanism, Lucian's 

attitude towards, xiii, 

xiv, 91, 212 a. 
Epicureans, viii, xix 

note 1, 91, 112 a, 206; 

and see Pater, 

Epicurus, 67 6, 91 note 2, 
106 a, 112 a. 

Epideictic speeches, xii, 
1 note 3. 

Erasmus, xx, xxi, xxv, 
xxvii, 242 11. a-4. 

Euripides, cited or paro- 
died by Lucian, 124 
1. 28, 126 1. 46, 126 
11.47and60, 1481. 692. 

— , reminiscence of, 
127 6, 2101. 22. 

Europa, 186 a, 186 6. 

Everyman^ 23. 

Fates, 40 a, 42 6, 198 6. 
F^nelon, xxv. 
Eontenelle, xxv. 
Freewill, 198 6. 
Froude*s Er<umu9, xxix 
note 6. 

Genitive, use of, xxxviii. 
Gildersleeve, Essays and 

Studies, see notes to 

pp. xiii, xvii, xix, xxii, 

4, 169. 
— , final sentences, 

xxxix and notes. 
— , imperfect without 

dv, 26 a. 
— , od and ^^, XXX. 
— , use of w, 96, 124 a. 
— , perfect tense, 47 6. 
— , — intensive, 47 6, 

228 a. 
Goethe, Faust, xv note 3, 

xviii and note 3, xix, 

xxviii, 89 note 2. 
— , Gotter, HMen und 

Wieiand, xxviii. 
— , Modem Greek songs, 

— , Hercules, xxviii. 



Goethe, Zauberlehrling, 
xix, zxviii. 

Golden Legend, Long- 
fellow's, 188 note 2. 

Goodell, Orammar, pas- 

Goodwin, Grammar, 
Greek Moods and 
Tenses, passim. 

Greeting, 200 b, 

Hadley-AUen, Grammar, 

Hadrian, 83 6. 

Harpina, ziv, 212 a, 
230 6. 

Heine, 105 &. 

Heracleitus, 00, 02, 07 b, 
106 a-107 6, 108 a b, 
213 a. 

Heracles, Choice of, 1, 

— , patron saint of Cyn- 
ics, 2116, 224 a. 

Heraeum, 35 b. 

Herodes Atticus, see 

Herodotos, citations or 
reminiscences of, 35 a 
b, 36 a b, 30 b, 40 b, 
46 b, 60 1. 81, 63 b, 07 a, 
101 a, 178 a, 100 a b, 
227 a. 

— , Lucian's attitude to- 
wards, XXV, 53, 54, 
68 &. 

Hesiod, cited, lb, 61 a, 
66 6. 

— , pseudo, 71 a. 

Hindu thought and cus- 
toms, 200 note 2. 

Holbein, Ambrosius, xx. 

— , Hans, XX, 188. 

Holy War, 30 a. 

Homer, Lucian^s attitude 
towards, 53, 87 a. 

— cited by Lucian, 8 1. 
53, 28 1. 68, 20 1. 00, 
32 1. 152, 33 II. 167 and 
175, 34 1. 104, 46 1. 424, 
51 1. 511, 78 1. 443, 
80 1. 401, 125 1. 33, 
127 1. 72, 151 1. 627. 

— parodied, 41 1. 321, 
40 11. 484-488, 72 1. 313, 
74 b, 75 1. 383, 78 6, 123 
1.6, 1241.11, 125 11.36 
and 40, 150 1. 618. 

— , reminiscence of, 25 
1. 16, 20 o 6, 50 a, 73 
1. 837, 78 1. 447, 150 
1. 624, 171 a ff., 100 
1. 23, 200 1. 3, 213 
U. 63 and 64, 2201.350. 

— , recensions of, 60 b. 

— sung in Elysium, 66 
1. 186. 

— , table of, 33 b. 

— , transmigrations of, 

60 6. 
Homeric Hymns, 82 a, 

Homeric Question, 60 a. 
Horace, 7 6, 61 6, 161 a, 

178 a. 
Ilypermnestra, 178 a, 

180 a. 

Immortality, 61 a 6, 06 a, 

08 6, 205,216 6. 
Imperative, forms of, 


Imperfect indicative for 

optative, 7 6. 
Indian literature, 200 

note 2, 231 6. 
— , Grhyasuira, 20Q 

note 2. 

Indian literature, KathSr 

sarUr-sd^ara, 170. 
— , RSimQyana, 200 

note 2. 
— , Vedas, see Vedic 

In^goldsby Legends, see 

Interrogatives, double, 

14 a. 
Ionic Dialect, use of, xli- 

xlii, 05 a, 06 a, 106 a, 

175 6. 
lonisms, xli-xlii. 
Island of the Blest, 61, 

62 1. 104, 80 1. 486. 

Jewish, 65 6. 
Jews confused with Chris- 
tians, 214-215, 217. 

Kalos, see TaXos. 
Koppa, 154 a. 

Lanman, notes on San- 
slcrit parallels, 200 
note 2. 

Latin, Lucian's knowl- 
edge of, xi. 

Legacy hunters, 102 6. 

Levelling of verb-forms, 


Life-token, 181 6. 
Litotes, 56, 176, 266, 28 a. 
Logic, 114 6. 
Lucian^s attitude towards 

Aristophanes, xiii, 140 

1. 301. 
Aristotle and Plato, 

• • • 

xiu. • 

— — Christianity, xv, 

Herodotus, see Hero- 



Lucian^s attitude towards 
Uomer, see Homer, 

— — philosophy, xvii, 
91, 202-208. 

— birth, date of, iz. 
, place of, ix ; see 


— death, date of, xiv. 

— fairness as a narra- 
tor, 202-207. 

— Greek, xxz-xlii. 

— imitators, xx-xxix, 

— life, 1-3, ix-xii, 74 a. 

— place as an author, 

— style, 3-4, xv, xvi. 

— times, vii-ix. 

— writings, xvi-xix. 
Luther, xxi. 
Lyceum, xiii. 
Lysicrates, monument, 

179 6. 

Manuscripts, 237-240. 
Marius^ see Pater, 
Martyr, Justin, 216 a. 
Medusa, 166 6, 181 6, 

183 a, 184 a. 
Melanchthon, xxi. 
Melicertes, 1786. 
Menippus, ix, 18 note, 

61 6, 101 6, 141 a, 160, 

188, 189, 194, 196, 196. 
Meshach, 216 6 
Michelangelo, xx (Sistine 

Chapel), XXX. 
Middle for active, xxxvi, 

6a, 34a, 94 6. 
Minyad^ 21 and note 6. 
Mithra, viii, 244 1. 18. 
Modem Greek, zxxiii, 

Momus, 69. 

Moods, use of, xxxix. 
More, Sir Thomas, xx, 

xxi, 242. 
Monno, 166 a. 
Munchausen, xxvii, 66. 
Myron, 3, 10 6. 

Nauplia, 76 6. 
Negatives, xl-xli, 41 6, 

77 6, 94 6, 109 a, 146 6, 

163 a, 176 a, 219 a, 

223 6 ; see Greek Index 

s.v. ii.ii» 
Nereids, 180 a, 182 a, 

187 a 6. 
Neuter, used in counting, 

97 a. 
New Testament, xxxi, 

xxxii, 66, 66 a, 206. 

Oaths, 166 6. 

— of Socrates, 109 6. 
Olyropia, xii, 206-208, 

228 a ff . 
Onesicritus, 224 6. 
Onomatopoeia, 46 6. 
Optative, after historical 

present, 9 6. 

— after primary tense, 

— irregular in protasis, 

— with m Ay, xxxix. 

Palestine, 214 a. 
Parataxis, xxxviii, 6 a, 

7 a, 69 a, 81 a. 
Parody, 41 1. 322, 49 o, 

83 1. 673, 123, 124, 

126, 127, 226 6-227 6, 

233 6. 
Parrhesiades, 39 6, and 

see Greek Index s.v. 
Parthenon, 136 a. 

Participle, with auxiliar 

ries, xxxvi. 
Particles, heaping up of, 

Pater, Maritis the Epi- 

cureauy xviii note 2, 

68 6, 92, 102 a, 112 a, 

119 a. 
Patras, 227 6. 
Pausanias,21 note 6, 31 a, 

38 a, 39 a, 42 6, 60 a, 

Peregrinus, vii, ix, xii, 

XV, xix, xxvi, xxviii, 


— life of, 201-204. 

— relics of, 231 a. 
Perfect, use of, xxxix, 

16 a, 47 6, 167 6. 

Perfect intensive, 47 6, 
228 a. 

Peripatetics, viii, xix. 

Periphrastic forms, xxxvi 
§ 20, 39 a, 48 a. 

Perseus, 180 a, 181 a, 
182 a, 184 a. 

Personal endings, xxxv. 

Personification, 44 1. 373, 
see Momus, 69 a, 133 a, 
134 and 136 notes, 2.30(X. 

Phidias, 3, 4, 10 6, 212 a. 

Philosophers, dress etc. 
of, 100 6, 123 a, 143 6, 
218 a, 231 6. 

Philosophy, Lucian's at- 
titude towards, xiii, 
xvii, 90. 

Piraeus, 131 6. 

Place, confusion in desig- 
nation of, xxxviii. 

Plato, xiii, xiv, xvii, xviii, 
3,4,721.301,90, 1876, 
166 a. 

— cited, passim. 



Plato fused with Socra- 
tes, 89, 108 b, 110 a, 
111 a b. 

Plato^s Republic^ zxi, 67 b. 

Pluperfect, use of, xzxiz, 
15 a, 67 6, 76 6, 228 a. 

Plural of abstracts, zxzvi. 

Poecile Stoa, 181 6, 234 a. 

Polycarp, 206, 233 b. 

Polycleitus, 3, 10 6. 

— Doryphorus of, 2136. 

Polygnotus, 21 note 6, 22. 

Praxiteles, Hermes of, 
11a, 62 a. 

Predicate adjective, xxvii, 
6a,6a, 286,306, 123a. 

Prepositions, use of, 
xxxvii, 160 6. 

Prodromus, Theodorus, 
imitator of Lucian, xx 
notel, 93, 1016. 

Proteus, 87 a, 209 1. 3 ; 
see Peregrinua. 

Proverb, cited, 7 6, 12 a, 
147a, 148 a, 1676, 2156. 

Pyrrho, 120 6. 

Pythagoras, 70 §21, 77 6, 
89, 90, 92, 95 a 6, 96 6, 
97 a, 98 a 6, 99 a 6, 
100a, Ilia, 123 6. 

Quevedo, xxiii, 66. 

Rabelais, xxii, xxvi note, 

xxvii, xxiXj 66. 
Raphael, xx. 
Red Sea, 84 a, 186 6. 
Reduplicated syllables, 

110 6. 
Rembrandt, xx. 
Reminiscence, doctrine 

of, 96 a. 
Beuchlin, xxi. 

Rhetoric, xi, xiii, 4. 
Rigveda, 98 6 ; see Vedic 

Sachs, Hans, xxii, 22, 66, 

65 a, 176 a. 
Samosata, birthplace of 

Lucian, ix, xii, 1. 
Sampi, 164 a. 
Scepticism, 1206. 
— , Lucian*s attitude 

towards, 91. 
— , Roman, 99 a. 
Sceptics, 90, 91, 121 a; 

see Academics. 
Schiller, xxviii, 36 6. 
Schlarafenland, xxii, 66. 
Sequels, 88, 207, 222 a. 
Seriphus, 181 a, 182 a, 

183 a. 
Shadrach, 216 6. 
Shylock, 117 a. 
Sibyls, 227 a. 
Singular for English plu- 
ral, 162 a. 
Skironian cliffs, 71 6. 
Slaves, 112 6. 
— , value of. 111 6. 
Socrates, 90, 108 6, 109 a 

6, 212 a. 

— and Plato confused, 
89, 1086, 110 a, 111 a6. 

— as sculptor, 14 a. 

— compared with Christ, 
216 a. 

— , Lucian's attitude 

towards, 68 6, 88, 89, 

109 a. 
Sophist, xi, 137 6,217 a. 
South, the, as region of 

the dead, 231 6. 
Spencer, Herbert, xv 

note 1. 

Spindle, 43 a. 

Stoicism, 107 a, 114 6, 

119 a. 
— , Lucian^s attitude 

towards, xiii, xviii, 

Stoics, viii, xix note 1, 91, 

1016, 113 a 6, 167 a. 
Suidas, X, xiv, 205, 210. 
Swift, xxvi, xxvii, 56. 
Syllogism, 115 a, 149 a, 

160 a. 
— , indemonstrable, 1 18 a. 
Syrian, Lucian a, vii, ix, 

X, XV, xxxii, xxxiii, 

xlil, 1, 65, 136 1. 286, 

214 a. 
Syrian Goddeas, xvi note 

2, xiii, 63. 

Talos (Kalos), 8 6, 150 6. 
Tdegonia^ 80 a. 
Tenses, use of, xxxix. 
Thales, 90, 95 6. 
Theagenes, 202, 211 6, 

222 a. 
Theodorus Prodromus, 

see Prodromus. 
Thule, 54, 64 6. 
Timarion, xx note 1, 238. 
Timon, 76 6, 102 6, 103 a. 
Titles, 94, 161 a. 
— , double, 24 a, 123 a, 

154 6. 
Tombs, 48 a,62 6. 
— , Street of, 48 a. 
Translations of Lucian, 

Transmigration, 99 a. 
Tripolitza, 178 a. 

Understatement, see Li- 



Vedic literature, 66, 64 a, 

08 6, 200 note 2. 
Verne, Jules, xzyiii, 66. 
Vettii, House of the, 176 a. 
Victory, the Winged, 

148 a. 
Voice, confusion of, 

XXXT, xxxv i. 
Voltaire, xxi note 2, xxii 

note 1, xxiii, xzvi, 

Water-carriers, 101 a, 

176 6. 
Wieland, xxviii, 204, 207. 
— , translation by, 242. 

Xenophon, 17 11. 192 ff. 

Yama, 106 a, 200 note 2. 

Zephyrus, 64 6, 185. 

Zeus, Lucian's represen- 
tation of, 169. 

— of Olympian temple, 
10 6, 211 a, 212 a h. 




JUN 171933 
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OCT 5 1935 


WOV 4 1931 



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